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WORKERS OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! 



LENIN 

COLLECTED WORKS 

37 



n 



THE RUSSIAN EDITION WAS PRINTED 
IN ACCORDANCE WITH A DECISION 
OF THE NINTH CONGRESS OF THE R.C.P.(B.) 
AND THE SECOND CONGRESS OF SOVIETS 
OF THE U.S.S.R. 



HHCTHTyT MAPKCH3MA— JIEHHHH3MA npn U,K KHCC 



B. M. JI E H M H 

COHHHEHHfl 



H 3 d a h u e nemeepmoe 



rOCY^APCTBEHHOE H3^ATEJIBCTBO 
IIOJIHTHHECKOH JIHTEPATYPBI 
M O C K B A 



V. I. L E N I N 



COLLECTED WORKS 



VOLUME 
37 

Letters to Relatives 
1893 -1922 



PROGRESS PUBLISHERS 
MOSCOW 



TRANSLATED FROM THE RUSSIAN BY THE LATE GEORGE H. HANNA 
EDITED BY ROBERT DAGLISH 



From Marx to Mao 




© Digital Reprints 
2014 

www.marx2mao.com 



First printing 1967 
Second printing 1975 



7 



CONTENTS 



Preface 21 

M. I. ULYANOVA. Preface to Letters to Relatives (1930 Edition) 24 

A. I. UL YANO VA - YELIZAR O VA. Apropos of Lenin's Letters to 

Relatives 46 

1893 

1. TO HIS MOTHER. October 5 65 

2. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. October 67 

1894 

3. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. December 13 68 

4. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. December 24 70 

1895 

5. TO HIS MOTHER. May 14 72 

6. TO HIS MOTHER. May 20 73 

7. TO HIS MOTHER. June 8 74 

8. TO HIS MOTHER. July 18 75 

9. TO HIS MOTHER. August 10 77 

10. TO HIS MOTHER. August 29 78 

11. TO HIS MOTHER. September 7 80 

12. TO HIS MOTHER. December 5 81 

1896 

13. TO A. K. CHEBOTARYOVA. January 2 82 

14. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. January 12 85 



8 CONTENTS 

15. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. January 14 87 

16. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. January 16 89 

1897 

17. TO HIS MOTHER. March 2 91 

18. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. March 10 94 

19. TO HIS MOTHER. March 15 and 16 95 

20. TO HIS MOTHER. March 26 97 

21. TO HIS MOTHER. April 5 99 

22. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. April 17 101 

23. TO HIS MOTHER. May 7 105 

24. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. May 18 106 

25. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. May 25 Ill 

26. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. June 8 116 

27. TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW MARK YELIZAROV. June 15 . . . 118 

28. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA. July 19 120 

29. TO HIS MOTHER. August 17 123 

30. TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW AND HIS SISTER MARIA. Sep- 
tember 7 126 

31. TO HIS MOTHER. September 30 128 

32. TO HIS MOTHER. October 12 130 

33. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA. October 19 . . . 133 

34. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTERS MARIA AND ANNA. De- 
cember 10 135 

35. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTERS MARIA AND ANNA. 
December 21 138 

36. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA. December 27 . . 141 

1898 

37. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW. January 4 . . 143 

38. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. January 24 . . . 146 

39. TO HIS MOTHER. February 7 150 

40. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW. February 14 . . 155 

41. TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW. February 18 158 



CONTENTS 9 

42. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA. February 24 . . . 160 

43. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW. March 1 . . . 163 

44. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. March 8 165 

45. TO HIS MOTHER. March 14 167 

46. TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW. March 28 169 

47. TO HIS MOTHER. May 10 171 

48. TO HIS MOTHER. May 17 173 

49. TO HIS MOTHER. June 7 174 

50. TO HIS MOTHER. June 14 176 

51. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. July 15. Y/f. A "R-Y 178 

52. TO HIS MOTHER; August \ 181 

53. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. August 16 ... . 184 

54. TO HIS MOTHER. August 26. . 186 

55. TO HIS MOTHER. September 16 188 

56. TO HIS MOTHER. October 11 190 

57. TO HIS MOTHER. November 1 192 

58. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. Written between November 7 and 11 . 193 

59. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. November 11 196 

60. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. November 15 . . . 198 

61. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. November 22 . . . 200 

62. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS BROTHER. November 28 ... . 203 

63. TO HIS MOTHER, HIS SISTER ANNA AND HIS BROTHER-IN- 
LAW. December 6 205 

64. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. December 12 . . . 209 

65. KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER. December 20 212 

66. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. December 22 and 28 214 

67. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. December 28 . . . 215 

1899 

68. TO HIS MOTHER. January 3 217 

69. TO HIS MOTHER. January 10 218 

70. TO HIS MOTHER. January 17 220 

71. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. January 24 222 

72. TO HIS BROTHER. January 26 224 



10 CONTENTS 

73. TO HIS MOTHER. January 30 228 

74. TO HIS MOTHER. February 3 230 

75. TO HIS MOTHER. February 7 233 

76. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. February 13 235 

77. TO HIS MOTHER. February 21 238 

78. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. February 28 . . . 239 

79. TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW. February 28 241 

80. TO HIS MOTHER. March 7 243 

81. KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. 
March 7 245 

82. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. March 17 ... . 247 

83. KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 
March 17 250 

84. TO HIS MOTHER. March 21 252 

85. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. April 4 253 

86. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. April 11 ... . 256 

87. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. May 1 259 

88. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. May 9 262 

89. TO HIS SISTER ANNA AND HIS MOTHER. May 29 and 30 . 264 

90. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS BROTHER. June 20 266 

91. TO HIS MOTHER. July 11 269 

92. TO HIS MOTHER. August 1 270 

93. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA. August 7. . . . 271 

94. TO HIS MOTHER. August 15 273 

95. TO HIS MOTHER. August 22 274 

96. KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. 
August 22 276 

97. TO HIS MOTHER. August 25 279 

98. TO HIS MOTHER. September 1 281 

99. TO HIS MOTHER. September 11 283 

100. TO HIS MOTHER. October 17 284 

1900 

101. KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER. January 19 286 

102. TO HIS MOTHER. March 15 288 



CONTENTS 11 

103. TO HIS MOTHER. April 6 289 

104. TO HIS MOTHER. April 26 291 

105. TO HIS MOTHER. April 30 292 

106. TO HIS MOTHER. May 5 293 

107. TO HIS MOTHER. May 10 295 

108. TO HIS MOTHER. May 18 296 

109. TO HIS MOTHER. July 2 297 

110. TO HIS MOTHER. August 31 298 

111. TO HIS MOTHER. September 7 299 

112. TO HIS MOTHER. September 19 300 

113. TO HIS MOTHER. October 3 302 

114. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. November 6 and 7 303 

115. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. November 29 305 

116. TO HIS MOTHER. December 6 306 

117. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. December 14 308 

118. TO HIS MOTHER. December 26 310 

1901 

119. TO HIS MOTHER. January 1 312 

120. TO HIS MOTHER. January 16 313 

121. TO HIS MOTHER. January 27 315 

122. TO HIS MOTHER. February 9 317 

123. TO HIS MOTHER. February 20 319 

124. TO HIS MOTHER. February 27 321 

125. TO HIS MOTHER. March 2 322 

126. TO HIS MOTHER. March 4 323 

127. TO HIS MOTHER. May 19 325 

128. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. May 19 327 

129. TO HIS MOTHER. June 7 329 

130. TO HIS MOTHER. July 1 331 

131. TO HIS MOTHER. July 17 332 

132. TO HIS MOTHER. August 3 333 

133. TO HIS MOTHER. September 1 334 

134. TO HIS MOTHER. September 21 336 



12 



CONTENTS 



1902 

135. TO HIS MOTHER. February 26 338 

136. TO HIS MOTHER. March 24 339 

137. TO HIS MOTHER. April 2 341 

138. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. April 10 343 

139. TO HIS MOTHER. May 8 344 

140. TO HIS MOTHER. June 7 346 

141. TO HIS MOTHER. September 14 348 

142. TO HIS MOTHER. September 27 349 

143. TO HIS MOTHER. November 9 350 

144. TO HIS MOTHER. December 17 352 

145. TO HIS MOTHER. December 26 354 

1903 

146. TO HIS MOTHER. February 4 355 

147. TO HIS MOTHER. February 22 356 

148. TO HIS MOTHER. March 29 358 

1904 

149. TO HIS MOTHER. January 8 359 

150. TO HIS MOTHER. January 20 360 

151. KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER. July 2 . . . 361 

152. TO HIS MOTHER. July 7 or 8 363 

153. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA. July 16 ... . 364 

154. TO HIS MOTHER. August 28 365 

1907 

155. LENIN AND KRUPSKAYA TO LENIN'S MOTHER. June 27 . . 366 

156. LENIN AND KRUPSKAYA TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. End of 
June 368 

157. TO HIS MOTHER. October 15 370 



CONTENTS 13 



1908 

158. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. January 14 372 

159. LENIN AND KRUPSKAYA TO LENIN'S MOTHER. January 22 374 

160. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. February 7 376 

161. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. February 14 378 

162. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. February 17 380 

163. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. March 10 382 

164. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. Written between April 19 and 23 383 

165. TO HIS MOTHER. June 20 384 

166. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. July 13 386 

167. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. August 9 388 

168. TO HIS MOTHER. Summer 389 

169. TO HIS MOTHER. September 30 390 

170. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. October 27 392 

171. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. November 8 395 

172. TO HIS MOTHER. November 17 396 

173. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. November 26 398 

174. TO HIS MOTHER. December 10 400 

175. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. December 19 402 

176. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. December 24 404 

1909 

177. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. February 6 406 

178. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. February 16 or 17 407 

179. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. February 17 or 18 408 

180. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. February 23 410 

181. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. March 2 412 

182. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. March 9 413 

183. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. March 12 415 

184. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. March 21 and 22 417 

185. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. March 23 or 24 419 

186. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. March 26 421 

187. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. April 5 422 



14 CONTENTS 

188. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. April 6 424 

189. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. April 8 426 

190. TO HIS MOTHER. May 21 428 

191. LENIN AND KRUPSKAYA TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA. 
May 26 430 

192. TO HIS BROTHER. Late June-early July 432 

193. TO HIS MOTHER. July 19 434 

194. TO HIS MOTHER. August 24 436 

195. TO HIS MOTHER. October 25 438 

196. TO HIS MOTHER. November 4 439 

197. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. December 3 or 4 440 

198. TO HIS MOTHER. December 7 or 8 442 

199. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. December 10 or 11 443 

1910 

200. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. January 2 445 

201. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. Early January 447 

202. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. January 12 448 

203. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. January 30 or 31 449 

204. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. February 1 451 

205. TO HIS BROTHER. February 13 452 

206. TO HIS MOTHER. February 13 454 

207. TO HIS BROTHER. February 17 455 

208. TO HIS MOTHER. April 10 456 

209. LENIN AND KRUPSKAYA TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA. May 2 458 

210. TO HIS MOTHER. June 18 460 

211. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. June 18 461 

212. TO HIS MOTHER. July 1 462 

213. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. July 28 463 

214. TO HIS MOTHER. September 4 464 

1911 

215. TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW. January 3 465 

216. TO HIS MOTHER. January 19 467 

217. TO HIS MOTHER. April 8 469 



CONTENTS 15 



218. TO HIS MOTHER. August 20 470 

219. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. August 20 471 

220. TO HIS MOTHER. September 28 472 

1912 

221. TO HIS MOTHER. March 8 or 9 473 

222. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. March 24 474 

223. TO HIS MOTHER. April 7 475 

224. TO HIS MOTHER. May 27 476 

225. TO HIS MOTHER. June 2 477 

226. TO HIS MOTHER. July 1 479 

227. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. End of November 481 

228. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. Autumn 482 

229. TO HIS MOTHER. December 21 or 22 483 

230. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. December 24 or 25 485 

231. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. December 28 487 

1913 

232. TO HIS MOTHER. January 3 488 

233. TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. February 24 . . 489 

234. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. March 18 491 

*235. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. First half of April 492 

236. KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER. May 3 . . 493 

237. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. May 12 or 13 495 

*238. KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER. May 25 . . 497 

*239. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. June 18 499 

240. TO HIS MOTHER. June 24 500 

241. TO HIS MOTHER. June 28 or 29 501 

242. TO HIS MOTHER. July 26 502 

243. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. November 12 or 13 504 

244. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. December 21 506 

245. KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER. December 26 507 

1914 

*249. KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER. January 7 509 

247. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. February 11 511 



16 



CONTENTS 



248. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. February 16 513 

249. TO HIS MOTHER. February 21 514 

*250. KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER. March 16 515 

251. TO HIS MOTHER. April 10 517 

252. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. April 22 518 

253. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. November 14 520 

254. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. December 22 522 

1915 

255. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. February 9 524 

256. TO HIS MOTHER. October 7 526 

1916 

257. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. February 20 528 

258. TO HIS MOTHER. March 12 529 

259. TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW. September 20 530 

260. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. October 22 531 

261. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. November 26 533 

1917 

262. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. February 15 535 

263. TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW. February 18 or 19 537 

264. TELEGRAM TO HIS SISTERS MARIA AND ANNA. April 2 . . 539 

265. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. August 540 

266. TO HIS SISTER MARIA. End of August- September .... 541 

1919 

267. TELEGRAM TO HIS WIFE. July 2 542 

268. TO HIS WIFE. July 9 543 

269. TELEGRAM TO HIS WIFE. July 10 545 

*270. TO HIS WIFE. July 15 546 

*271. TO HIS SISTER MARIA AND HIS WIFE. 1919 or 1920 ... 547 

1921 

*272. TO HIS SISTER MARIA 548 

1922 

*273. TO HIS SISTER ANNA. End of 1922 549 

*274. TO HIS SISTER MARIA 550 



CONTENTS 17 



APPENDICES 

I. ENTRIES CONCERNING LETTERS FROM LENIN TO HIS RELA- 
TIVES (From the Files of the Moscow Gendarmerie) ... 553 

II. LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 555 

1898 

1. TO LENIN'S MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA. February 15 . 555 

2. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. March 6 557 

3. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. May 10 558 

4. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. June 14 559 

5. TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA. August 9 561 

6. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. August 26 562 

7. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. September 11 563 

8. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. September 27 566 

9. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. October 14 569 

10. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. November 11 571 

11. TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA. November 22 572 

1899 

12. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. January 10 574 

13. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. January 17 576 

14. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. January 24 576 

*15. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. April 4 578 

16. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. June 20 579 

17. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. July 3 581 

18. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. October 17 582 

1900 

19. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. March 28 583 

20. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. March 30 585 

21. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. July 26 586 

22. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. July 26 588 

23. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. August 26 589 

24. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. September 11 590 

25. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. October 1 592 

26. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. November 8 594 



18 CONTENTS 

27. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. December 2 595 

28. TO LENIN'S MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA. December 22 596 

1901 

29. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. February 2 598 

30. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. February 12 600 

31. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. June 11 601 

32. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. July 16 602 

33. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. August 2 603 

1902 

34. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. September 27 604 

1903 

*35. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. March 4 605 

1904 

36. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. January 15 607 

1909 

37. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. Written in the twenties of December 608 

1910 

*38. TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA. August 24 609 

1911 

*39. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. August 26 610 

*40. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. September 21 611 

1912 

41. TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA. March 9 612 

42. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. May 27 613 

1913 

43. TO LENIN'S MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. January 4 . . 614 

44. TO LENIN'S MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA. February 24 . 615 

45. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. March 18 615 

*46. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. April 10 617 



CONTENTS 19 
1914 

*47. TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA. January 31 618 

48. TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA. February 11 619 

49. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. April 15 621 

50. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. June 8 621 

1915 

51. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. September 24 622 

*52. TO LENIN'S MOTHER. October 11 623 

53. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. December 14 624 

1916 

54. TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA. February 8 626 

Notes 627 

Index of Literary Works and Sources Quoted or Mentioned 

by V. I. Lenin 677 

Index of Names 709 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

V. I. Lenin 1897 64-65 

M. A. Ulyanova. 1898 72-73 

The house in which Lenin lived during his exile in Shu- 
henskoye 176-177 

The first page of Lenin's letter to his mother, February 3, 

1899 231 

Dmitry Ulyanov. 1903 320-321 

N. K. Krupskaya. 1903 360-361 

The first page of Lenin's letter to his sister Anna, 
October 27, 1908 393 

View of Rue Marie Rose (Paris). Lenin lived in House No. 4 

from 1909 to 1912 448-449 

Lenin's mother and sister Maria, 1913 488-489 

The house in Poronin (Poland) in which Lenin lived in the 
Summer of 1913 and 1914 496-497 

V. I. Lenin. October 1918 544-545 

Anna Ulyanova- Yelizarova. 1921 548-549 



21 



PREFACE 

This volume contains 274 personal letters, telegrams and 
notes from Vladimir Ilyich Lenin to his relatives. They were 
written between 1893 and 1922, to his mother, Maria Ale- 
xandrovna Ulyanova, his sisters, Anna and Maria, his brother, 
Dmitry, his brother-in-law, Mark Timofeyevich Yelizarov 
(husband of Anna Ulyanova), and his wife, Nadezhda Kon- 
stantinovna Krupskaya. 

Many of these letters were published in the journal Pro- 
letarskaya Revolyutsiya for the years 1924, 1929 and 1930 
and in Lenin Miscellanies Nos. Ill, XXIV, XXV, XXXV; 
separate editions of the Letters to Relatives, edited 
by Lenin's sisters, were published in 1930, 1931 and 1934. 

The Preface to the 1930 edition by Maria Ulyanova and 
the article by Anna Ulyanova-Yelizarova, "Apropos of 
Lenin's Letters to Relatives", which formed the preface 
to the 1931 and 1934 editions, discuss the content and 
significance of the letters; these two articles precede the 
letters in the present volume. 

Lenin wrote to his mother and to other relatives at least 
once in every week or ten days. The longer intervals between 
letters in this volume show that a considerable number 
of letters have been lost. Most of Lenin's letters were written 
before the revolution, a time when his relatives were sub- 
jected to frequent house searches and arrests. Many of his 
letters fell into the hands of the secret police and bear traces 
of their examination — passages of interest to the police are 
underlined in red pencil, etc. Some of the letters seized 
during searches were not returned, some were found after 
the revolution in police dossiers; only odd pages of some 
letters have survived. Many letters were lost during 



22 



PREFACE 



the First World War (1914-1917), when letters from abroad 
were subjected to a particularly strict scrutiny by the 
censors. 

The periods best represented are the late nineties, when 
Lenin was writing his Economic Studies and Essays and 
The Development of Capitalism in Russia, and the years 
1908-09 when he was preparing his Materialism and Empirio- 
criticism; in these years Lenin's letters concerned the des- 
patch to him of the literature he needed, and contained 
instructions on how the books should be published and 
on correction of the proofs. 

Almost all the letters are printed from the originals; in 
a few cases, however, they have been printed from copies 
in the files of the Police Department in the form (in full 
or as extracts) in which they were found there. 
Eleven of the letters were published for the first time 
in the Fourth Russian Edition of the Collected Works, 
from which the translation of this volume has been made 
(these letters are marked with an asterisk in the table of 
contents). 

In the letter to his mother dated July 1, 1912, Lenin 
mentions that he is moving from Paris to Krakow. This 
change of address was necessary to bring him closer to St. 
Petersburg, the centre of the working-class movement, so 
that he could improve contacts with Pravda and with the 
Bolshevik group in the Fourth Duma, and carry out the 
day-to-day work involved in his guidance of the Party 
organisations. In his letter of July 15, 1919, addressed to 
the propaganda boat Krasnaya Zvezda, Lenin informed his 
wife of the situation obtaining on the Eastern Front — the 
capture of Yekaterinburg (now Sverdlovsk) — and also of 
the great change then taking place in the South. 

Among the items first published in the Fourth Edition 
are some brief notes addressed to his wife and to his sister 
Maria between 1919 and 1922. 

Fifty-four letters addressed by Lenin's wife to his mother 
and sisters are given as an Appendix to this volume; these 
letters describe Lenin's way of life when he was in exile 
in Siberia and when he was living abroad and help to elu- 
cidate certain facts mentioned in Lenin's letters; eight 
of Krupskaya's letters were published for the first time in 



PREFACE 



23 



the Fourth Russian Edition of the Collected Works. These 
are also marked with an asterisk in the table of contents, 
Letters written jointly by Lenin and his wife are con- 
tained in the body of the volume. 

The items are arranged chronologically; letters posted 
in Russia are dated according to the Old Style, those from 
abroad according to the New Style; the editors have added 
dates at the end of undated letters. The source and destina- 
tion of the letter and, where necessary, the date are indi- 
cated by the editors at the end of each letter; below this, 
information is given on where the letter was first published 
in Russian. It should be borne in mind that the note on 
printing given on the right of the page refers always to the 
Russian original, not to the translation. 

The volume is furnished with a name index, a list of 
literature mentioned in the letters, and explanatory notes. 

The illustrations include photographs of Lenin's relatives 
and some of the places where he lived. Facsimiles of two 
of Lenin's letters are also given. 



24 



PREFACE TO LETTERS TO RELATIVES (1930 EDITION) 

The letters in this collection are addressed mainly to 
Lenin's mother, Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, and to 
me* and cover the period from 1894 to 1917,** i.e., they 
begin from the first years of Lenin's revolutionary activi- 
ties and continue up to his return to Russia after the Feb- 
ruary Revolution. It was in this period, almost a quarter 
of a century, that our Party emerged and took shape. Through- 
out this remarkable period of twenty-five years, Vladimir 
Ilyich stood at the head of the Party, guiding and nurturing 
it. His entire life was one of revolutionary struggle and 
his private life was part of that struggle, part of his labour 
on behalf of the cause of the proletariat. 

We have a complete edition of Lenin's Collected Works 
and a fairly extensive literature on Leninism (works of 

* What was in the letters, however, was usually intended for the 
whole family, or at least for those members who were living together 
at the time, "so as not to repeat myself", as Lenin put it. 

**The collection does not include the correspondence between 
Lenin and his relatives during his period of exile (for which see Pro- 
letarskaya Revolyutsiya Nos. 2-3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 for 1929), or that of 
1896, when he was in the remand prison in St. Petersburg (December 
9, 1895 to January 29, 1897, O.S.) and was frequently visited by his 
mother and sisters, so that his personal correspondence with them 
was insignificant (see the article by A. I. Ulyanova-Yelizarova "Vla- 
dimir Ilyich in Prison" in Proletarskaya Revolyutsiya No. 3 for 1924 
and the two letters of Lenin written in 1896 that are appended to the 
article). Between November 1905 and December 1907, Lenin lived 
in St. Petersburg or in Finland, saw his relatives frequently and 
wrote to them rarely. There are also many letters addressed to his 
sister Anna and his mother, especially at the time when I was living 
abroad. These letters will be published separately. (All the letters 
indicated by Maria Ulyanova as being omitted from the 1930 col- 
lection have been incorporated in the present volume. — Ed.) 



PREFACE TO LETTERS TO RELATIVES (1930 EDITION) 25 



scientific research and popular writings) but Lenin the 
man, with his brilliant, all-round individuality, has been 
but little described or, rather, has scarcely been described 
at all. 

The letters here offered to the reader to some extent fill 
this gap. They enable the reader to form to some extent a 
picture of Lenin's life, his habits, inclinations, attitude 
to people, etc. We say here "to some extent", mainly because 
the collection of letters to his relatives in this period 
is far from complete. During the frequent moves from town 
to town, the numerous house searches and arrests to which 
first one, then another member of our family was subjected, 
many of the letters fell into the hands of the police and were 
not returned* or were lost in some other way. There were 
also frequent cases of letters going astray in the post, espe- 
cially during the imperialist war. For this reason one and 
the same question is repeated in a number of successive 
letters. These letters, furthermore, bear the imprint of 
police conditions in tsarist times. It is true that all our 
official correspondence (all communications concerning 
revolutionary events, party life, etc.) was conducted sec- 
retly, in invisible ink and usually in books and journals, 
sent through other, "clean" addresses.** Our personal 
lives were so closely bound up with revolutionary work 
that our legal, personal correspondence no doubt suffered 
badly and we cut it down because of police conditions. 
Vladimir Ilyich had good reason to write to me, when I 
was in exile in Vologda, that "as far as letter-writing is 
concerned — it is very difficult in our situation (in yours 
and mine especially) to carry on the correspondence one 
would like".*** 

This applied equally, to all our family and not only to 
me, because Vladimir Ilyich was not only a blood relation 
but was related to us by his views and convictions. All 



* In the Central Archives, for instance, we found extracts from six 
of Lenin's letters that had been placed in the files of the Moscow Gen- 
darmerie as "material evidence". These extracts are published as an 
appendix to this volume (see pp. 553-54).— Ed. 

** It was, of course, impossible to keep them in Russia and only 
a few have been preserved in copies made abroad. 
*** Letter No. 252. -Ed. 



26 



M. I. ULYANOVA 



the family (including Anna's husband, Mark Yelizarov) 
were at that time Social-Democrats, supported the revo- 
lutionary wing of the Party, took a greater or lesser part 
in revolutionary activities, were keenly interested in the 
life of the Party and were delighted at its successes and 
grieved by its failures. Even our mother, who was born 
in 1835 and who was over sixty at the end of the century, 
when house searches and arrests became particularly frequ- 
ent, showed full sympathy for our revolutionary activities. 

All the legal correspondence of revolutionaries was exam- 
ined by the police and recourse had to be made to various 
hints, secret signs, etc., in some way to touch upon ques- 
tions that interested us, confirm the receipt of some illegal 
letter, make enquiries about acquaintances and so on. 

The reader will notice that letters sent by Vladimir Ilyich 
to his mother, sisters or brother contain scarcely any names, 
because the use of names might involve those mentioned 
in unpleasantness. It stands to reason that we had not the 
slightest desire to do anything that would, at best, make 
things unpleasant for someone. The names and surnames 
that do, on rare occasions, occur in Vladimir Ilyich's let- 
ters are those of comrades and friends whose connection 
with us was in any case known to the police owing to 
various circumstances (exile together on the same charge, 
attendance at the same educational establishment, etc.) or 
had to do with purely business matters (names of publishers, 
booksellers, etc.). To avoid mentioning the names of any- 
body living in more or less legal conditions about whom 
Vladimir Ilyich wanted to tell us something, to whom he 
wanted to send regards, etc., he made frequent use in his 
letters of nicknames and explanations connected with facts 
or events known to us. Vladimir Ilyich called Ivan Skvor- 
tsov-Stepanov, for instance, "the historian" (in view of 
his writings on history); at one time he carried on a lively 
correspondence with him through my sister and me.* 



* Unfortunately only one letter from this correspondence has 
survived, the one dated December 16, 1909. See Lenin's Works, Second 
(Russian) Edition, Vol. XIV, pp. 212-16. (Two letters from the cor- 
respondence of Lenin and Skvortsov-Stepanov have survived — De- 
cember 2 and 16, 1909. See Collected Works, Vol. 34, pp. 407-10 and 
Vol. 16, pp. 117-22.)— Ed. 



PREFACE TO LETTERS TO RELATIVES (1930 EDITION) 27 



When he sent greetings to V. V. Vorovsky, who was in 
exile in Vologda at the same time as I, Vladimir Ilyich wrote 
"Greetings to Polish friends, and I hope they help you in 
every way."* By "China traveller" he meant A. P. Sklya- 
renko, who was employed on the railway in Manchuria at 
the time, and "the gentleman we went boating with last 
year"** was V. A. Levitsky, etc. 

The despatch of underground publications, secret cor- 
respondence, books containing letters in invisible ink, etc., 
had to be referred to in Aesopian language, etc. 

At the end of December 1900 I gave G. B. Krasin, who 
was going abroad, the Manifesto of the Party of Socialist- 
Revolutionaries to take to Vladimir Ilyich; for purposes 
of secrecy I concealed it in an album of photographs. Vla- 
dimir Ilyich was very pleased with this package and wrote 
in a letter dated January 16, 1901, "many thanks to 
Manyasha for the books she sent, and especially for the un- 
usually beautiful and interesting photographs from our cousin 
in Vienna; I should like to receive such gifts more often".*** 

Iskra and other underground publications were sent to 
Russia in envelopes to "clean", legal addresses. We also 
used these addresses to obtain literature for ourselves. 
Information concerning such packages was sometimes con- 
tained in legal letters to enable us to make enquiries of the 
addressee in good time. Information of this kind seems to 
be contained in Vladimir Ilyich's statement (letter of 
December 14, 1900), "I remember that I sent you the things 
that interested you on the ninth." And in her letter of Feb- 
ruary 8, 1916, Nadezhda Konstantinovna wrote, "Volodya 
was very pleased with your big letter. Perhaps you will write 
again."**** Since our legal letters were never exceptionally 
long and during the imperialist war, when this letter was 
written, we corresponded mainly by postcard, even regis- 
tered postcards, and since many letters were lost in transit, 
the words quoted apparently refer to an illegal letter con- 
cealed in a book. 



Letter No. 237.— Ed. 

Letters Nos. 114 and 130.— Ed. 

Letter No. 120. —Ed. 

Letter No. 117 and Krupskaya's Letter No. 54.— Ed. 



28 



M. I. ULYANOVA 



When Vladimir Ilyich was first living abroad in 1900 
and still did not know whether his stay would be more or 
less permanent, he did not give us his private address; 
when he was living in Switzerland or in Munich we wrote 
to him in Paris or Prague for reasons of secrecy. In his let- 
ter of March 2, 1901, for instance, he sent us his new add- 
ress, adding "I have moved together with my landlord".* 
Franz Modracek, to whose address we sent our letters, 
actually did move at that time to a new apartment, but 
Vladimir Ilyich remained in Munich in the old one. 



Characteristic of Vladimir Ilyich were his great punctual- 
ity and thoroughness and his strict economy in spending 
money, especially on himself. Vladimir Ilyich probably 
inherited these qualities from our mother, whom he resembled 
in many ways. Our mother was of German descent on 
her mother's side and these qualities were deeply ingrained 
in her character. 

Vladimir Ilyich's carefulness with money and his frugal- 
ity in spending it on himself can be seen from his letter of 
October 5, 1895.** 

"I am now, for the first time in St. Petersburg, keeping 
a cash-book to see how much I actually spend. It turned 
out that for the month August 28 to September 27 I spent 
altogether 54 rubles 30 kopeks, not including payment for 
things (about 10 rubles) and expenses for a court case (also 
about 10 rubles) which I shall probably conduct. It is true 
that part of this 54 rubles was spent on things that do not 
have to be bought every month (galoshes, clothes, books, 
an abacus, etc.), but even discounting that (16 rubles), 
the expenditure is still excessive — 38 rubles in a month. 
Obviously I have not been living carefully; in one month 
I have spent a ruble and 36 kopeks on the horse trams, for 
instance. When I get used to the place I shall probably 
spend less." 

He really did live economically, especially when he was 
not earning anything and had recourse to "philanthropy", 

* Letter No. 125.— Ed. 
**The letter referred to is that of October 5, 1893 (Letter No. 1), 
— Ed. 



PREFACE TO LETTERS TO RELATIVES (1930 EDITION) 29 



as he called his mother's financial aid. He economised to 
such an extent that he did not even subscribe to Russkiye 
Vedomosti* for himself when he was living in St. Peters- 
burg in 1893, but read the paper in the Public Library when 
it was "two weeks old". "When I get a job here perhaps 
I will subscribe to it," he wrote to me.** 

Vladimir Ilyich retained this trait all his life and it made 
itself felt, not only in Russia when he was not earning 
anything and when he was abroad and could not find a 
publisher for his literary works (one has only to recall that 
The Agrarian Question was lying about for ten whole years 
and saw the light of day only in 1917) and was thus in a 
critical position (see, for instance, his letter to Comrade 
Shlyapnikov of September 1916***), but also when he was 
materially well provided for, i.e., after the 1917 Revolution. 

There was one thing, however, that Vladimir Ilyich found 
it difficult to economise on — books. He needed them for 
his work, so that he could keep himself up-to-date on for- 
eign and Russian politics, economics, etc. 

"To my great horror," he wrote in a letter to his mother, 
sent from Berlin August 29, 1895, "I see that I am again 
in financial 'difficulties'; the 'temptation' to buy books, 
etc., is so great that the devil alone knows where the money 
goes."**** Even in this, however, he tried to cut down, main- 
ly by going to work in libraries, especially as they provided 
him with a quieter working atmosphere when he was 
abroad — there was none of the hubbub and endless, wearisome 
talk that was so typical of the exiles, who were bored by 
surroundings unusual and alien to them, and who liked 
to unburden themselves in conversation. 

Vladimir Ilyich used libraries not only when he was 
living abroad but also in Russia. In a letter to his mother 
from St. Petersburg he wrote that he was satisfied with his 
new room, which was "not far from the centre (only some 
15 minutes' walk from the library)".***** Passing through 



* At that time Russkiye Vedomosti was the most decent and 
interesting of all bourgeois papers. 
** Letter No. 2.— Ed. 
*** Collected Works, Vol. 35, p. 236.— Ed. 
**** Letter No. 10.— Ed. 
***** Letter No. 1.— Ed. 



30 



M. I. ULYANOVA 



Moscow on his way to his place of exile he even made use 
of the few days he was in the city to work in the library of 
the Rumyantsev Museum. When he was living in Kras- 
noyarsk and had to await the start of the navigation season 
to continue his way to Minusinsk Uyezd, he worked in 
Yudin's library, and had to walk about 5 versts every 
day to do so. 

During the period of banishment, when there was no 
possibility of using a library, Vladimir Ilyich tried to make 
up for this by asking us to arrange for library books to be 
sent him by post. A few experiments of this sort were made 
but too much time was wasted (about a month there and 
back) and library books were issued for a restricted period. 

Vladimir Ilyich resorted to this method at a later date, 
too. In a letter to his sister Anna dated February 11, 1914,* 
he wrote: "With regard to the summaries of crime statis- 
tics for 1905-1908, I would ask you not to buy them (there 
is no need, they are expensive) but to get them from a libra- 
ry (either the Bar Council or the Duma Library) and 
send them for a month." 

When he was living abroad Vladimir Ilyich also made 
constant use of libraries. In Berlin he worked in the Impe- 
rial Library. In Geneva there was his favourite "club" (Societe 
de lecture), where he had to become a member and pay cer- 
tain dues — very small ones, to be sure — in order to work 
in the "club's" library. In Paris he worked in the Biblio-. 
theque nationale, although he complained that it was "bad- 
ly organised"; in London he worked in the British Museum. 
And only when he was living in Munich did he complain 
that "there is no library here"; in Krakow, too, he made 
but little use of the library. In his letter to me of April 22, 
1914 he wrote that "here (in Krakow. — M.U.) the library 
is a bad one and extremely inconvenient, although I scarce- 
ly ever have to go there " His work for the newspaper 

(Pravda), all sorts of dealings with comrades, who came to 
Krakow in greater numbers than to France or Switzerland, 
his guidance of the activities of the Social-Democratic 
group in the Duma, Party conferences and meetings, etc., 



* The letter has been lost and the extract quoted here has been 
taken from the files of the Police Department (see Letter No. 247). — Ed. 



PREFACE TO LETTERS TO RELATIVES (1930 EDITION) 



31 



required so much effort that there was little time left for 
scientific studies. Even then, however, Vladimir Ilyich 
"often thought of Geneva, where work went better, the libra- 
ry was convenient, and life was less nerve-racking and 
time-wasting".* 

After his arrest in Galicia at the beginning of the imperial- 
ist war Vladimir Ilyich again went to Switzerland; from 
there he wrote "the libraries here are good, and I have made 
quite decent arrangements as far as the use of books is con- 
cerned. It is even pleasant to read after my daily news- 
paper work".** Later he went with his wife from Berne 
to Zurich in order, among other things, "to work in the 
libraries here" (continuing, however, the same intensive 
Party political work, as his correspondence in that period 
with Comrades Karpinsky and Ravich, just published in 
Lenin Miscellany XI, clearly illustrates***) which, according 
to him, were "much better than those in Berne". But 
although Vladimir Ilyich was better off abroad as regards 
the reading of foreign books, journals and newspapers — 
he visited libraries for this purpose — the shortage of Rus- 
sian books made itself sharply felt. "I can easily get German 
books here, there is no shortage of them. But there is a 
shortage of Russian books," he wrote in a letter dated April 
2, 1902.**** "I see very few new books", he wrote on April 
6, 1900. There is no doubt that Vladimir Ilyich's work 
was greatly hampered by his frequently not having the 
necessary book to hand when he lived abroad. This is why 
his letters to his relatives frequently contained requests 
for certain books that he needed for his work (statistics, 
books on the agrarian question, on philosophy, etc.) and 
also new publications, journals and fiction. And again, 
it is possible to judge, to some extent, what branches of 
knowledge he was interested in and needed literature about 
at any given time, and for which writings he used them. 

Among this literature considerable attention was paid 
to various statistical returns. 

* Letter No. 252.— Ed. 
** Letter No. 254.— Ed. 
*** Part of this correspondence was included in the Collected Works, 
Vol. 36.— Ed. 
**** Letter No. 31.— Ed. 



32 



M. I. ULYANOVA 



From his works, and from the rough copies, notes and 
calculations that preceded those works we see clearly what 
great importance Vladimir Ilyich attached to statistics, 
to "precise facts, indisputable facts".* His unfinished and 
as yet unpublished article "Statistics and Sociology" by 
P. Piryuchev (a new pen-name that Vladimir Ilyich adopted 
to facilitate the publication of this work) is typical in this 
respect; it is devoted to the question of "the role and sig- 
nificance of national movements, the relationship between 
the national and the international".** 

The following passage is from this article: "The most 
widely used, and most fallacious, method in the realm of 
social phenomena is to tear out individual minor facts and 
juggle with examples. Selecting chance examples presents 
no difficulty at all, but is of no value, or of purely negative 
value, for in each individual case everything hinges on the 
historically concrete situation. Facts, if we take them in 
their totality, in their interconnection, are not only stub- 
born things, but undoubtedly proof-bearing things. Minor 
facts, if taken out of their totality, out of their intercon- 
nection, if they are arbitrarily selected and torn out of 
context, are merely things for juggling with, or even worse.... 
We must seek to build a reliable foundation of precise and 
indisputable facts that can be set against any of the 
'general' or 'example-based' arguments now so grossly misused 
in certain countries. And if it is to be a real foundation, we 
must take not individual facts, but the sum total of facts, 
without a single exception, relating to the question under 
discussion. Otherwise there will be the inevitable, and 
fully justified, suspicion that the facts were selected or 
compiled arbitrarily, that instead of historical phenomena 
being presented in objective interconnection and inter- 
dependence and treated as a whole, we are presenting a 
'subjective' concoction to justify what might prove to be 
a dirty business. This does happen ... and more often than 
one might think."*** 

In 1902, Vladimir Ilyich asked for "a/Z the statistics**** 

* Collected Works, Vol. 23, p. 272.- Ed. 
**Ibid., p. 271.— Ed. 
***Ibid., pp. 272-73.— Ed. 
**** These statistics which Vladimir Ilyich used for his book The 



PREFACE TO LETTERS TO RELATIVES (1930 EDITION) 33 



from among the books he had had with him in Siberia, to 
be sent to him abroad, for, as he said in a letter dated April 
2, 1902, "I am beginning to miss these things". Later, in 
order to get statistical material from various towns and to 
get it more regularly, Vladimir Ilyich wrote a special 
appeal* to statisticians participating in the Congress of Doc- 
tors and Naturalists (there was a sub-section for statisticians 
at this congress) held in Moscow in the winter of 1909. A 
number of provincial statisticians responded and in a letter 
dated January 2, 1910, Vladimir Ilyich wrote, "I have 
also received a letter about statistics from Ryazan — it is 
splendid that I shall probably be getting help from many 
people."** 

In 1908, when Vladimir Ilyich was working on his Mate- 
rialism and Empirio- criticism , he ordered a book by Pro- 
fessor Chelpanov about Avenarius and his school, the book 
Immanent Philosophy and others. He wrote to me about 
this work of his, "I have been doing a lot of work on the 
Machists and I think I have sorted out all their inexpres- 
sible vulgarities (and those of 'empirio-monism' as well)."*** 

When Vladimir Ilyich inquired whether his manuscript 
about the latest form of capitalism (Imperialism, the Highest 
Stage of Capitalism)**** had been received he wrote, "I 
regard this work on economics as being of exceptionally 
great importance and would especially like to see it in print 
in full" (letter of October 22, 1916).***** As we know, this 
wish was not fulfilled (although Vladimir Ilyich "did his 
utmost to adapt himself to the 'restrictions'", as he wrote in 
a letter to M. N. Pokrovsky on July 2, 1916);****** Vladimir 
Ilyich' s work underwent a large number of changes and many 



Development of Capitalism in Russia, together with other books of 
his, were returned from abroad in 1929, and by the extracts he made 
and the marginal notes in the books it will be possible to draw a num- 
ber of valuable conclusions on the way he worked. (Some of this material 
was published in Lenin Miscellany XXXIII in 1940. — Ed.) 

* For the publication of this letter we are once again indebted 
to the Moscow Gendarmerie, who kept it in their files. 
** Letter No. 200.— Ed. 
*** Letter No. 166.— Ed. 
**** Collected Works, Vol. 22, pp. 185-304.— Ed. 
***** Letter No. 260.— Ed. 
****** Collected Works, Vol. 35, p. 227. —Ed. 



34 



M. I. ULYANOVA 



cuts were made, and only ten years later was it published 
in its original form. 

From Vladimir Ilyich's letters to his relatives we see 
in what connection he set about writing his (as yet unpub- 
lished) article "The Capitalist System of Modern Agricul- 
ture".* In a letter dated October 22, 1916, he wrote to me, 
"You write that the publisher wants to put out The Agrari- 
an Question as a book and not as a pamphlet. I under- 
stand that to mean that I must send him the continuation 
(i.e., in addition to what I have written about America I 
must write what I have promised about Germany). I will 
start on this as soon as I have finished what I have to write 
to cover the advance received from the old publisher."** 
The manuscript of this work, which is now in the possession 
of the Institute, is unfinished; apparently the revolution 
"hindered" Vladimir Ilyich and he could not finish it. 

The letters here presented to the reader give something 
of a picture of the conditions under which Vladimir Ilyich 
carried on his literary work, and also of those trials he had 
to undergo to publish the results of that work. I am refer- 
ring here to what he published legally. Vladimir Ilyich 
worked in unfavourable conditions throughout the entire 
pre-revolutionary period (with the exception of the period 
of the first revolution and the Zvezda and Pravda period — 
1912-14 — when he was able to contribute to the legal press 
and when we had, for a short time, at least, our own legal 
publishers); this was while he was abroad and experienced, 
for instance, a great shortage of Russian books and other 
material needed for his work. 

Censorship conditions also created considerable difficulty; 
Vladimir Ilyich's articles were cut and distorted (like his 
article "Uncritical Criticism", for instance) or were con- 
fiscated (The Agrarian Question, Vol. II), and so on and so 
forth. Great difficulties were also caused by lack of contact 
with Russia, because of which it was frequently impossible 
to establish direct communications with publishers, etc. 
Typical of the situation are his frequent attempts to obtain 
work for Granat's Encyclopaedic Dictionary. "I would like 



Collected Works, Vol. 16, pp. 423-46.— Ed. 
Letter No. 260.— Ed. 



PREFACE TO LETTERS TO RELATIVES (1930 EDITION) 35 



to get some work for the Encyclopaedic Dictionary," he 
wrote to me in his letter of December 22, 1914, "but it is 
probably not easy to arrange unless you have an oppor- 
tunity to meet the secretary of the editorial board."* Vla- 
dimir Ilyich had no such opportunity, and when he applied 
directly to the Granat office he either received no answer at 
all, or received one only after a considerable delay. "Is 
it possible to obtain some more work for the Encyclopaedic 
Dictionary?" he wrote to me in 1915. "I have written to 
the secretary about this but he has not answered me."** 
"In this place, unfortunately, I am cut off from all contact 
with publishers," he wrote in 1912.*** 

If it had not been for the great help from comrades and 
relatives in seeking publishers, reading the proofs of his 
works, etc., there would have been even greater difficulties 
in getting his writings published. But we, his sisters and 
brother, were not always in a position to help him in these 
matters, especially when we were in prison or in exile. In 
1904, for instance, he asked mother to give him the address 
of Anna's husband, Mark Timofeyevich, for whom he had 
some "literary business" (letter of January 20, 1904).**** 

Vladimir Ilyich, however, not only had the ability to 
work systematically, persistently and fruitfully, he also 
had the ability to rest — when the opportunity offered. 
For him the best form of rest was out in the open, close 
to nature and away from people. "Here (in Stjernsund 
in Finland, where he was resting after returning "terribly 
tired" from the Fifth Party Congress. — M.U.) you can have 
a wonderful rest, swimming, walking, no people and no 
work. No people and no work — that is the best thing for 
me."***** He enjoyed a really excellent rest there, where 
Lidiya Mikhailovna Knipovich surrounded him with 

* Letter No. 254. —Ed. 
** Letter No. 255. As regards replies from publishers at this 
time, things were no better in other houses for Vladimir Ilyich. With 
reference to this see Letter No. 3 (dated November 27, 1901) from 
Lenin to L. I. Axelrod, published in Lenin Miscellany XI, p. 326 
{Collected Works, Vol. 36, p. 100).— Ed. 
*** Letter No. 230.— Ed. 
**** Letter No. 150.— Ed. 
***** Letter No. 155.— Ed. 



36 



M. I. ULYANOVA 



exceptional care and attention, and he recalled it in a letter 
to me when I had just got over a bad attack of enteric fev- 
er. "Now would be the time to send you to Stjernsund," 
he wrote.* 

Vladimir Ilyich was extremely fond of nature and in 
his letters one constantly comes across references to the 
beauties of nature, no matter where he happens to be. "The 
scenery here is splendid, I am enjoying it all the time. 
The Alps began immediately after the little German station 
I wrote to you from; then came the lakes and I could not 
tear myself away from the window of the railway carriage," 
he wrote to mother when he was on his way to Switzerland 
in 1895. And again he wrote to mother, "I take walks — 
walking is not at all bad here at present and, it seems, 
there are plenty of nice places in Pskov (and also in its 
environs)." From abroad he wrote, "I saw Anyuta a few days 
ago, took a trip on a very beautiful lake with her and 
enjoyed the wonderful views and the good weather." "A few 
days ago I had a wonderful outing to Saleve with Nadya 
and a friend. Down below in Geneva it was all mist and 
gloom, but up on the mountain (about 4,000 feet above sea 
level) there was glorious sunshine, snow, tobogganing — 
altogether a good Russian winter's day. And at the foot 
of the mountain — la mer du brouillard, a veritable sea of 
mist and clouds, concealing everything except the moun- 
tains jutting up through it, and only the highest at that. Even 
little Saleve (nearly 3,000 feet) was wrapped in mist." "Na- 
dya and I have travelled and walked round a great deal 
of the surrounding country and have found some very nice 
places," we read in a letter dated September 27, 1902. Vla- 
dimir Ilyich was probably right when he wrote, "We are 
the only people among the comrades here who are explor- 
ing every bit of the surrounding country. We discover 
various 'rural' paths, we know all the places nearby and 
intend to go further afield."** 

If they were unable to get out of town for the summer 
and drop straight into "rural life" ("we get up early and 
go to bed almost with the roosters"),*** Vladimir Ilyich 

* Letter No. 164. —Ed. 
** Letters Nos. 6, 103, 110, 149, 142, 148.— Ed. 
*** Letter No. 237. -Ed. 



PREFACE TO LETTERS TO RELATIVES (1930 EDITION) 37 



and Nadezhda Konstantinovna, when they were living in 
Switzerland, sometimes went walking in the mountains. 
There is a description of one such journey in a letter Nadezh- 
da Konstantinovna wrote to my mother on July 2, 1904. 
"It is already a week since we got away from Geneva and 
are now resting in the full sense of the word. We have left 
our work and our worries in Geneva and here we sleep ten 
hours a day, and go swimming and walking — Volodya does 
not even read the newspapers properly; we took a minimum 
of books with us, and even those we are sending back to Ge- 
neva tomorrow, unread, while we ourselves shall don our 
rucksacks at four in the morning and set out for a two weeks' 
walking tour in the mountains. We shall go to Interlaken 
and from there to Lucerne. We are reading Baedeker and 

planning our journey carefully Volodya and I have made 

an agreement not to talk about our work — work, he says, is 
not a bear and will not escape to the woods — not even to men- 
tion it, and, as far as possible, not to think about it."* 
Such journeys, however, were rare and were undertaken 
only when work and the factional squabbling had had too 
bad an effect on health and on nerves, as was the case in 
the winter of 1903-04 after the Second Party Congress and 
the split. As a rule, if Vladimir Ilyich went to the country 
for the summer, he continued his work there, whenever 
it was possible, after a few days' complete rest. If it was 
impossible to get out of town, or if such trips were too 
short, they made excursions to the country, sometimes 
to the mountains, on foot or on their bicycles, usually on 
Sundays. "Quite unintentionally we are taking to foreign 
ways and arrange our outings on Sundays of all days, though 
that is the worst time because everywhere is crowded," 
Lenin wrote in a letter to his mother (March 29, 1903).** 
On such outings they usually took sandwiches with them 
instead of having lunch and set off for the whole day. No 
wonder Vladimir Ilyich and Nadezhda Konstantinovna 
belonged to the "excursionist" party while other comrades 
formed the "cinemist" party (those who liked the cinema), 
as they jokingly called themselves. 



* Letter No. 151.— Ed. 
** Letter No. 148. -Ed. 



38 



M. I. ULYANOVA 



Vladimir Ilyich was, indeed, not very fond of the differ- 
ent amusements in which other comrades found relaxation 
after hard work. I do not think he ever went to the cinema, 
especially when he was living abroad, and he visited theatres 
only on rare occasions. He went to see The Weavers when 
he was in Berlin on his first trip abroad, and he went to 
the theatre when he was living abroad in exile, mostly, 
however, when he was living there "somewhat alone" (i.e., 
without his family), or when he happened to be in a big 
city on business after a period of intensive work and he took 
advantage of the trip to "snap out of himself". The theatres 
abroad gave Vladimir Ilyich little satisfaction (at times 
he and Nadezhda Konstantinovna left the theatre after the 
first act, on which occasions their comrades jokingly 
accused them of wasting money), and of the plays he saw in 
the later period, only The Living Corpse created an impres- 
sion on him. He liked the Moscow Art Theatre very much, 
however; he had been there with Lalayants ("Columbus") 
before he went abroad, when he was staying in Moscow, 
and in a letter to his mother in February 1901 he said that 
"he still remembers with pleasure" that visit to the theatre. 
But what we would like would be to visit the Russian Art 
Theatre and see The Lower Depths,"* we read in his 
letter of February 4, 1903. He did not manage to see The 
Lower Depths until many years later, when he was living in 
Moscow after the revolution. 

His visits to concerts were also relatively rare, although 
he loved music. "We recently went to our first concert this 
winter", we read in the same letter, "and were very pleased 
with it — especially Chaikovsky's latest symphony (Sym- 
phonie pathetique) ." "I was at the opera a few days ago and 
heard La Juive with the greatest pleasure; I had heard it once 
in Kazan (when Zakrzhevsky sang) — that must be thirteen 
years ago, and some of the tunes have remained in my 
memory," he wrote to mother on February 9, 1901.** After- 
wards he often whistled those tunes (he had his own pecu- 
liar way of whistling through his teeth). Later, during his 
life abroad, Vladimir Ilyich rarely visited concerts or ope- 



* Letter No. 146.— Ed. 
** Letter No. 122.— Ed. 



PREFACE TO LETTERS TO RELATIVES (1930 EDITION) 39 



ras. Music had too powerful an effect on his nerves, and 
when they were upset, as was often the case in the turmoil 
of life among the emigres abroad, it affected him badly. 
Vladimir Ilyich was always very busy and his budget was 
a modest one and this had its effect on his secluded (as far as 
amusements were concerned) way of life. 

Vladimir Ilyich paid relatively little attention to the various 
sights: "I have little taste for such things in general and 
in most cases have seen them only by accident. In general, 
I much prefer wandering around and seeing the evening 
amusements and pastimes of the people to visiting 
museums, theatres, shopping centres, etc."* Vladimir Ilyich 
usually did his "wandering around" in the evenings when 
he was living in Berlin in 1895, and this enabled him to 
study "the Berlin mores and listen to German speech".** 
It was not, however, only when he was in Berlin on his 
first trip abroad that he made a study of customs; there 
are quite a number of passages in his letters to his relatives 
which show that when he was living in Paris, or was there 
on a short trip, he found pleasure in examining the local 
way of life and he remarked the free and easy manner of 
the public in the streets and on the boulevards. "Paris is 
a very inconvenient town for a man of modest means to 
live in, and very tiring," he wrote after spending a few days 
in that city. "But there is no better and more lively town to 
stay in for a short time, just for a visit, for an outing."*** 
Vladimir Ilyich also studied Czech life when he was passing 
through Czechoslovakia and was sorry that he had not learned 
the Czech language; he gave a lively description of the 
manners and customs of the Galician peasants that he had 
an opportunity of observing when he was living in Galicia, and 
of the carnival in the Munich streets with its battles of con- 
fetti and streamers, etc. He loved life in all its forms and 
had a rare talent for observing and studying it on a broad 
scale. 

The letters published here give a picture of Vladimir 
Ilyich's attitude towards his relatives and, to some extent, 
his feelings for people in general. How much care and 

* Letter No. 10.— Ed. 
**Ibid. 
*** Letter No. 249. —Ed. 



40 



M. I. ULYANOVA 



attention is displayed in those letters! Vladimir Ilyich was 
greatly attached to his relatives, especially to mother, and 
in all his letters, in those addressed to other members of 
our family as well as to mother, there is always a note of 
solicitude for her, the wish that things should go better for 
her and that she should have a more peaceful and comfortable 
life. His letters are full of questions about health, whether 
good arrangements have been made for an apartment, whether 
it is not cold. "I am worried that your apartment is so 
cold; what will it be like in winter if the temperature is only 

12° now? You must not catch cold Is there nothing 

you can do? Perhaps you should put in a small stove," 
he wrote in a letter to his mother in 1909.* These letters 
contain a great deal of advice to "have a good rest in sum- 
mer", "run about less, rest more and keep well", etc. 

Vladimir Ilyich was particularly attentive to his mother 
at those times when some misfortune overtook her, and 
misfortunes were many in her life. First one, then another 
member of our family was arrested and exiled, sometimes 
several of us were arrested at the same time and she, though 
advanced in years, had to go again and again to prisons 
to visit her family and take things to them, to sit for hours 
in the waiting-rooms of the gendarmerie and the secret 
police, and was often left completely alone with her heart 
aching for her children who had been deprived of their 
liberty. How worried Vladimir Ilyich was at such times, 
and how heavily the lack of personal contact with his moth- 
er weighed upon him, can be seen from his letter of Sep- 
tember 1, 1901. At that time my brother-in-law, Mark Yeli- 
zarov, and I were in prison, my sister Anna was abroad 
and could not return to Russia because she would have 
been arrested on the same charge, and our brother Dmitry 
could not remain with mother because he had to graduate 
from the University of Yuriev. She was left alone in the 
same way in a strange town in 1904 when my sister, my 
brother Dmitry and I were arrested on charges connected 
with the Kiev Party Committee and the Central Committee. 

Vladimir Ilyich always wanted mother to live with him, 
and he frequently invited her to do so. This was difficult 



Letter No. 198.— Ed. 



PREFACE TO LETTERS TO RELATIVES (1930 EDITION) 



41 



to arrange, however, because mother was always with those 
of her children who were particularly in need of her help, 
and in Russia that help was needed almost always by those 
who had fallen into the hands of the police. And so it turned 
out that each time Vladimir Ilyich was living in exile 
abroad, both the first and the second time, she was able to 
stay abroad only for a very short while to see him. In 1902, 
she lived for about a month with Vladimir Ilyich and our 
sister Anna at Loguivy in the north of France. The second 
time, and this was the last time she was to see her son, was 
in Stockholm, where she and I went in 1910 specially to 
visit him. Vladimir Ilyich always provided her with 
detailed itineraries for such trips and advised her to stop the 
night in hotels in order not to overtire herself with the jour- 
ney. It was also in Stockholm that mother for the first and 
last time heard Vladimir Ilyich speak in public; it was 
at a meeting of worker exiles. When we left, Vladimir 
Ilyich accompanied us to the boat — he could not go aboard 
the vessel because it belonged to a Russian company and 
he might have been arrested on it — and I still remember 
the expression on his face as he stood there looking at moth- 
er. How much pain there was in his face! He seemed to 
feel that this was the last time he would see her. And so 
it was. Vladimir Ilyich did not see any of his relatives again 
until he came to Russia after the February Revolution, and 
mother died shortly before it, in July 1916. We did not 
receive the first letter Vladimir Ilyich wrote when he had 
news of mother's death. The next letter has not survived 
either, but from what I remember of it it showed what a 
heavy loss it was to him, how much pain it caused him, 
and how tender he was to all of us, who were also distressed 
by our loss. 

Vladimir Ilyich also devoted considerable attention to 
us, his sisters and brother, and to Mark Yelizarov; he was 
always interested to know how we were getting on, whether 
we were earning anything, whether we had had good holi- 
days, etc. He tried to get books for us to translate and 
sometimes sent foreign books to us for that purpose, showed 
an interest in what we read and studied, invited us to stay 
with him, and so on. Vladimir Ilyich also displayed a great 
interest in his comrades, inquired how they were getting 



42 



M. I. ULYANOVA 



on and tried to help them materially as well. He 
undertook to write prefaces for his comrades' translations, 
so as to make it easier for them to get the books published 
and thus have an opportunity of earning something. 

Comrades who are unacquainted with life in exile abroad 
and with the way legal correspondence was carried on 
under tsarism may think it strange that Vladimir Ilyich fre- 
quently says in his letters that he is "living very quietly", 
"peacefully", "modestly" and so on in periods such as that 
of the imperialist war, for instance, when it is obvious 
from literature and from his underground correspondence 
that he was displaying tremendous energy in the struggle 
against the chauvinism that was influencing most of the 
Social-Democratic parties. It must not be forgotten that at 
that time Vladimir Ilyich could only make his voice heard in 
the press, and then only in a publication that appeared once 
in several weeks or even, in several months, and which (like 
pamphlets) it was difficult to send from place to place; 
he could also speak at small meetings of exiles abroad or 
at small study circles for foreign workers. It stands to reason 
that such opportunities were far too little for Vladimir 
Ilyich; Nadezhda Krupskaya said that at the beginning 
of the revolution in Russia he created the impression of 
a lion trying to break out of its cage — was not his former 
life in exile abroad and out of contact with Russia, and 
especially during the imperialist war, a cage that greatly 
restricted him, that did not permit him to branch out and 
could not satisfy him, the natural leader, the voice of the 
people? He was eager for work on a broader scale, his was 
truly the eagerness of the caged lion, and he had to work 
hard at persuading two or three comrades to obtain access 
to broader masses. And for a nature like his was not "sleepy 
Borne" really too "quiet" and movement there too "gradu- 
al"?... 

In his legal correspondence there are only occasional 
glimpses of his fury against "disgusting opportunists of 
the most dangerous type" and against "extreme vulgarities 
about voting for credits", etc. Here he was hampered by 
the censor and one has only to see which phrases from his 
letters (see Appendix, pp. 553-54) "attracted the attention" 
of the gendarmes and secret police and which became "material 



PREFACE TO LETTERS TO RELATIVES (1930 EDITION) 43 



evidence", to understand that both he and his relatives 
were at that time in a situation in which it was very dif- 
ficult "to carry on the correspondence one would like".* 
We had good reason to make the proviso at the beginning 
of this preface that Vladimir Ilyich's letters to his relatives 
are of significance and interest mainly because they provide 
a picture of him as a man (of course that picture is far from 
complete and, owing to conditions of police surveillance, 
somewhat one-sided). In this respect, it seems to me, they 
constitute a valuable contribution to the literature on 
Vladimir Ilyich, and one can only regret that so many let- 
ters to relatives and to comrades have been lost. There 
are other documents, especially his rich literary legacy, 
which speak of Lenin as the leader, the politician, the 
scholar. 

Vladimir Ilyich's second period of exile abroad was par- 
ticularly burdensome to him. When he arrived in Geneva 
after having lived in and near St. Petersburg, it was especially 
painful to return to the old ash-heap. "We have been hang- 
ing about this damned Geneva for several days now," he 
said in a letter to me on January 14, 1908. "It is an awful 
hole, but there is nothing we can do. We shall get used 
to it."** With his customary persistence and energy he got 
down to work, because he could "get used to" any condi- 
tions. "The only unpleasant thing was the actual moving, 
which was a change for the worse. That, however, was inev- 
itable," he wrote in the next letter to mother.*** And this 
change from better to worse, this absence of the literature 
he needed for his work and of new books and newspapers 
made itself particularly felt at this time because in St. 
Petersburg he had been able to road all the newspapers 
and journals and keep up-to-date on books. And he asked 
us to obtain for him "the minutes of the Third Duma (the 
officially published verbatim reports and also the announce- 
ments, questions and bills brought before the Duma)", 
and to "send them all, missing nothing". He was also inter- 
ested in the "programmes, announcements and leaflets of the 



Letter No. 252.— Ed. 
Letter No. 158.— Ed. 
Letter No. 159.— Ed. 



44 



M. I. ULYANOVA 



Octobrists, the Rights, the Cossack group, etc." He was 
deprived of these necessary documents, whereas in the Duma 
"all these 'bits of paper' probably lie about on the floor and 
nobody picks them up". He also asked us to send him "''every- 
thing new that the Mensheviks publish",* trade union 
journals that had survived the debacle, etc. 

During his life in exile abroad Vladimir Ilyich felt the 
shortage, not only of books (although we tried to provide 
him with at least the most interesting books that appeared 
on the market), but also of Russian newspapers. Things 
were particularly bad in this respect during the imperialist 
war when at times Vladimir Ilyich had no Russian papers 
at all. "Please send Russian newspapers once a week after 
you have read them, because I have none at all" he wrote 
in a letter dated September 20, 1916.** 

Vladimir Ilyich was also in dire need of an income, 
especially during his last years abroad. "There will soon be 
an end to all our old sources of subsistence and the question 
of earning something is becoming acute," wrote Nadezhda 
Krupskaya on December 14, 1915. She said that Vladimir 
Ilyich was "seriously troubled" because he was very con- 
scientious where money was concerned or in accepting help 
from anybody, whoever it might be. "I shall get down 
to writing something or other, because prices have risen 
so hellishly that life has become devilishly difficult," he 
wrote on September 20, 1916.*** 

Just a few months before the February Revolution, in 
the autumn of 1916, Vladimir Ilyich had to look for books 
to translate and to correspond with publishers about get- 
ting them published. How unproductive a use for his labour 
it would have been if he had been compelled to spend his 
time translating, but this, too, was eventually "hindered" 
by the revolution. 

Such were the conditions under which he lived abroad 
shortly before the revolution: lack of contact with Russia 
and the masses of working people, whom he was always 
trying so hard to exercise a direct influence over, the dif- 



* Letters Nos. 158, 162, 158. —Ed. 
** Letter No. 259.— Ed. 

** Krupskaya's Letter No. 53, Lenin's Letter No. 259.— Ed. 



PREFACE TO LETTERS TO RELATIVES (1930 EDITION) 45 



ficult living conditions in exile abroad — although energy 
and persistence were never lacking — so it is no wonder that 
his "nerves were on edge" and his whole organism seriously 
undermined. 

His reporting of Nadezhda Konstantinovna's joke that 
he "must have been 'pensioned off'"* touches a bitter 
note in the letter of February 15, 1917. 

After this letter in which the difficult conditions in which 
Vladimir Ilyich was forced to live in pre-revolutionary times 
could be seen behind the jokes, came the glad tidings by 
telegraph, "Arriving Monday 11 p.m. inform Pravda" .** 

That was the end of his period of exile, and also the end 
of his correspondence with his relatives. 

I received only two tiny notes from Vladimir Ilyich after 
this,*** they were as short as his underground existence 
in Finland in the days of Kerensky and Kornilov on the 
eve of the Great October Revolution. 

M. Ulyanova 



♦Letter No. 262.— Ed. 
** Telegram No. 264.— Ed. 
** Letters Nos. 265 and 266.— Ed. 



46 



APROPOS OF LENIN'S LETTERS TO RELATIVES* 

A man's private correspondence is important in the 
compilation of his biography and in revealing him as an 
individual because it shows him in his day-to-day life, 
shows his relations with people and thus throws light on 
certain aspects of his character that are shown insufficient- 
ly or not at all by his scientific or public activities; in 
any case private correspondence adds new lines to the 
depiction of his character. Although Vladimir Ilyich's 
letters are, as a rule, very brief, condensed, and devoid 
of any effusiveness, which he never liked, any more 
than he liked other forms of verbosity; although behind 
the letters one feels the man of action accustomed to 
grudge the time he devotes to anything personal, they 
nevertheless reflect in some degree the character of the 
writer. 

It should not be forgotten that the correspondence was 
carried on under conditions of tsarist censorship, when 
one had always to be prepared for the letters to be read by 
the police, with the result that they had to be particularly 
brief and condensed. "It is very difficult ... to carry on the 
correspondence one would like,"** Vladimir Ilyich wrote 
to Maria. Letters in invisible ink allowed of greater free- 
dom; in these, in addition to purely business matters, one 
came across accounts of the latest Party news, of congresses 
and conferences, and precise characterisations — in two or three 
words — of people, parties and trends given by Vladimir 

* This article was written by Lenin's sister Anna Ilyinichna 
Ulyanova-Yelizarova for the collection of Letters to Relatives pub- 
lished in 1931 and 1934.— Ed. 
** Letter No. 252. —Ed. 



APROPOS OF LENIN'S LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



47 



Ilyich, the sharp, decisive expressions he used in ordinary, 
free conversation. Such letters, however, had to be destroyed 
immediately they had been read, so, of course, not a single 
one of them has been preserved. They were written between 
the lines of other letters or, more frequently between the 
lines of a book or journal or some reprint or other. And 
when Vladimir Ilyich acknowledged the receipt of books 
and wrote that some diary of the Congress of Technicians 
or reprint from the archives was "very interesting and 
thank Anyuta very much for it"* that meant, of course, 
that the secret letter had been received. Nor did I keep let- 
ters that were written in ordinary ink but were not sent to 
my own address; among such were, for instance, the letters 
I received in 1913-14 at the office of the journal Prosvesh- 
cheniye under an agreed-upon pseudonym. And it was not 
always convenient to keep letters sent to my private 
address — I recall a couple that Vladimir Ilyich himself 
asked me to destroy. 

As far as concerns the letters in this collection, it must 
be said that although they were written to people close 
to the writer and consequently contain much that has to 
do with the family alone and has little general interest, 
the addressees were people close to Vladimir Ilyich not only 
by blood but also in their convictions; he was also writing 
to them on business, so that the legal letters were often 
supplementary to the others and, therefore, formed a link 
in the whole chain of correspondence. Vladimir Ilyich, of 
course, did not write to mother on business matters, but at 
the same time he had nothing to hide from her, knowing 
that she was fully in sympathy with his revolutionary efforts 
and all his work. The result was that a letter addressed to 
one member of the family was, more often than not, intended 
for all. Requests to us, his sisters, brother and brother-in- 
law, were often contained in letters to our mother; as a rule 
they were read by all members of the family and were often 
forwarded to those living in other towns. 

The significance of Vladimir Ilyich's letters to his rela- 
tives naturally becomes all the greater for their having been 
written in the quarter of a century in which our Party, the 



* Letter No. 42.— Ed. 



48 



A. I. ULYANOVA-YELIZAROVA 



party that Vladimir Ilyich did so much to build, emerged 
and took shape. 

The most intensive and substantial correspondence belongs 
to the 1897-99 and 1908-09 periods, in which two big 
books by Vladimir Ilyich — The Development of Capital- 
ism in Russia and Materialism and Empirio- criticism — were 
published, because these letters contained business requests 
connected with the two publications, with the reading of 
the proofs, etc. Quite apart from this, the letters of the first 
of these two periods are fuller and more frequent since they 
were written when Vladimir Ilyich was in exile in Siberia, 
a condition that makes even the most restrained people 
turn to letter-writing because of the involuntary seclusion 
and the lack of contact with the life of the outside world. 
The letters written by Vladimir Ilyich in this period, 
especially the more detailed ones addressed to mother, give 
us an excellent picture of the conditions under which he 
lived, his inclinations and habits — in these letters he stands 
out, if one may put it so, in clearest relief as a person. 

Furthermore — and this is most important — in his letters 
from exile Vladimir Ilyich showed that he was not cut off 
from life, for in them he touched upon questions of Marx- 
ist theory and practice that were the most vital questions 
of the day. We see from the letters — although it occurs in 
a veiled form, the only possible form — his attitude to mem- 
bers of the Emancipation of Labour group, to Plekhanov 
and Axelrod, his complete agreement with them and his 
profound respect for them, his contact with them both through 
letters and through the talks I conducted with them on 
his instructions during my trip abroad in 1897. In these 
letters Vladimir Ilyich stated emphatically that "the iso- 
lation from political life" of which Axelrod had given warn- 
ing must not on any account be permitted. "I believe the 
author to be wholly and a thousand times right, especially 
against narrow adherents of 'economics'",* meaning Mas- 
lov and Co., the editors of the newspaper Samarsky Vestnik, 
who had accused the journal Novoye Slovo, headed by 
Struve, of liberalism and sympathy for the bourgeoisie. 
At that time Vladimir Ilyich considered it a matter of 



Collected Works, Vol. 34, p. 26.— Ed. 



APROPOS OF LENIN'S LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



49 



current importance not to confine propaganda and agitation 
to the economic struggle alone. "It is important that the 
illusion should not be allowed to develop that anything 
can be achieved by the struggle against the factory-owners 
alone," he said to me shortly before his arrest. "From the 
very outset the political consciousness of the workers must 
be aroused." It was for this reason that Vladimir Ilyich, 
in complete agreement with the Emancipation of Labour 
group, took the side of Struve in his differences with the 
Samarsky Vestnik writers, as Fedoseyev and Martov also 
did, and wrote to Maslov and Co. in Struve's defence. One 
of the letters from Vladimir Ilyich (according to Maslov) 
was written in a militant tone and concluded with the words: 
"If you want war, let it be war". In 1899, Vladimir Ilyich 
on several occasions spoke against the Samarans in his 
letters. 

"As far as the Samarans are concerned, I doubt very 
much whether they have said anything sensible (I have 
already had a letter about the accusation of 'bourgeois 
sympathies')." — letter of February 13, 1899.* Concerning 
the review of Gvozdyov's book he wrote: "I did not enjoy 
writing the review. I did not like the book — nothing new, 

generalities, an impossible style in places " "It would 

be very useful and very interesting to talk on this subject 
(on the article about the heritage. — A.Y.) to people who 
do not limit themselves to Gvozdyov's theories (have you 
read his book about kulaks?** I think it is very, very 
weak)."*** 

Vladimir Ilyich continued his struggle against "econom- 
ism" in agreement with Axelrod and Plekhanov, who in 
1895, at the time of Vladimir Ilyich's first trip abroad, 
insisted on the need to get away from the disputes between 
study circles and the Narodniks, to break down the isola- 
tion and go over to the organisation of a political party of 
Social-Democrats; he noted, however, another extreme in 
Axelrod's new pamphlet (on the relationship between 



♦Letter No. 76.— Ed. 
** Gvozdyov, R., Kulachestvo-rostovshchichestvo, yego obshchest- 
venno-ekonomicheskoye znacheniye, St. Petersburg, 1899. 
*** Letters Nos. 74 and 79.— Ed. 



50 



A. I. ULYANOVA-YELIZAROVA 



liberal and socialist democracy in Russia). Vladimir Ilyich 
showed that the author did not stress the class character of 
the movement sufficiently, that he was too kindly towards 
the Frondist agrarians and should have spoken of using them 
but not of supporting them. 

In these letters we find some expression of Vladimir 
Ilyich's indignation at the revisionist trend then emerg- 
ing — Bernstein's book, articles by German revisionists in 
Neue Zeit and Bulgakov's article. In respect of the last- 
named he wrote, "Bulgakov simply made me mad; such 
nonsense, such utter nonsense, and such eternal professorial 
pretentiousness — what the devil is this?!..." "Kautsky he 
distorts outright.... I am thinking of writing 'about Kaut- 
sky's book'" (against Bernstein. — A.Y.) — see letter of May 1, 
1899.* 

About Bernstein he wrote the following: "Nadya and I 
started reading Bernstein's book immediately; we have 
read more than a half and its contents astonish us more and 
more as we go on. It is unbelievably weak theoretically — 
mere repetition of someone else's ideas. There are phrases 
about criticism but no attempt at serious independent crit- 
icism. In effect, it is opportunism ... and cowardly oppor- 
tunism at that, since Bernstein does not want to attack the 
programme directly.... Bernstein's statement that many Rus- 
sians agree with him ... made us very indignant. We people 
here must indeed be getting 'old' and must be 'lagging 
behind the new words' ... copied from Bernstein. I shall 
soon be writing to Anyuta on this subject in detail."** 

Ilyich asked his sister Maria to get him reports of the Han- 
over Party Congress (letter of August 22, 1899) that was 
to be held in October. The chief issue at the Hanover Con- 
gress, of course, was that of Bernstein. When Vladimir 
Ilyich sent his review of Bulgakov's article*** to Novoye 
Slovo (it was published in Nauchnoye Obozreniye) he wrote, 
"Of course, polemics among one's own people are unpleas- 

* Letters Nos. 85 and 87.— Ed. 
**i.e., in invisible ink (see Letter No. 98.— Ed.). 
*** Lenin's article "Capitalism in Agriculture (Kautsky's Book 
and Mr. Bulgakov's Article)" (Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 105-159) 
was sent to the journal Nachalo but was printed in Zhizn for January- 
February 1900.— Ed. 



APROPOS OF LENIN'S LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



51 



ant and I tried to tone the article down, but to keep quiet 
about differences is not only unpleasant, it is downright 
harmful — and, furthermore, one cannot keep quiet about 
the chief differences between 'orthodoxy' and 'criticism' that 
have come to the fore in German and Russian Marx- 
ism".* 

Tugan-Baranovsky also made Vladimir Ilyich indignant 
(letter of June 20, 1899). "I have seen Nauchnoye Obozre- 
niye No. 5, and find that Tugan-Baranovsky's article in 
it is monstrously foolish and nonsensical; he has simply 
arbitrarily introduced changes into the rate of surplus value 
in order to 'refute' Marx; he assumes an absurdity — a 
change in the productivity of labour without a change in the 
value of the product. I do not know whether every such 
nonsensical article is worth writing about. Let him first 
fulfil his promise to develop it in detail. In general, I am 
becoming a more and more determined opponent of the lat- 
est 'critical stream' in Marxism and of neo-Kantianism 
(which has produced, incidentally, the idea of separating 
sociological from economic laws). The author of Beitrdge 
zur Geschichte des Materialismus** is quite right in declar- 
ing that neo-Kantianism is a reactionary theory of the reac- 
tionary bourgeoisie and in rebelling against Bernstein."*** 

Vladimir Ilyich's second article — "Once More on the 
Theory of Realisation"**** — was directed mainly against 
Struve, whose sympathy for revisionism was becoming more 
and more obvious. It is true that at this time Vladimir 
Ilyich's criticism was still of a friendly nature since he 
was criticising one of his own side. 

"I am now finishing an article in reply to Struve. It seems 
to me he has got things badly mixed up and his article may 
cause a good deal of misunderstanding among supporters 
and malicious glee among opponents" (March 7) ***** 

There gradually arose, however, misgivings of a more 
serious nature that come out more markedly in the letters 
to Potresov written in the same year (Lenin Miscellany IV). 

♦Letter No. 87.— Ed. 
** Plekhanov. 
*** Letter No. 90.— Ed. 
**** Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 74-93. -Ed. 
***** Letter No. 80.— Ed. 



52 



A. I. ULYANOVA-YELIZAROVA 



He also wrote that he had begun studying philosophy from 
the few philosophical books in his possession. 

"Volodya is busy reading all kinds of philosophy (that 
is now his official occupation) — Holbach, Helvetius, etc.," 
Nadezhda Krupskaya wrote in a letter to our mother on 
June 20, 1899.* 

And lastly there was the document known as the Credo, 
probably the biggest political fact of the period, and the 
reply** to it compiled by 17 Social-Democrats; this is also 
mentioned in the letters. 

"I shall write to Anyuta soon about the Credo (which 
interests and exasperates me and everybody else) in 
detail."*** (August 1, 1899.)**** 

"As far as the Credo der Jungen is concerned, I was amazed 
at the emptiness of the phrases. It is not a Credo but a piti- 
ful collection of words I intend to write in greater detail 
about it." (August 25, 1899.)***** 

I had sent this document to Vladimir Ilyich and quite by 
chance given it this name. I had not regarded it as being 
of any particular significance and in a letter in invisible 
ink I had said as briefly as possible "I am sending you a 
Credo of the young." 

Later, when the name had come to be accepted and there 
was talk about an "Anti-Credo", I was worried about hav- 
ing exaggerated the importance of the document with this 
incorrect name, and wrote to Vladimir Ilyich about it in 
invisible ink. It seems this place in the letter remained 
unread because when he returned from exile I told him the 
document had not been the "symbol of faith" of any group 
of the young but came from the pen of two authors, Kus- 
kova and Prokopovich, and that I had given it the name 
of Credo myself; Vladimir Ilyich was surprised and asked: 
"You did?" But then, after a short silence, be said in any 
case it had been necessary to reply to it. And that is how 
the document went the rounds under that name. 

Thus we see that in his letters to his relatives sent from 

*Krupskaya's Letter No. 16.— Ed. 
** Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 167-82.— Ed. 
***i.e., in invisible ink. 
**** Letter No. 92. —Ed. 
***** Letter No. 97.— Ed. 



APROPOS OF LENIN'S LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



53 



his place of exile, Vladimir Ilyich reacted to all the most 
urgent questions of the Party life of that time; there are 
signs in these letters of the main course he was mapping 
out, the course that was to avoid the narrowness of econom- 
ism and also the threatening danger of diffusion that lay 
in offering favours to the liberals, and also the purely intel- 
lectualist attraction to revisionism and criticism for crit- 
icism's sake. While still in exile he was already selecting 
his comrades for the future Party organisation and for 
"undisguised literature";* he wrote to Potresov about the need 
for this and naming for it, of all his comrades in exile, 
only Martov, "the only one who really took all this (the 
interests of a journal, of the Party) seriously to heart". 
He drew up a plan for Iskra. 

In Vladimir Ilyich's letters for the 1908-09 period — 
the time when his Materialism and Empirio- criticism was 
being published — there are also statements on general mat- 
ters, especially on the subject of his book, although such 
statements are fewer than in the letters sent from Siberia 
which were, in general, much more detailed. The attempts 
to revise the philosophical aspect of Marxism (they were 
headed by Bogdanov and Lunacharsky in Russia) made 
Vladimir Ilyich no less indignant than Bernstein's politi- 
co-economic revision. We saw that when he was still in 
Siberia this neo-Kantian trend in Marxism aroused in him 
the desire to undertake the study of philosophy. In the 
years of reaction following our first revolution the "god- 
seeker" trend made him take up philosophical studies 
seriously and write a book analysing this deviation from 
Marxism. 

"My illness has held up my work on philosophy very 
badly," he wrote to his sister Maria on July 13, 1908. "I 



* L. Kamenev's interpretation of these words in the Preface to 
Lenin's letters and in Note No. 41 (Lenin Miscellany IV, p. 19) is 
obviously incorrect. "Disguised literature" is of course to be under- 
stood, not to mean liberal literature wearing the cloak of Social- 
Democracy, but our own Social-Democratic literature that is com- 
pelled by the censor to take on legal form, i.e., there must be illegal 
as well as legal Social-Democratic literature. This passage gives no 
indication of a need to differentiate between us and "disguised liberals". 
There is no other way of understanding it. 



54 



A. I. ULYANOVA-YELIZAROVA 



am now almost well again and will most certainly write 
the book. I have been doing a lot of work on the Machists 
and I think I have sorted out all their inexpressible vul- 
garities (and those of 'empirio-monism' as well)."* 

Vladimir Ilyich was terribly indignant at "popov- 
shchina"** , a word he used for all kinds of god-seeking and 
all other attempts at dragging religious views into Marxism 
in some form or another. Because of the censorship he pro- 
posed changing the word "popovshchina" into "fideism", 
with a footnote explaining it (fideism is a doctrine which 
substitutes faith for knowledge, or which generally attaches 
significance to faith).*** 

That is how it appeared in the book. In the manuscript, 
the phrase to which this footnote was added read as follows: 
"Supported by all these supposedly recent doctrines, our 
destroyers of dialectical materialism proceed fearlessly to 
downright popovshchina (clearest of all in the case of Lu- 
nacharsky, but by no means in his case alone!)". And Vla- 
dimir Ilyich came down very heavily on these "destroyers"; 
he asked me not to tone down anything concerning them and 
I had difficulty in getting him to agree to a certain toning 
down for the sake of the censorship. 

"'Mentally projected god' will have to be changed to 
'mentally projected for himself — well, to use a mild expres- 
sion — religious conceptions' or something of the sort".**** 

In the manuscript this phrase had the following wording: 
"People can think and mentally project for themselves any 
kind of hell, all sorts of devils. Lunacharsky even mentally 
projected for himself a god." When there was no question 
of censorship he wrote to me: "Please do not tone down 
anything in the places against Bogdanov, Lunacharsky and 
Co. They must not be toned down. You have deleted the 
passage about Chernov being a 'more honest' opponent 
than they, which is a great pity. The shade of meaning you 
have given is not the one I want. There is now no overall 
consistency in my accusations. The crux of the issue is that 
our Machists are dishonest, mean-spirited, cowardly enemies 

* Letter No. 166.— Ed. 
**From the colloquial Russian "pop", meaning "priest". — Ed. 
*** Collected Works, Vol. 14, p. 19. -Ed. 
**** Letter No. 175. -Ed. 



APROPOS OF LENIN'S LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



55 



of Marxism in philosophy." Further he said: "Please do 
not tone down the places against Bogdanov and Lunachar- 
sky's popovshchina. We have completely broken off relations 
with them. There is no reason for toning them down, it is 
not worth the trouble." (March 9, 1909.) 

"Especially — do not throw out Purishkevich," he wrote 
on March 21, "and the others in the section on the criticism 
of Kantianism!"* 

Vladimir Ilyich compared the Machists to Purishkevich 
because the latter had once said that he criticised the 
Cadets more consistently and with greater determination than 
the Marxists did, and the Machists assured us that they 
criticised Kant more consistently and with greater deter- 
mination than the Marxists did. But, Mr. Purishkevich, 
Vladimir Ilyich said to him, "it must not be forgotten that 
you criticised the Constitutional-Democrats for being 
excessively democratic while we criticised them for being 
insufficiently democratic. The Machists criticise Kant for 
being too much of a materialist, we criticise him for not 
being enough of a materialist. The Machists criticise Kant 
from the right, we from the left." (Works, Vol. XIII, 
p. 163.)** 

When he later sent a supplement to Chapter Four, Sec- 
tion One, "From What Angle Did N. G. Chernyshevsky 
Criticise Kantianism?" Vladimir Ilyich wrote: "I regard 
it as extremely important to counterpose Chernyshevsky to 
the Machists."*** Vladimir Ilyich mentioned the political 
aspect of the differences known in those days as the differ- 
ences with the Vperyod group in only a couple of words in 
his legal letters. "Things are bad here — Spaltung (split. 
— A. Y.), or rather, there will be one; I hope that in a month 
or six weeks I shall be able to give you exact information. 
So far I can do no more than guess" (May 26).**** Details 
of this split were given in the "Report on the Extended Edi- 
torial Board of Proletary" and in the appended resolutions: 
5. The Break-away of Comrade Maximov (Bogdanov) and 
4. The Party School Being Set Up Abroad at X— (Capri), 

* See Letters Nos. 183, 182, 184.— Ed. 
** Collected Works, Vol. 14, p. 199.— Ed. 
*** Letter No. 185.— Ed. 
**** Letter No. 191.— Ed. 



56 



A. I. ULYANOVA-YELIZAROVA 



for which the extended editorial board declared it could 
bear no responsibility "in view of the fact that the initiat- 
ors and organisers of the school are one and all representa- 
tives of otzovism, ultimatumism and god-building" (June 
1909, Works, Vol. XIV, pp. 89-103).* 

Social affairs are touched upon still more scantily in the 
letters of the following years, which were, in general, fewer. 

The first years of the second exile abroad were particu- 
larly dull and miserable and were a sad experience for Vla- 
dimir Ilyich. I saw that for myself when I visited him in 
Paris in the autumn of 1911. He seemed to be less vivacious 
than usual. One day when we were out walking together 
he said to me: "I wonder if I shall manage to live to the 
next revolution." The sad expression on his face reminded 
me of the photograph of him taken in 1895 by the secret 
police. The time was one of profound reaction. Only a few 
signs of a renascence were to be seen — the publication of 
Zvezda and Mysl, for example. 

A note of pleasure resounded in his letter of January 
3, 1911. "Yesterday I received Zvezda No. 1. from Russia 
and today Mysl No. 1. That is something to cheer me up!... 
It really is a pleasure!"** 

His depression was deepened, of course, by the "bitter 
squabbles", which had a bad effect on work; Vladimir Ilyich 
wrote about this in 1910, having in mind the differences 
that existed between the C.C. Bureau Abroad and the Vpe- 
ryod group. He referred to "a period so full of squabbles" in 
his letter of January 3, 1911, and apologised to my husband 
for his unpunctuality in answering letters. 

It can be seen from his letters that Vladimir Ilyich's 
mood greatly improved after he moved to Krakow in the 
autumn of 1912. He wrote that he felt better than in Paris, 
he was resting his nerves, there was more literary work 
and fewer squabbles. The work for Pravda, the improved 
situation in working-class circles and in revolutionary work 
naturally had a beneficial effect on Vladimir Ilyich. There 
was a noticeable lessening of the squabbles, so much so 
that Gorky, Vladimir Ilyich wrote, was less unfriendly 



* Collected Works, Vol. 15, pp. 425-51.— Ed. 
** Letter No. 215. —Ed. 



APROPOS OF LENIN'S LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



57 



towards us. It will be remembered that it was shortly after 
this that Gorky became one of the editors of the Bolshevik 
journal Prosveshcheniye. 

Vladimir Ilyich wrote of the proposal for Pravda to 
publish pamphlets; he said that he was seeing more people 
from Russia and seemed to feel closer to Russia; he invited 
my husband, Mark Yelizarov, to the health resort at Za- 
kopane, saying that trains went there direct from War- 
saw; he also invited me, hinting that people living in the 
frontier zone could make the journey for thirty kopeks. 

In general he was pleased with Krakow and wrote that 
he was not thinking of moving anywhere "unless the war 
chases us away, but I do not greatly believe in the war".* 
I moved to St. Petersburg in the autumn of 1913 where 
I was employed by the Bolshevik journal Prosveshcheniye , 
the journal Rabotnitsa and also Pravda. In addition to the 
letters in invisible ink, I had at that time a considerable 
correspondence with Vladimir Ilyich on literary matters; 
they were addressed to the office of Prosveshcheniye in the 
name of Andrei Nikolayevich. Out of this official corres- 
pondence I have so far been able to recover only two letters 
that had been copied by the police and which are not 
included in this collection of letters to relatives. 

During the war, of course, letters were fewer and many 
of them were lost. The few that were preserved, even the 
postcards, touch upon questions that were most painful 
for Vladimir Ilyich. A postcard dated February 1, 1910 said, 
"We have been having 'stormy' times lately, but they have 
ended with an attempt at peace with the Mensheviks — yes, 
yes, strange as it may seem; we have closed down the fac- 
tional newspaper and are trying harder to promote unity. 
We shall see whether it can be done...."** 

The postcard of March 24, 1912 says, "...there is more 
bickering and abuse of each other than there has been for 
a long time — there has probably never been so much before. 
All the groups and sub-groups have joined forces against 
the last conference and those who organised it, so that mat- 
ters even went as far as fisticuffs at meetings here."*** 

* Letter No. 229.— Ed. 
** Letter No. 204. —Ed. 
*** Letter No. 222. -Ed. 



58 



A. I. ULYANOVA-YELIZAROVA 



In his letter of November 14, 1914 he wrote, "It is very 
sad to watch the growth of chauvinism in a number of 
countries and to see such treacherous acts as those of the 
German* (and not only the German) Marxists or pseudo- 
Marxists It stands to reason that the liberals are prais- 
ing Plekhanov again; he has fully deserved that shameful 
punishment.... I have seen the disgraceful, shameless issue 
of Sovremenny Mir.... Shame! Shame!"** 

Official correspondence in invisible ink became more 
intensive in those years, when all correspondence with the 
Central Committee was greatly reduced, and in the only 
postcard from Vladimir Ilyich that has been preserved for 
the year 1915 he thanked me "very, very, very much for the 
book, for the most interesting collection of pedagogical 
publications and for the letter". The collection of peda- 
gogical publications was "interesting", of course, on 
account of what was written between the lines in invisible 
ink. 

In Vladimir Ilyich's letters to his relatives, therefore, 
we see his comments on the struggle for the correct under- 
standing of Marxism and for its correct application at the 
various stages of development of the proletarian movement 
which he conducted throughout his life. 



Now let me try to draw some conclusions on the basis 
of these letters, to show in brief those aspects of Vladimir 
Ilyich's personality, the features of his character, that, 
in my opinion, stand out in his letters to his relatives. 

The first thing we notice (and this has been mentioned 
in the reviews of the letters published in part in Prole- 
tarskaya Revolyutsiya) is the permanence of his attach- 
ment, his enduring, unchanging attitude towards the same 
people in the course of many long years. It is true that these 
are his immediate relatives, but the permanence of his 
affection, the steadiness and stability of his character are 



* The voting of the German Social-Democrats for war credits 
on August 4, 1914. 

** Containing an article by Iordansky, "Let There Be Victory!" 
(See Letter No. 253.— Ed.) 



APROPOS OF LENIN'S LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



59 



clearly delineated in these letters. We can also see from the 
same letters the permanence of his conviction and his faith 
in his cause; in Vladimir Ilyich's letters to people who 
were close to him, such people as one could be most out- 
spoken with, there is not the slightest vacillation or doubt, 
not the slightest tendency to veer in any other direction. 

Nor do we see any traces of whining and despondency 
in him — such behaviour is, in general, not in keeping with 
his character — or any complaints about his position, be it 
in prison, in exile in Siberia or abroad, or even any sour 
note in his descriptions. Of course, this was also because 
most of the letters were addressed to mother, who had 
suffered so much on account of her children, a fact of which 
Vladimir Ilyich, who deeply loved and respected his mother, 
was profoundly aware. He felt that his own personal activi- 
ties were causing his mother a great deal of worry and pain 
and as far as lay in his power he tried to make things easier 
for her. 

His energy could be felt in letters to other members of 
the family as well, even to those who were at various times 
living apart from mother. I remember, for instance, the 
letters he wrote me between 1900 and 1902, when I was 
living abroad, and which I naturally had to destroy before 
I returned to Russia. I remember that his letters were 
always refreshing and an antidote to all depression and ner- 
vousness; they inspired enthusiasm and made one pull 
oneself together morally. His self-confidence did not, how- 
ever, crush one; it gave one energy and an urge to greater 
self-fulfilment; his witty jokes filled one with the joy of 
living and this was the best lubrication for any kind of 
work. His letters display a great sensitiveness to the mood 
of the other person and friendly, comradely attention to 
him — this can be seen in his solicitude for his mother and 
other members of the family and his solicitude for his com- 
rades — his questions and tales about them when he was 
in prison, in exile or abroad (see, for example, the letters 
of March 15 and April 5, 1897). 

At the same time one notices the simplicity and the 
natural manner of Vladimir Ilyich, his great modesty, the 
complete absence not only of conceit and boastfulness but 
of any attempt to play up the services he had rendered or to 



60 



A. I. ULYANOVA-YELIZAROVA 



show off; and this was in his youth, when some sort of show- 
ing off is natural in a talented person. For a long time he 
would not agree to call his big, fundamental monograph 
The Development of Capitalism in Russia, which, he said, 
"is too bold, too broad and promises too much ... and should 
be more modest" (February 13, 1899) and the argument that 
the book would sell better with that title he "did not like" 
either (January 10, 1899).* 

All the labour that he devoted to the study of material 
for his book on philosophy and other works while in prison, 
in exile and later when he was abroad, the writing of legal 
and illegal pamphlets and articles, many of which were 
lost — all this labour he regarded as something perfectly 
natural and normal. Here his tremendous industry, his 
natural restraint and his tenacity in carrying through what- 
ever he had undertaken are also apparent. The time limits 
fixed for The Development of Capitalism in Russia or for 
certain chapters of the book were, as a rule, kept to, as can 
be seen from the letters printed below. 

Since he was exacting to himself he was naturally exact- 
ing to others. He always gave many instructions and 
insisted on their being carried out; he trained everybody who 
at any time worked with him in the accuracy and thorough- 
ness that was his own. Vladimir Ilyich was always displeased 
with unpunctuality, with delays in work, in carrying out 
instructions or in answering letters. In his letters sent from 
exile he inveighs against Struve for his slackness in answer- 
ing; in the letters of 1908-09 he expresses his displeasure 
with Comrade Skvortsov-Stepanov for his careless reading 
of the proofs of Materialism and Empirio >- criticism , which 
he had undertaken to correct, and so on. 

From Vladimir Ilyich's letters we can also see his great 
modesty and his complete lack of fastidiousness in life, 
his ability to be content with little; no matter what con- 
ditions fate provided for him he always wrote that he need- 
ed nothing and was eating well — whether it was in Siberia 
where he had to provide everything for himself out of an 
allowance of eight rubles a month, or when he was living 
abroad and we were able to check up on him during 



See Letters Nos. 76 and 60.— Ed. 



APROPOS OF LENIN'S LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



61 



our rare visits and were always able to prove that he had 
far from enough to eat. He was always worried by the fact 
that his circumstances forced him to accept financial aid 
from mother longer than is usual, instead of helping her. 
On October 5, 1893, he wrote, "...The expenditure is still 
excessive — 38 rubles in a month. Obviously I have not 
been living carefully; in one month I have spent a ruble 
and 36 kopeks on the horse trams, for instance. When I 
get used to the place I shall probably spend less."* Later, 
too, he was worried and asked mother not to send him 
money and not to save money from her pension when he heard 
that this was what she wanted to do on learning of his strait- 
ened circumstances from a letter sent to someone else (letter 
of January 19, 1911). 

He was also embarrassed at having to take money from 
the Party, when his income from writing was not enough to 
live on. With some bitterness Vladimir Ilyich related Na- 
dezhda Krupskaya's joke that he "must have been 'pen- 
sioned off", when money came to him from Russia (Fe- 
bruary 15, 1917).** 

For reasons of economy Vladimir Ilyich tried wherever 
possible to use books from libraries. He spent next to noth- 
ing on amusements; visits to theatres and concerts were so 
rare that they could not affect his budget (see letter of Feb- 
ruary 9, 1901). Vladimir Ilyich, indeed, preferred the open 
air to social forms of recreation, where there were a lot of 
people. "Here," he wrote from Stjernsund (Finland) on his 
return from the Fifth Party Congress, "you can have a 
wonderful rest, swimming, walking, no people and no work. 
No people and no work — that is the best thing for me" 
(June 27, 1907). The walk is a pleasure although I have to 
walk about 5 versts a day, an hour's walk, he wrote from 
Siberia in 1897.*** 

With their rucksacks on their backs, he and his wife 
would wander over the mountain slopes and passes of Swit- 
zerland. He climbed in the Alps and when he lived near 
Krakow he went climbing in the Tatras. It was not only such 



♦Letter No. I.— Ed. 
** Letter No. 262.— Ed. 
*** Letters Nos. 155 and 19.— Ed. 



62 



A. I. ULYANOVA-YELIZAROVA 



outstanding beauties of nature that attracted him; he rode 
or walked round the environs of big cities such as London 
or Munich. "We are the only people among the comrades 
here who are exploring every bit of the surrounding country. 
We discover various 'rural' paths, we know all the places 
nearby and intend to go further afield."* "We find the 
road to out-of-the-way places to which none of the exiles 
ever go." He was interested in sport-shooting, skating, 
cycling and chess, and engaged in these amusements with all 
the ingenuousness of a youth or even a boy. 

He describes some of his mountain trips very vividly, 
if briefly — the trip to Saleve near Geneva, for instance, or 
his Shu-shu-shu in Siberia. 

In the letters there is also evidence of Vladimir Ilyich's 
ability to make the most of the present moment; in pris- 
on, in exile and in the worst times abroad he delved into 
scientific and theoretical problems, erected and strength- 
ened, so to speak, the scientific buttresses of the cause to 
which he devoted his life — work for the proletarian revolu- 
tion — at times when fate decreed that he must remain more 
or less aloof from direct participation. And when life brought 
him into greater contact with people — in the country, travel- 
ling, in trains — he showed his ability to take in reality, 
to understand the masses, to rise to generalisations from 
minor facts and to determine and consolidate the line that 
leads from theory and the general ideals of life to life as it 
really is and back again. He showed his ability to gather 
impressions from everywhere, from all conversations, from 
letters. We see how Vladimir Ilyich hungered after ordinary 
letters that simply drew a picture of the life around one with- 
out setting out to achieve any general aims, how hungry 
he was for them and asked for them to be sent more often. 

And, lastly, we see in these letters Vladimir Ilyich's 
ability to maintain his composure and equilibrium both 
in prison and after (see the letter with his advice to our 
sister Maria, May 19, 1901), how, after imprisonment or 
various social and political disturbances that had undermined 
this equilibrium, he would make determined efforts to 
return to normal. He realised that this equilibrium was 



Letter No. 148.— Ed. 



APROPOS OF LENIN'S LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



63 



essential for the mental or political work that was the aim 
of his life. For the same reason he spent the whole three 
years of his exile in Shushenskoye, never asking for a trans- 
fer to a town in the way most exiles did. He wrote that 
temporary visits to the town were better than permanent 
residence there. Speaking of the suicide of Fedoseyev he 
wrote, "For people in exile, these 'exile scandals' are the 
worst thing of all." "No, don't wish me comrades from 
among the intellectuals in Shushenskoye — I'd rather not!" 
(January 24, 1898).* 

In bringing to a close this brief indication of the traits 
and peculiarities in the character of Vladimir Ilyich which, 
in my opinion, are shown by the letters to his relatives 
published below, I hope that they will help the reader to 
gain a clearer picture and a closer understanding of Vla- 
dimir Ilyich as a person. 

A. Ulyanova-Yelizarova 



♦Letters Nos. 53 and 38.— Ed. 




V. I. LENIN 

1897 



65 



1893 



1 

TO HIS MOTHER 1 

October 5 

Yesterday, Mother dearest, I received your letter of 
October 2. At long last I have found myself a good room, or 
so it seems; there are no other lodgers and the landlady 
has a small family; the door between my room and their 
drawing-room is papered over, so that sounds are faint. 
The room is clean and light. There is a good entrance. Since, 
in addition, it is not far from the centre (only some 15 
minutes' walk from the library) I am quite satisfied. 

I saw Tillo yesterday and today. He did not get the 
ticket and, unfortunately, cannot get it because the person 
he was counting on is not here. Incidentally, he says that 
when his own position in the provisional railway admin- 
istration is more secure, perhaps he will be able to. That, 
it seems, will not be soon. 

I went to Volkov Cemetery soon after my arrival — 
everything, the cross and wreath, is intact. 2 

Your loving, 

V. Ulyanov 

Please send me some money, mine is nearly at an end.* 
I have been informed from Samara that the fee for the Grafov 
case (the Kazan case that I conducted in Samara) has been 
promised for November. That will give me 70 rubles (if 
the promise is fulfilled, and what chance there is of that, 
I don't know). I have been promised a job in a consulting 
lawyer's office here, but when that will be arranged (and 
whether it will be arranged) I do not know. 



* I shall have to pay 10 rubles when I am appointed assistant, 
which should be soon. 



66 



V. I. LENIN 



Write and tell me about the state of your finances; did 
you get anything from Auntie? Did you get the September 
rent from Krushvits? Is there much left of the deposit 
(500 rubles) after moving and settling down? 3 

I am now, for the first time in St. Petersburg, keeping 
a cash-book to see how much I actually spend. It turned 
out that for the month August 28 to September 27 I spent 
altogether 54 rubles 30 kopeks, not including payment for 
things (about 10 rubles) and expenses for a court case (also 
about 10 rubles) which I shall probably conduct. It is true 
that part of this 54 rubles was spent on things that do not 
have to be bought every month (galoshes, clothes, books, 
an abacus, etc.), but even discounting that (16 rubles), 
the expenditure is still excessive — 38 rubles in a month. 
Obviously I have not been living carefully; in one month 
I have spent a ruble and 36 kopeks on the horse trams, for 
instance. When I get used to the place I shall probably 
spend less. 



Written October 5, 1893 
Sent from St. Petersburg to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



67 



2 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 4 

Manyasha,* 

I read with interest your letter of September 27 and 
would be very glad if you would write to me occasionally. 

I have not been to the Hermitage Museum or to theatres., 
I somehow do not want to go alone. In Moscow I shall be 
glad to go to the Tretyakov Gallery and other places with you. 

I read Russkiye Vedomosti 5 ** (two weeks old) in the 
Public Library. When I get a job here perhaps I will sub- 
scribe to it. It is not worth while saving them for me, but 
I think they should not be torn up too soon — there may 
be something interesting that will be needed. 

From what you say about the French teacher I see that 
if the Moscow schoolgirls are ahead of you it is not by very 
much. The average girl probably doesn't know the lan- 
guage any better than you? Write and tell me whether you 
spend a lot of time doing your homework. 

Tell Mitya 6 *** that he should tell the bookseller to go to 
hell if he asks 25 rubles for Klyuchevsky — he should not pay 
more than 4 rubles. 7 How is Mitya getting on with his studies? 

Till we meet, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Can you read my writing? 

Written in October 1893 
Sent from St. Petersburg to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



* Manyasha — one of the many pet names formed from 
Maria.— Ed. 

** Translations of the titles of books, articles and periodicals men- 
tioned in the letters will be found in the Index of Literary Works 
and Sources given as an appendix to this volume. — Ed. 
*** Mitya— the pet name for Dmitry.— Ed. 



68 



1894 



3 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

December 13, 1894 

I have not had a letter from home for a long time. How 
are you, Manyasha? They did write that you are going to 
school again. 

You ought to force yourself to take a walk for about two 
hours every day. It is not worth while poring over your 
lessons so industriously — you will ruin your health. 

What do you do apart from school work? What are you 
reading? Do you see M. I.?* Is she going to the Crimea or 
not? And write to me, if it is convenient, about what hap- 
pened to Klyuchevsky at the University. They say he 
delivered a lecture of some sort and then published a book. 
I have not seen even the title of the book — it would be 
interesting to know about it. 8 

How is your new acquaintanceship proceeding? 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I wrote a long time ago asking someone to find out about 
Volume III of Capital. It has been promised me (an acquaint- 
ance,** whom Mark 9 knows). Now I do not know anything. 
Will he fulfil his promise? Does he still promise or does 
he now refuse? I should like to know because it is not easy 
to get that book. Tell Mark this, please. 

Regards to everybody. 



* Did she get my letter? 
**It is not known who is referred to. It may have been R. E. Zim- 
mermann (Gvozdyov), whom Mark Yelizarov knew in Samara, or it 
may have been V. A. Yonov. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



69 



Is Mother well? Kiss her for me. 

I shall be expecting a letter from you. 

Tell Anyuta 10 * I have been to Al. Andreyevich and it 
was a waste of time. He has received a promise and is wait- 
ing, but whether he will wait in vain or not, nobody knows. 



Sent from St. Petersburg to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



* Anyuta — one of the many pet names formed from Anna. — Ed. 



70 



4 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

December 24 

Manyasha, 

At last I have found time to answer your letter of the 
15th. 

I cannot agree with your views of the school and your 
studies. 

First — the doctor said don't go till Christmas and you 
think it will not be convenient to miss your lessons. People 
miss months, not only weeks; it will not be any better if 
you have to take to your bed by the spring. 

Secondly — you write that either you will stop studying 
altogether or, if you go on, you can't be "just off-hand 
about it". It seems to me that the main thing now is to 
graduate. For that there is no sense in working extra hard; 
what does it matter if you get threes* and an occasional 
two* by way of exception? In any case you will get your 
remove since you had good marks in the first and second 
terms. And that is all you need. Moreover, since you did 
everything thoroughly at the beginning, you will finish 
up well even if you do no homework. You must agree that 
those who go all the way through with threes do not, first, 
do their homework and, second, do not know the first thing 
about the subject. [At least that is how it was at my school.] 
So you will have an advantage over them. 

It seems to me that your only chance of finishing the 
course is to be "off-hand" about it. If you don't, you will 
be seriously ill by summer. 



In Russian schools a mark of "three" = fair, "two" = poor. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



71 



If you cannot take things easy, then it is better to give 
up studying and go abroad. You will always be able to 
graduate and a trip now will freshen you up, enliven you, 
and get you away from moping at home. You will have a 
chance to look around and stay on there to learn something 
more interesting than Ilovaisky's History or Filaret's Cate- 
chism (?). 

Do you take good walks now? Probably not. Why shouldn't 
you go skating? Again you'll say, "It's dull". But you 
must not allow yourself to get so weak — that will be even 
less "amusing". You must force yourself. 

About Shelgunov, I agree with you that some of his 
things are out of date. Which of his articles do you like? 
On Russian or historical problems? On economics or philos- 
ophy? 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Written December 24, 1894 
Sent from St. Petersburg to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



72 



1895 



5 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Salzburg, May 14 (2), 1895 

I am making use of a two-hour stop at a small Austrian 
town (not far,* now, from my destination) to fulfil my 
promise to write on the way. 11 

This is my second day of travel abroad and I am practis- 
ing the language; I have discovered that I am weak at this 
and have the greatest difficulty in understanding the Ger- 
mans — or rather, / don't understand them at all.** I ask 
the guard on the train a question, he answers and I don't 
understand him. He repeats the answer more loudly. I still 
don't understand, and so he gets angry and goes away. In 
spite of this disgraceful fiasco I am not discouraged and 
continue distorting the German language with some zeal. 

Regards to all, 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

I shall probably not be able to write another letter very 
soon. 

Sent to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



*A little over 24 hours. 
** Their pronunciation is so strange and they speak so quickly 
that I do not understand even the simplest words. 




M. A. ULYANOVA 
1898 



73 



6 

TO HIS MOTHER 

May 20 (8) 

I wrote the last letter on the way here. Now I have settled 
down in one place. I do not think, however, that it will 
be for long as I shall be moving on somewhere. 

The scenery here is splendid, I am enjoying it all the 
time. The Alps began immediately after the little German 
station I wrote to you from; then came the lakes and I 
could not tear myself away from the window of the railway 
carriage; if I could find out something about local condi- 
tions and prices (one could surely put up cheaply in the 
country districts) it would perhaps be possible to spend the 
summer here. The fare is not much and the scenery is splendid. 

I have seen my god-daughter and her family. 12 We 
spoke, incidentally, on the subject of prices which Mark 
raised.* I seems that servants are very expensive here — 
25 to 30 francs a month, all found — and they have to be 
fed well. 

Have you found a place for the summer at last? I do 
not need the address, I suppose, because I can always write 
to Mark, but I should like....** 

Written May 20, 1895 
Sent from Switzerland to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



*I am now fixed up... (The continuation of the footnote was on 
the second page of the letter which has been lost. — Ed.) 
** The rest of the letter has been lost.— Ed. 



74 



7 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Paris, 8 juin 95 

I received your letter just before I left for Paris. It is 
a pity things turned out so badly over Mitya's illness; 
I don't understand how they can refuse to postpone his 
examination if he has a doctor's certificate to the effect 
that he has been ill. Why doesn't he want to take the matter 
further? Why should he lose a year? 

Manyasha is probably finishing or has finished her exam- 
inations by now. She ought to have a good rest this summer. 

I am only just beginning to look round me a bit in Paris; 
it is a huge city, spread out a good deal, so that the suburbs 
(where I spend most of my time) give you no idea of the 
centre. It makes a very pleasant impression — broad, light 
streets, many boulevards, and lots of greenery; the people 
are quite unrestrained in their manners — at first it comes 
as rather a surprise after one had been accustomed to the 
sedateness and primness of St. Petersburg. 

I shall have to spend several weeks here to see it properly. 

Lodgings here are very cheap; for instance, 30 to 35 francs 
a month for two rooms and a kitchen, 6 to 10 francs a week 
for a furnished room — so I hope to get fixed up without 
spending too much. 

Regards to all, 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Are you satisfied with your place in the country?* 

Sent to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



The end of the letter has been lost. — Ed. 



75 



8 

TO HIS MOTHER 

18 juillet (July 6), 1895 

I wrote my last letter, unless I am mistaken, on the 
8th. Since then I have wandered about quite a lot and have 
landed up at a Swiss spa; I have decided to take advantage of 
the fact and get down seriously to the treatment of the ill- 
ness (stomach) that I am so fed up with, especially as the 
doctor who runs the place has been strongly recommended 
to me as a specialist in his field. I have been living at this 
spa for several days and feel not at all bad; the board is 
excellent and the treatment seems to be effective, so I hope 
to get away from here in four or five days. The cost of living 
here, as far as I can see, is very high; treatment is still 
more expensive, and I have already exceeded my budget 
and no longer expect to manage on my own resources. If 
you can, send me another 100 rubles or so to this address: 
Suisse, Zurich. Parterre. Seilergraben, 37. H-n Griinfest 13 
[nothing else; there is no need for anything to be passed 
on to me].* In any case I shall await an answer at this 
address and shall not send you my address because it would 
be useless — anyway, I shall be leaving here before I get an 
answer. 

How did you enjoy your journey down the Volga? What 
was new there? Is everybody well? A letter has probably 
been sent me, but I have not yet received it [the last news 
I had was from Mark, in Paris — a postcard], because I have 



* The best way to send money is in a registered envelope, through 
the post. 



76 



V. I. LENIN 



been on the move all the time. If it was sent to the Paris 
address I shall receive it. 

Are you having a hot summer? Here it is very hot, but 
I am now living in a good place, a long way from the town, 
amid greenery and close to a big lake. 



Regards to all, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Switzerland to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



77 



9 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Berlin, den 10. August 1895 
I do not know whether you received my last letter which 
I sent from here about a week ago. I will repeat my address, 
just in case: Berlin, Moabit, Flensburgerstrasse, 12 n (bei 
Frau Kurreick) Herrn W. Ulianoff. 

I am fixed up here very well — a few steps away from 
me is the Tiergarten (a splendid park, the best and biggest 
in Berlin), the Spree, where I bathe every day, and a station 
of the urban railway. There is a railway here that traverses 
the whole town (above the streets). The trains run every 
five minutes, so it is easy for me to go "to town" (Moabit, 
where I am living, is actually considered a suburb). 

The only bad thing is the language — I understand far 
less conversational German than French. The pronunciation 
of the Germans is so unlike what I am accustomed to that 
I do not even understand public speeches, although in France 
I understood practically everything in such speeches from 
the very outset. The day before yesterday I was at the 
theatre; they played Hauptmann's The Weavers. Although 
I had read the whole play beforehand in order to be able 
to follow it, I could not catch all the phrases. Still, I am not 
discouraged and only regret that I have too little time to 
study the language thoroughly. 

Regards to all, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

If you have already sent me some money, please write 
and let me know immediately; if not, send it here. 

I have had no letters from you for such a long time, 
probably because they (the letters) are following me around 
in my wanderings. 

Sent to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



78 



10 

TO HIS MOTHER 

August 29, 1895 

I received your letter a few days ago, Mother dearest, 
and today I also got a letter from Mark to whom I am writ- 
ing a short postscript. 

I am still living in the same way and am so far pleased 
with Berlin. I feel very well — perhaps the regular life [I 
got tired of moving from place to place and, travelling 
like that, I did not manage to eat properly or regularly], 
the bathing and so on, according to doctor's orders, are 
having their effect. I am still working in the Konigliche 
Bibliothek* and in the evenings I wander about studying 
the Berlin mores and listening to German speech. I am 
now getting used to it and understand it somewhat better 
than before, but still very, very poorly. 

I am lazy about visiting the Berlin Sehenswiirdigkeiten**; 
I have little taste for such things in general and in most 
cases have seen them only by accident. In general, I much 
prefer wandering around and seeing the evening amuse- 
ments and pastimes of the people to visiting museums, 
theatres, shopping centres, etc. 

I do not think I shall be staying here long — "visiting 
is all very well, but there is no place like home". 

I am going to remain here for a while, however, and to 
my great horror see that I am again in financial "difficul- 
ties"; the "temptation" to buy books, etc., is so great that 



Royal Library (Ger.). — Ed. 
Sights (Ger.).— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



79 



the devil alone knows where the money goes. I must again 
appeal for "philanthropy"; if you can, send me from 50 to 
100 rubles. 

Mark writes that your housing situation is tragic — there 
is nothing at all to let. In this respect Moscow, it seems, 
is worse than St. Petersburg. All this bother about a flat 
is very unpleasant. I hope you soon get it settled. 



Regards to all, 



Yours, 



V. Ulyanov 



Sent from Berlin to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



80 



11 

TO HIS MOTHER 

September 7 (August 26), 1895 

Today I received your letter with the money, Mother 
dearest, and thank you for it. I am surprised to hear of 
such a great difference in the weather; you write that it is 
cold in Moscow, but here it is hotter than it was all through 
August, so I thought you were probably still living in the 
country. 

There have been no changes in my way of life here and 
I have got so used to it that I feel myself almost at home 
and would willingly stay longer; but the time has come 
to leave and I am beginning to think of various practical 
problems like buying things and a suitcase, and about 
tickets, etc. Is there anything I can bring you? I can buy 
anything here in some big shop; it seems to me manufac- 
tured goods here are cheaper than ours and probably better. 
Perhaps Mitya needs some books — let him write [for 
instance he may need some album of anatomy, or something 
else to do with medicine] and Manyasha, too. If she has noth- 
ing in mind, you or Anyuta advise me what to bring her. 
I feel I should be buying all sorts of stuff....* 

Sent from Berlin to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



The rest of the letter has been lost. — Ed. 



81 



12 

TO HIS MOTHER 

December 5, 1895 

I received a letter from Anyuta yesterday, Mother dearest, 
in which she told me that you are thinking of going with the 
Ardashevs 14 to Kazan, and I hasten to write to you. 

The Ardashevs intended leaving today. D. A. has suggest- 
ed that I take on the business of proving one of his relatives' 
right to an inheritance, although we have not yet come 
to a complete agreement. 

Life goes on as usual. I am not very pleased with the 
room, first, because of the landlady's fault-finding, and 
second — it seems that the next room is separated from 
mine by only a thin partition, so that everything can be 
heard and sometimes I have to run away from the balalaika 
with which my neighbour amuses himself right in my ear. 
Up to now, this has fortunately not happened very often. 
He is out most of the time, and then the rooms are very 
quiet. 

I do not yet know whether I shall stay here for another 
month. 15 I'll see. In any case when the lease of my room 
runs out at Christmas it will not be difficult to find 
another. 

The weather is very fine here now and my new overcoat 
is just right for this season.* 



Sent from St. Petersburg to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



The rest of the letter has been lost. — Ed. 



82 



1896 



13 

TO A. K. CHEBOTARYOVA 16 

January 2, 1896 

I have a plan that has occupied my mind ever since I 
was arrested, and the more I think of it the more interested 
I become. I have long been engaged on a certain economic 
problem (on the sale of manufactured goods on the home 
market). I had gathered some literature on the subject, 
drawn up a plan of operations, and had even written some- 
thing, expecting to publish as a book if the size exceeds that 
of an article for a journal. I am very anxious not to aban- 
don this work but I am apparently now faced with the 
alternative — either write it here or give it up altogether. 

I am well aware that the plan to write it here will meet 
with many serious obstacles. Perhaps, however, it is 
worth while trying. 

Obstacles that one might call "independent" will, I think, 
be removed. Prisoners are allowed to do literary work; I 
made a special point of asking the prosecutor about this, 
although I knew beforehand (even convicts in prison are 
allowed to write). He also confirmed that there is no limit 
to the number of books I may receive. Books, moreover, 
may be returned; consequently one can make use of libra- 
ries. And so everything is all right from that point of view. 

There are other, more serious obstacles — getting the books. 
I need a lot of books — I am giving a list below of those which 
I have in mind at present — and to obtain them will require 
a considerable amount of trouble. I do not even know wheth- 
er they can all be obtained. It will probably be all right 
to count on the library of the Free Economic Society, 17 * 



I have taken books from there and left a deposit of 16 rubles. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



83 



which allows books to be taken away for two months on 
payment of a deposit, but that library is not very complete. 
If it were possible to use (through some writer or professor*) 
the University library or the library of the learned commit- 
tee of the Ministry of Finance, the question of obtaining 
books would be settled. Some books would have to be 
bought, of course, and I think I can allot a certain sum 
for that. 

The last and most difficult problem is that of delivering 
the books. It is not merely a matter of bringing a couple 
of books or so; at regular intervals, over a lengthy period 
they will have to be obtained from the libraries, brought 
here** and taken back. That is something I do not yet 
know how to arrange. Unless it can be done this way — find 
some door porter or janitor, or a messenger or some boy 
whom I could pay to go for books. The exchange of books — 
because of the conditions under which I work and also 
because of the terms on which books are lent from the libra- 
ry — would, of course, have to be done correctly and punc- 
tually, so all that must be arranged. 

"Easier said than done" I have a very strong feeling 

that this business will not be easy to carry out and that my 
"plan" may turn out to be more fantasy. Perhaps you will 
think it useful to pass this letter on to somebody, to get 
some advice — and I will await an answer. 

The book list is divided into the two parts into which 
my essay is divided: A. The general theoretical part. This 
requires fewer books and I hope, at any rate, to write this 
part, even though it requires greater preparation. B. The 
application of theoretical postulates to Russian data. This 
part requires very many books. The chief difficulties will 
be caused by (1) publications of local authorities — some of 
them, incidentally, I have; some can be ordered (minor 
monographs) and some can be obtained through statisticians 
with whom we, are acquainted; (2) government publica- 
tions — the records made by commissions, the reports and. 

* Lenin had in mind P. B. Struve, A. N. Potresov and their 
connections. — Ed. 

** I think that once a fortnight would be enough, or perhaps, 
even, once a month — if a larger number of books were delivered at 
a time. 



84 



V. I. LENIN 



minutes of congresses, etc. This is very important; it is 
more difficult to get these. Some of them, probably most of 
them, are in the library of the Free Economic Society. 

The list I am appending is a long one, because it is drawn 
up for work on an extensive scale.* If it should turn out 
that certain books, or certain classes of books, cannot be 
obtained, I shall have to narrow down the subject somewhat 
to suit the situation. This is quite possible, especially as 
concerns the second part. 

I have omitted from the list books that are in the library 
here; those that I have are marked with a cross. 

Since I am quoting from memory I may have mixed up 
some of the titles and in such cases I have placed (?) against 



* If it is possible to work on this scale, the list will, of course, be 
considerably extended in the course of the work. 

** The list of books appended to the letter has been lost. — Ed. 



them. 



Sent from the remand prison 
in St. Petersburg 

First published in 1924 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 3 



Printed from 
the original 



85 



14 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

January 12, 1896 

I got your parcel yesterday and just before yours some- 
body else brought me food of all kinds, so I have now got 
quite a stock — I could, for instance, start trading in tea, 
but I don't think it would be allowed because I should 
certainly win the competition with the shop here. I eat 
very little bread, I try to maintain something of a diet — and 
you brought such enormous quantities that I think it will 
last me almost a week and get as hard as the Sunday pie at 
Oblomovka. 18 

I now have everything I need, and even more than I 
need.* My health is quite satisfactory. I even get my 
mineral water here — it is brought to me from the chemists' 
on the day I order it. I sleep about nine hours a day and 
see various chapters of my future book in my sleep. 

Is Mother well, and all the rest of our family? Give my 
regards to everyone. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

If you should happen to be here at any time, please bring 
me a pencil, one with the lead in a metal holder. The ordi- 
nary pencils, made of wood, are a nuisance here — knives are 
not allowed. I have to ask the warders to sharpen pencils 



* Someone, for instance, brought me a frock coat, waistcoat and 
travelling rug. All this was immediately "dispatched" to the store- 
room as superfluous. 



86 



V. I. LENIN 



and they don't do such jobs willingly and never without 
procrastination. 

I should like to get the enema in an oval box that is* 
in the drawer of my wardrobe. This should not be impos- 
sible, even without a letter of attorney; push 25 kopeks into 
the landlady's hand and tell her to take a cab and come here 
to deliver it and get a signature for it. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, this highly respected matron is as stubborn as Koro- 
bochka.** At present there is no urgent need of it, so it is 
not worth buying one. 

Sent from the remand prison 
in St. Petersburg 

First published in 1931 Printed from 

in Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 



* Perhaps it would be better to say "was". 
**A character from Gogol's Dead Souls who haggled over the price 
she was to receive for serfs long dead. — Ed. 



87 



15 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

January 14, 1896 

Yesterday I received your letter of the 12th and am 
sending you a second letter of attorney. Actually I am 
not sure it is necessary; yesterday I got some of my things, 
which made me think my first letter giving power of attor- 
ney had been received. In any case I am sending one, in 
answer to your letter and Alexandra Kirillovna's. Now I 
have underclothes and everything — quite enough; do not 
send any underclothes as there is nowhere to keep 
them. But they can be sent to the storeroom, so as to end 
the matter once and for all. 

I am very thankful to A. K. for the trouble she took about 
the dentist; I am ashamed of having caused so much bother. 
The dentist does not require a special pass because the pro- 
secutor has already given permission and I did not even 
write to the dentist until I had received it. The day and 
time he comes does not matter. I cannot guarantee that I 
will not be absent — under interrogation, for instance — but 
I think the sooner he comes the greater the chance of avoid- 
ing that obstacle, which is not likely to occur in any case. 
I shall not write to Mr. Dobkovich (the dentist, assistant 
to Vazhinsky); he lives next to my former lodgings (Gore- 
khovaya, 59) and perhaps you will go to him and explain 
matters. 

Regarding my own books, I have sent a list of those I 
should like to get.* Thanks for the books by Golovin and 
Schippel sent yesterday. From my own books I must add 



The book list has been lost. — Ed. 



88 



V. I. LENIN 



only dictionaries. I am doing a translation from the Ger- 
man* and would ask you to send me Pavlovsky's diction- 
ary. 

I was sent some underclothes, apparently not mine; 
they must be returned. When you are here you must ask 
them to bring you the underclothes and things I don't need— 
and I will hand them over. 

I am quite well. 

V. Ulyanov 

I am very glad to hear that Mother and Mark are better 
now. 



Sent from the remand prison 
in St. Petersburg 

First published in 1931 Printed from 

in Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 



It has not been established what translation this refers to. — Ed. 



89 



16 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

January 16, 1896 

Yesterday I received your letter of the 14th and hasten 
to answer it, although there is not much hope of your receiv- 
ing my reply before Thursday. 19 

I have already written about the need to return some 
underclothes that do not belong to me. I have got the things 
together and you must now ask for them when you are 
here, or tell whoever comes to ask for them in your name. 
I am not returning all of the things, because some are in 
the wash (perhaps you will ask somebody to get the rest 
later); I have allowed myself to keep, for the time being, 
a travelling rug that has done me excellent service here. 

I have obtained information about the books; a small 
box may be left in the storeroom here.* It is not, of course, 
worth while sending all my books here. Some of the books 
in the list you sent me are not mine — for example, Fabrich- 
naya promyshlennost, Kobelyatsky — these are Alexandra 
Kirillovna's and I think I took another book from her. 
Then the publications of the Saratov Zemstvo 20 and the 
Zemstvo statistical reports for Voronezh Gubernia were lent 
me, I believe, by some statistician. Perhaps you will find 
out whether they can be kept for a time. It is not worth 
while bringing them here. Pogozhev and Sbornik obyazatel- 
nikh postanovleni po SPB are not mine either, I think 
(could they be from the library?). The legal codes and 



* You can put a few clothes in there, too — an overcoat and suit, 
a hat. The waistcoat, frock coat and rug that were brought me can be 
taken back. 



90 



V. I. LENIN 



textbooks are obviously not needed at all. At the moment 
the only books I should like you to bring me are Ricardo, 
Beltov, N. — on, Ingram, and Foville. The Zemstvo publica- 
tions (Tver, Nizhny Novgorod and Saratov) should be count- 
ed and be tied up in a bundle,* but do not bother to list 
them; I think you can also deliver that bundle to the store- 
room. Then you will be finished with my books and not 
have to bother about them again. I shall be able to get the 
books from the storeroom (after they have been examined). 

I am afraid I am causing you too much trouble. Please 
do not work too hard, especially in delivering books accord- 
ing to the list; there will be time for everything, and at the 
moment I have enough books. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Please add some pillow-slips and towels to the list of linen. 

I am re-reading Shelgunov with interest and am busy 
with Tugan-Baranovsky; he has published a sound piece 
of research but his diagrams, those at the end, for instance, 
are so confused that I must confess I do not understand 
them; I shall have to get Volume II of Capital. 



Sent from the remand prison 
in St. Petersburg 

First published in 1924 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 3 the original 



together with the Military Statistical Returns and the Summary. 



91 



1897 



17 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Ob Station. March 2 21 

I am writing to you once more while I am on my way, 
Mother dearest. The halt here is a long one and there is 
nothing to do, and I have decided to write yet another 
letter en route, my third. I still have two more days' journey 
ahead of me. I drove across the Ob in a horse-sleigh and 
bought tickets to Krasnoyarsk. Since traffic here is still 
"temporary", I had to pay the old rates, which meant 
handing over 10 rubles for a ticket and 5 rubles for luggage 
for something like 700 versts! The way the trains run here 
is beyond all bounds. To do that 700 versts we shall crawl 
for forty-eight hours. Beyond Krasnoyarsk, the railway 
goes only as far as Kansk, i.e., for 220 versts — and alto- 
gether to Irkutsk it is about 1,000 versts. And so I shall 
have to go on by road — if I have to go at all. Another 24 
hours is taken up by those 220 versts on the railway; the 
further you go, the slower the trains crawl along. 

You have to use a horse-sleigh to cross the Ob because 
the bridge is not ready, although its skeleton has been built. 
The crossing was not too bad — but I was able to manage 
without warm (or rather the warmest) clothing only because 
it was a short one — less than an hour. If I have to go to 
my destination by road (and I most probably shall have to), 
I shall obviously have to acquire a sheepskin coat, felt boots 
and even, perhaps, a fur cap (you see how spoiled I was in 
Russia! But how else am I expected to travel by sleigh?). 

Despite the devilish slowness of the journey it has tired 
me far less than I expected. I may even say that I am hard- 
ly tired at all. I am surprised at this myself, because before 



92 



V. I. LENIN 



this a journey of some three days from Samara to St. Peters- 
burg would wear me out. The fact of the matter most prob- 
ably is that I sleep very well every night without exception. 
The country covered by the West-Siberian Railway that I 
have just travelled throughout its entire length (1,300 versts 
from Chelyabinsk to Krivoshchokovo — three days) is astonish- 
ingly monotonous — bare, bleak steppe. No sign of life, no 
towns, very rarely a village or a patch of forest — and for 
the rest, all steppe. Snow and sky — and nothing else for 
the whole three days. They say that further on there will 
be taiga, and after that, beginning at Achinsk, mountains. 
The air in the steppe, however, is wonderful; breathing is 
so easy. There is a hard frost, more than twenty degrees 
below, but it is easier to bear here than in Russia. It does 
not seem to me that it is twenty below. The Siberians say 
it is because the air is "soft", and that makes the frost easier 
to bear. Quite probably it is so. 

In the train I met the Arzt* that Anyuta visited in St. 
Petersburg. I learned a few things from him about Krasno- 
yarsk, etc., that will be useful to me. He said that I should 
definitely be able to stay there for a few days. That is what 
I think of doing, in order to find out what my position in 
the future will be. If I send a telegram "staying a few days" 
that will mean that the length of my stay is not known 
even to me. And so I shall wait there for the doctor,** meet 
him, and if I do have to go on to Irkutsk, we shall go together. 
According to that same person, I cannot expect any delay 
in my being appointed a place; most probably it has been 
decided already because the whole thing is arranged 
beforehand. And so, until next time. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Regards to all. 

P.S. Accuse me of anything you like except infrequent 
letters! When there is something to write about — I write 
very often. 



V. M. Krutovsky.— Ed. 
Y. M. Lyakhovsky.—Sd. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



93 



My talk with the Arzt has made very much clear to me 
(even if only approximately), and for this reason I feel 
quite calm; I have left my nervousness behind in Moscow. 
It was due to the uncertainty, nothing more. Now there 
is less uncertainty and I therefore feel better. 

Written on March 2, 1897 
Sent to Moscow 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 



Printed from 
the original 



94 



18 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 



Manyasha, 



I got your letter from the doctor and was very glad to 
have some news from home. I have received the bag Mother 
sent and think it will be very convenient. I shall probably 
take advantage of your proposal to make extracts from 
books in the Rumyantsev Library. 23 Yesterday I managed 
to find the famous local library belonging to Yudin, who 
gave me a hearty welcome and showed me his collection. 
He gave me permission to work in the library and I think 
I shall be able to. (There are two obstacles in the way; 
first, his library is outside the town, although the distance 
is short, about two versts, so it will make a pleasant walk; 
second, the library is not fully organised, so I may be a 
nuisance to the owner by making frequent requests for 
books.) We'll see how it works out in practice. I think the 
second obstacle, too, will be removed. I have not seen all 
his library by far, but in any case it is an excellent collec- 
tion of books. There are, for example, complete sets of 
journals (the most important) from the end of the eighteenth 
century up to date. I hope I shall be able to make use of 
them for the information I need so much for my work. 

I see from the newspapers that in the spring fast trains 
will be coming here — 8 days from Paris* to Krasnoyarsk, 
which means six days from Moscow. It will then be much 
more convenient to correspond. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Written on March 10, 1897 
Sent from Krasnoyarsk to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 



Printed from 
the original 



* 



Obviously St. Petersburg was meant. — Ed. 



95 



19 

TO HIS MOTHER 

March 15, 1897 

All this time I have been on the look-out for letters from 
you, Mother dearest, but so far in vain; enquiries at the post 
office tell me nothing. I am beginning to think that you 
have not written to me because you are waiting for the 
telegram I did not manage to send on arrival. In view 
of the great length of postage time between us (i.e., letters 
taking too long en route), you must write without waiting 
for an address. If I am sent away from here I will leave word 
at the post office for letters to be forwarded. So please write 
to me more often to the last address known to you — I am 
miserable without letters from home. All I have had is 
Manyasha's note, brought by the doctor. 

Today I said good-bye to the doctor. He went on to Ir- 
kutsk. He was not allowed to stay here any longer, i.e., 
the local authorities would not allow it. So far I am not 
being troubled and I do not think they can bother me 
because I have sent an application to the Governor-General 
and am now awaiting a reply. Incidentally, it is not abso- 
lutely impossible that I, too, shall have to make that journey. 
In these parts the spring thaw is considered to begin from 
today and a journey by post horses becomes more expensive 
and more difficult. The weather is excellent, real spring 
weather. I spend my time here in two ways — first, in visit- 
ing Yudin's library, and second, in getting to know the 
town of Krasnoyarsk and its inhabitants (many of them 
exiles). 24 I go to the library every day and since it is two 
versts from the outskirts of the town I have to walk some 
five versts; it takes about an hour. I am very glad to have 
the walk and enjoy it, although it sometimes makes me quite 



96 



V. I. LENIN 



sleepy. There turned out to be far fewer books on my subject 
in the library than might have been expected from its gen- 
eral size; nevertheless there are some that are useful to 
me and I am very glad that I do not have to waste my time 
here completely. I also visit the town library, where I can 
see journals and newspapers that arrive here on the eleventh 
day after publication, but I cannot get used to such old 
"news". If I have to live a few hundred versts from here, 
the post will take still longer and it will be still more neces- 
sary to write frequently without waiting for a reply; if you 
wait for a reply it will be more than a month! 

It is a great pity nothing is known about the party. 25 
I have quite given up expecting a telegram from Anyuta 
and have decided that either she has not been able to find 
out anything, or that there has been a delay. I have heard 
that no more columns are to come here on foot, which 
means that the party will come by rail. If that is so, I cannot 
understand why they are being delayed in Moscow. Will 
it be possible to pass books on? Food? Letters? If these 
questions are not too late I should be very glad to get an 
answer to them from Anyuta. 

March 16. I missed the post yesterday. The train for Rus- 
sia leaves here late at night, but the station is a long way 
away. 

Many kisses for you and my regards to everyone. Tomor- 
row, perhaps, I shall try at last to send off to Anyuta the 
books that were borrowed for a short time. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Did my letter with the address arrive? Just in case, I 
shall repeat it — Bolshekachenskaya Street, House of Klav- 
diya Popova. You may also write Poste restante and I 
will ask for letters at the post office. When I leave here, 
letters will be forwarded. 

Sent from Krasnoyarsk to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 the original 



97 



20 

TO HIS MOTHER 

March 26, 1897 

At last, Mother dearest, I have received news of you 
and am very glad. First, I have received a telegram in 
answer to mine. I had inquired at the station but there 
was nothing there. The Schwester* found your letter there 
later, and Anyuta's must, therefore, have been lost. Second- 
ly, I got a telegram just after nine yesterday evening say- 
ing they were leaving, was overjoyed about it and ran head- 
long to the Schwester to share my joy with her. Now we are 
counting the days and are "travelling" by the mailtrain 
that left Moscow on the 25th. The last telegram I understood 
to mean that they are travelling at their own expense, other- 
wise it would not have been signed by Glob. I think he has 
also sent a telegram to his mother 26 in Chelyabinsk, other- 
wise he might travel past her while she is sitting and wait- 
ing for news! (The Schwester' 's letter to her was posted not 
long ago, so she will probably not yet have left.) I am very 
thankful to Manyasha for her letter and for the extracts 
from letters received. I am enclosing herewith a reply to 
one of those extracts — let Manyasha deal with it as before. 
I count on exploiting her further for letter-writing and 
even for literary work. You may send me books and letters 
here; I don't know yet when they'll chase me out and whore 
to. It would probably be better to send them to the Schwes- 
ter, and register the more important ones for there seems to 
be a terrible lot of carelessness at the post office here and 
letters, apparently, get lost (to that, I suppose, must be 
added outside hindrances**). 

* A. M. Rosenberg, G. M. Krzhizhanovsky's sister.— Ed. 
** A reference to the tsarist censorship.— Ed. 



98 



V. I. LENIN 



There is nothing new I can write about myself; my life 
goes on as usual. I stroll to the library outside town, I stroll 
in the neighbourhood, I stroll round to my acquaintances 
and sleep enough for two — in short, everything is as it 
should be. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I am sending Anyuta a list of those books I should very 
much like to obtain and which, it seems, can be bought only 
in the St. Petersburg second-hand bookshops, so you will 
have to write to the director* and ask him to do it or get 
somebody else to. I am very angry with myself for getting 
one name wrong (or rather, one year) in a letter from the 
remand prison, and making Anyuta travel about for noth- 
ing. Could not a search also be made in the Moscow 
libraries? Perhaps they are to be found somewhere. 

1. Yezhegodnik Ministerstva finansov, St. Petersburg, 
1869, First Issue. 

2. Statistichesky vremennik Rossiiskoi imperii, published 
by the Central Statistical Committee of the Ministry of the 
Interior. 

Second Series, Sixth Issue: Materialy dlya statistiki 
fabrichno-zavodskoi promyshlennosti v Yevropeiskoi Rossii 
za 1868 god. Edited by I. Bock. St. Petersburg, 1872. 

3. Statistichesky atlas glavneishikh otraslei fabrichno-za- 
vodskoi promyshlennosti Yevropeiskoi Rossii s poimennym 
spiskom fabrik i zavodov. Compiled by D. Timiryazev. 
Third Issue. St. Petersburg, 1873 (I found the first two 
issues here in Yudin's library. The original price of the three 
books was (1) 2 rubles, (2) 1 ruble and (3) 1 ruble 50 kopeks, 
but they are not on sale). 

Sent from Krasnoyarsk to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 the original 



*S. I. Radchenko.— Ed. 



99 



21 

TO HIS MOTHER 

April 5, 1897 

Today there was good news, Mother dearest, and I hasten 
to tell you about it. First, I received a telegram from the 
doctor in Irkutsk, "Hear you being sent Minusinsk". Second- 
ly, A. M. has at last learned the Governor-General's reply — 
Gleb and Basil are also being sent to Minusinsk District. 
E. E. will be arriving tomorrow and will press for their 
release and also ask permission for them to travel at their own 
expense. I expect she will succeed (judging by precedents 
we know of). 27 

I am very pleased with my place of exile (if the rumours 
prove true, and I do not think they are wrong) because Mi- 
nusinsk and its district are the best in these parts both 
on account of the excellent climate and the low cost of 
living. The distance from Krasnoyarsk is not very great, 
the post goes there two or three times a week, so that to 
send a letter and get an answer will take 30 to 35 days 
instead of the present 22 or 23 days — no more. I do not expect 
I shall be able to leave before the river is open to navigation, 
because the spring thaw and floods are now at their height, 
and the party on its way, to Irkutsk is being kept here until 
May. When the river is open to navigation it is possible to 
go to Minusinsk by steamer. 

It is a great pity no attempt was made to get Anatoly 
Alexandrovich sent to Minusinsk District, too; it would 
be very, very good for him after the pleurisy he has had. 
We sent a telegram to St. Petersburg asking them to set 
things going; since there has been a delay of the whole 
party there is now ample time, so we may hope they will 



100 



V. I. LENIN 



be able to get him sent there if they tackle the job energet- 
ically. 

For the time being letters should, of course, be sent to 
me at the old address; if I go away I will leave the new 
address and they will be sent on to me. I think you can 
send my books on now, without waiting for the final address; 
in any case you cannot send goods to Minusinsk (there is no 
carrier's office there), and they take a long time to come 
here by rail. So send them here, to A. M.'s address, if no 
other, or, better still, addressed to the bearer of the receipt, 
and send the receipt by registered post to A. M. From here 
the goods can be sent on to Minusinsk by boat in the spring. 

They say that Gleb and Basil look very ill — pale, yellow 
and terribly tired. They will probably get better when they 
come out. 

I am in good health and am living quite well; the weather 
is marvellous. I intend to write Manyasha a letter in a "lit- 
erary" vein; I do not know, however, whether that inten- 
tion will be put into effect. I have seen Novoye Slovo 28 and 
read it with great pleasure. 



Regards to all, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Krasnoyarsk to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 



Printed from 
the original 



101 



22 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

April 17, 1897 

Yesterday, Mother dearest, I received three of your let- 
ters. Today I collected some detailed information about 
the villages we are being sent to (officially I have not yet 
been informed of this 29 ). I am going to the village of Shu- 
shenskoye (I think I spelt it wrongly in previous letters — 
Shushinskoye). It is a big village with more than fifteen 
hundred inhabitants, where there are the volost council, 
the office of the Zemstvo assessor (he is the same as a super- 
intendent of police in Russia, but has greater powers), a 
school, etc. The village stands on the right bank of the Ye- 
nisei, fifty-six versts to the south of Minusinsk. Since the 
volost authorities are quartered there the post will be 
fairly regular — I have heard there is a post twice a week. 
You go by steamer to Minusinsk (the steamers do not go 
further up the Yenisei) and by horse transport the rest 
of the way. Today the ice broke on the Yenisei, so in seven 
to ten days the steamers will probably begin and I expect 
to leave at the end of April or the beginning of May. You 
can and should write to my present address,* because I 
shall leave a request to forward my letters when I go. I 
cannot, however, tell you exactly when I shall be going. 
Gleb and Basil are going to the village of Tesinskoye, also 
the seat of a volost council, etc., thirty-seven versts to the 
north of Minusinsk on the River Tuba (a right tributary of 
the Yenisei). A telegram about them was sent to the Police 



* I now receive all your letters regularly. The first must have been 
lost at the station where there is not much order. 



102 



V. I. LENIN 



Department today asking for permission for them to travel 
at their own expense. I hope the permission will be granted 
at the mother's request, she is ill all the time here, and then 
we shall go to Minusinsk together. I shall, therefore, spend 
the summer in "Siberian Italy", as the people here call the 
south of Minusinsk District. I cannot yet say whether this 
name is deserved or not, but people say that the Krasnoyarsk 
region is not so good. The environs along the River Yenisei 
of even this town, incidentally, remind me of Zhiguli or of 
Swiss scenery; I have recently taken a number of walks (the 
days were quite warm here and the roads are already dry) 
and have enjoyed them very much. I should have enjoyed 
them more if it were not for thoughts of our Turukhansk 
people and our Minusinsk prisoners. 30 

I live very well here; I have comfortable lodgings, and am 
especially pleased with the full board. For my work I have 
obtained some books on statistics (I think I have already 
written about that*) but I do not do much work; mostly 
I just roam about the place. 

Thank Manyasha for her letter; I have given her so much 
work now that I am afraid she will get fed up with figures. 31 
My books should be sent to Krasnoyarsk to be delivered 
to the bearer of the receipt (either by goods train or through 
a carrier's office, whichever is better) and I will then ask 
acquaintances to send them on to Minusinsk, and there 
again I shall have to look for acquaintances — there is no other 
way. 

Why is Mitya thinking of going where there is plague? 32 
If he is so anxious to travel and practice medicine I am 
ready to suggest a place at some resettlement centre. In 
Eastern Siberia, for instance. I have heard, incidentally, 
that a resettlement centre is to be opened in "my" village 

of Shushenskoye, Minusinsk District, Yenisei Gubernia 

So he is welcome. We can go shooting together — if only 
Siberia can manage to make a sportsman out of me, and if 
he does not find work (and shooting) for himself in places 

not so far distant Ho, ho! If in three weeks and a bit 

I have become such a Siberian that I am inviting people 
from "Russia", what shall I be like in three years? All 



See Letters Nos. 19 and 20.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



103 



jokes aside, however, I really am surprised at his "plague" 
plans; I hope there will not be any plague, and that he 
will not have to go there. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Anyuta, 

About books — how to send them, see above. What to 
send? If I get a fee of some 150 rubles 33 (perhaps in three 
doses, a teaspoonful every hour — every month, that is), 
then you can spend some on books. Then buy me the last 
three issues of Promysly Vladimirskoi gubernii (3 rubles 
75 kopeks), Vliyaniye urozhayev, etc., by Chuprov and 
Posnikov (5 rubies), Ukazatel fabrik i zavodov za 1890 god, 
St. Petersburg, 1894 (5 rubles?). I will give you further 
titles later — depending on the size of the fee, which need 
not be sent all at once (to the Schwester, of course). 
Write and tell the writer* that I should be very glad if 
he would let me have part of my fee, and if he would agree 
to send me books instead of money — Russian and foreign, 
some for review and others for myself. He knows the subjects 
I am interested in and he could send the books to you. I 
should be glad to take all sorts of things for translation and 
could distribute them among the people in Minusinsk and 
Turukhansk** (not very urgent), taking the organisation of 
the work upon myself and guaranteeing its timely and cor- 
rect fulfilment. That, however, is something special, but I 
should very much like to arrange for the fees to be paid in 
books — only if that will not be too much trouble for the 
writer*** (add this, word for word). 

I think I shall have to subscribe to journals and newspa- 
pers — there probably will not be anything in Shushenskoye. 
Depending on available finances, you may subscribe to 

* Here and further the "writer" (ecrivain) referred to is P. B. 
Struve.— Ed. 

** etc. Fedoseyev has been sent, I have been told, to the town 
of Kirensk in Irkutsk Gubernia. 

*** I rely entirely on his choice, and this method of payment 
interests me because it is the only way for me to receive immediately 
important new publications; the timeliness of articles and reviews 
is very important in magazine work. If I must first find out here and 
then order by post, the delay will be five weeks, minimum (!!!). 



104 



V. I. LENIN 



Russkiye Vedomosti, Russkoye Bogatstvo, Vestnik Finan- 
sov u (without any supplements), Archiv fiir soziale Gesetz- 
gebung und Statistik. 35 That makes quite a lot, so they 
may be ordered only if there are big receipts. If money is 
short, Russkiye Vedomosti will, perhaps, be enough. You 
will see for yourself, especially when I write from Shushen- 
skoye and inform you of my budget. (I believe you are angry 
with the ecrivain; when you write to him in my name, do 
not show it. I bear no "rarccime"* because of the loss of my 
last "literature".** It was not his fault at all.) 

Send my best regards to the Bulochkins. 36 Why do you 
not write about them in greater detail? What sort of finale 
was there? Could there have been none at all? That would 
be excellent. If opportunity offers, give my regards to other 
acquaintances, the bookseller and others. 



I hope you will inform me beforehand when you intend 
to go to the West, so that I shall have time to write to you 
and give you many, many things to do for me. 

Sent from Krasnoyarsk to Moscow 
First published in 1929 



V. u. 



in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 



Printed from 
the original 



** 



* Grudge, malice (Fr.).— Ed. 

* It is not known what this refers to. — Ed. 



105 



23 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Minusinsk, May 7, 1897 

We arrived here, Mother dearest, only yesterday. 37 
Tomorrow we intend to go to our villages, and I wanted to 
write to you in greater detail about our journey here, which 
proved to be very expensive and very uncomfortable (so 
there is no sense in your coming here), but I don't know 
whether I shall manage it because today I am quite worn 
out after the journey and tomorrow I shall probably be 
even busier. If I do not manage to write in greater detail 
tomorrow, I shall confine myself to what is written here, 
so that you have some news of me, and will postpone a 
detailed letter until I arrive at "Shu-shu-shu"... as I call 
the place where I shall eventually find peace. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 the original 



106 



24 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA 

May 18, 1897 

This week, Mother dearest, I received two letters from 
you (dated April 20 and 24) and am answering the latter 
by the first post from here, which leaves this evening. 
Write and tell me when you get the letter from here, on 
which day, that is. Your letters took so long to reach me 
because they were forwarded from Krasnoyarsk and a lot 
of time was wasted sending them on. About finance — I 
do not remember your asking me twice (as you write in your 
letter of April 24), or perhaps I have forgotten it. As 
long as my finances were good I did not write. But before 
I left Krasnoyarsk (about the 26th or 28th), I sent a 
registered letter with a request for some money, which is prob- 
ably now on its way here from, Krasnoyarsk 38 . Later, I also 
wrote from here saying that I should have enough for about 
a fortnight. 

As far as concerns your idea of coming here only to beg 
a change of residence for me — it is really not worth while. 
First, I could probably obtain permission to move myself, 
if I were to set about it. Secondly, the village of Tesinskoye 
is hardly likely to be any better than Shusha. According 
to the preliminary information we gathered earlier, Tesin- 
skoye is much worse than Shusha as a place, for the shoot- 
ing, etc. Thirdly, the journey here is not so simple — I have 
already written about this and will write again today in 
greater detail to Manyasha; she accuses me (I am joking, of 
course) of "being horribly inhospitable". So far I have had no 
letters from Tesinskoye 39 , but as I know nothing about them 
I shall not do anything; it is possible they will ask to be sent 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



107 



somewhere else if Tes turns out in reality to be as bad as 
we have heard. 

Shu-shu-shu is not a bad village. It is true it is in a rather 
bare locality, but not far away (one and a half to two versts) 
there is a forest, although much of it has been felled. There 
is no road to the Yenisei but the River Shush flows right 
past the village and there is a fairly big tributary of the 
Yenisei not far away (one or one and a half versts), where 
you can bathe. The Sayan Mountains or spurs from them are 
visible on the horizon; some of them are quite white, the 
snow on them probably never melts. And so we have some- 
thing artistic here, too; it was not for nothing that when 
I was in Krasnoyarsk I tried writing verses "In Shusha at 
Sayan's foot..." but, unfortunately, I got no further than 
the first line! 

I am surprised that you do not write a word about sending 
me the remainder of the books. It would be a pity if they 
have not yet been sent (I wrote about this a long time ago 
from Krasnoyarsk*). Now the steamers will be going as 
far as Minusinsk (the water is rising rapidly), so a bale 
can easily be sent here,. Later it will be difficult again, for 
the Yenisei has lots of shallows, and, high water will not 
last long. Perhaps, however, the books have been sent? 

As for my complaints that you do not write very often, 
that is all a matter of the past and was due to the amazing 
(for us, who are unaccustomed to such things) delay in 
receiving answers to our letters, I remember I wrote about 
it a month or six weeks ago, so it must have referred to the 
letters you wrote at the end of March! I now receive letters 
more often than before and I do not think that they get 
lost because the loss of some would be revealed when the 
next were received. Apparently not a single letter has gone 
astray, except the first one that Anyuta sent to the station. 
Here in the village I shall have to work still harder at my 
correspondence, so it will be better if letters come more 
frequently from "Russia". 

You say that "Anya says the reply to the editors has 
been read". I do not quite understand this. Did she read 
the reply herself or have the editors already had time to 



See Letter No. 20.— Ed. 



108 



V. I. LENIN 



read it? Does Anya know any details about the dispute 
with the editors, about the war against them by gold-pro- 
spector and company? Has she heard the "other side", 
i.e., somebody from the editorial office? 40 I am waiting 
for a letter from her. Have you subscribed to a paper for me? 
I have no papers at all here. They are also needed in Minu- 
sinsk since there is no reading-room there. 

Regards to Mark. He never lets me know how he is. I 
can inform him and Mitya that the shooting here, apparent- 
ly, is not at all bad. Yesterday I travelled about 12 versts 
to shoot duck and great snipe. There is a lot of game, but 
without a dog the shooting is difficult, especially for such 
a poor shot as I. There are even wild goats, and in the 
mountains and in the taiga (30-40 versts from here, where 
the local peasants sometimes go shooting) there are squirrel, 
sable, bear and deer. 

I am sorry I did not take a waterproof. It is indispensable 
here. Could you send me one in a small parcel? I do not know 
when I shall next be in town or whether I should find any- 
thing suitable in such a town-cum-village as Minusinsk. 
Perhaps I shall also ask Mark (if there is any money) to 
buy me a good revolver; but so far, I do not see the need 
for it. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

What news is there of Columbus?* I have heard that 
he is married and is ill. Do you know anything about him? 

Anatoly and Yuly have again been put in prison; they 
did not want to leave before navigation begins and so the 
Governor-General ordered them to wait in gaol! The steam- 
er for Yeniseisk is supposed to leave Krasnoyarsk some 
time after May 20. 

May 18, 1897 

Manyasha, 

I have received the extracts you made. A big merci for 
them. I shall probably not be able to study them in detail 



* I. Kh. Lalayants is referred to. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



109 



until autumn, for at the moment I am mostly loafing 
around doing nothing. I cannot yet say whether I shall 
need anything else or what it might be. 

As for my being "horribly inhospitable", I shall dispute 
that with you. Before one can be hospitable, i.e., receive 
guests, must one not first know where one is going to 
live? That is something I did not know when I was in 
Krasnoyarsk. The "Shu-shu-shu" that I hear and repeat 
cannot be called knowledge when I have no idea of how 
to get to that Shu-shu-shu, of what the place is like or 
how I shall live there, etc. And before being hospitable one 
must know for certain that the guests can reach you and be 
lodged, I will not say comfortably, but at least reasonably 
well. I have not been able to say this until very recently, 
that is, until the middle of May. You will most likely read 
my letter in June. This means that it will take the better 
half of the summer to pass on information and make prepa- 
rations. Does this make sense? You have, of course, already 
learnt from my letter describing the journey by road that 
a trip here is quite a troublesome affair and rather unplea- 
sant. It was a good thing that the weather was excellent — 
but what if there had been rain! The weather here is change- 
able in the extreme. Yesterday I went shooting. In the 
morning the weather was wonderful and it was hot, a 
real summer's day. In the evening a terribly cold wind 
sprang up with rain into the bargain. We came home plast- 
ered with mud and if we had not had fur coats would have 
frozen on the way. The local folk say that such happenings 
are not infrequent in summer and so they take fur coats 
with them even in summer when they travel.* Until I have 
settled down and looked the place over I ought not to 
invite people here. 

In any case, if ever you do come here, I shall have to send 
a telegram from Minusinsk in advance to tell you whether 
steamers are going as far as the town and whether naviga- 
tion is reliable. If not, it may happen that the steamer will 
take you only half way. The Yenisei forms numerous bars 
and shallows, so navigation as far as Minusinsk is very 



* I am thinking of acquiring a half-length sheepskin coat for when 
I go shooting. 



110 



V. I. LENIN 



short-lived and you have to "catch" it. Even now I don't 
know for certain whether steamers are going as far as Minu- 
sinsk — I think they are, because the water is rising very fast. 

Incidentally, about telegrams. Our "postman" (the one 
who serves our volost) is in Minusinsk on Thursdays and 
Mondays (the days the post arrives in Minusinsk). If you 
have to send telegrams, therefore, the best time is on Wed- 
nesday or Sunday, i.e., so that they arrive in Minusinsk 
on Thursday or Monday morning. Then I get them on Tues- 
day or Friday morning. Of course they can be sent for 
delivery by messenger on another day, but that is much 
more expensive and is only for emergencies. 

In general I am very surprised that you are unwilling 
to go abroad. Can it possibly be more interesting to stay 
in some village near Moscow? If you travel to Moscow to 
take music lessons, can you not also travel to the nearest 
town from there? Incidentally, I think you will be reading 
this letter somewhere abroad. 



Send me all sorts of catalogues, especially of second-hand 
books, and especially of foreign books. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 
First published in 1929 



All the best, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 



Printed from 
the original 



Ill 



25 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

May 25, 1897 

The day before yesterday I received your letter of May 5, 
Mother dearest, and am answering by the first post. I, too, 
am now wondering how it could have happened that I did 
not write for a long time at the end of April; I must have 
missed a day or two because of the fuss and bustle at that 
time, but after that I wrote very frequently, both before 
my departure from Krasnoyarsk and on the way here. From 
here I have also been writing frequently — every week. 
There really is nothing to write more frequently about; 
by the way, I answer all letters immediately, so I may 
sometimes have written twice in one week. 

I have no information about the health of E. E. now — she 
must be better because no one at Tesinskoye writes anything 
about it. She was pretty badly exhausted by the journey, 
especially the road journey, and was anxious to reach the 
village and rest. I really do not remember your letter to 
her, addressed to me, I may have passed it on and forgotten 
it. 

I simply roared with laughter when I read in your letter 
that Mitya, "the queer fish", is not coming here! I wrote 
that as a joke!* What sense would there be in his trekking 
a distance of 4,500 versts and losing a month (there and 
back) on the journey for the sake of the joys of Shu-shu-shu! 
I am sorry that you are so long in making up your mind 



See Letter No. 22.— Ed. 



112 



V. I. LENIN 



what to do in summer because of me and are missing the 
best time and the best accommodation, etc. 

It is a pity that the books were sent so late (if they have 
been sent — you write that you will be sending them "in 
a day or two"). I thought they were already on the way. 
I shall now have to find out when they will arrive in Kras- 
noyarsk. Probably not before the end of summer! 

Life here is not bad, I go shooting quite a lot; I have 
got to know the local sportsmen and go shooting with 
them. 41 I have begun bathing; up to now I have had to go 
quite a long way, about two and a half versts, but soon I 
shall be able to go to a place about a verst and a half away. 
Such distances mean nothing to me because, apart from 
shooting and bathing, I spend a lot of time walking. I am 
longing for newspapers; I hope I shall soon be receiving 
them now that you have sent them. 

I have had a letter from Basil in Tesinskoye. He says 
it is an awful place, quite bare, neither forest nor river near 
(there is one two versts away — too far for him!), no shoot- 
ing and no fishing. And so, if anyone moves at all, they 
will have to come here, since there is no point in my going 
there. A. M. visited them for one day (May 14) from Kras- 
noyarsk; she came with a resettlement party, and then 
went back to Krasnoyarsk; she intends to go to Tesinskoye 
soon to live there. 

Regards to all, 

Yours, 

V. U. 
May 25, 1897 

Anyuta, 

I am very sorry to hear that your trip abroad is hanging 
fire because of me. I am fixed up here so well (certainly 
better than any of the other comrades) that there is no 
need at all for Mother to worry about me, and as far as a 
summer holiday is concerned I think that she can get a 
better rest abroad than in this place, since she would have 
to travel thousands of versts on all kinds of transport. By 
the way, I expect all this is superfluous now — meaning 
the "now" when you will be reading this letter. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



113 



At first I couldn't understand why you wrote in your 
letter, "7 repeat that I do not show him, etc." 42 — but then 
I remembered that I had spoken to you about it, in Moscow 
or even, I think, in St. Petersburg. I had completely 
forgotten it — there was so much confusion there — otherwise 
I would not have spoken about it a second time. I imagine 
that the editor is up to his ears in work and for that reason 
does not give any but purely business information.* In 
view of this my request for books in payment of fees was 
probably out of place; how would he find time to bother 
about such a relatively troublesome business? If you have 
not yet written to him about this, please don't write. The 
fee I received for the first article will last me about a year, 
when added to my allowance 43 — and the remainder for 
the next two articles 44 I am thinking of using for journals 
and books. (I do not know how much you have already 
sent me; 30 or 40 rubles would be enough and the rest can 
go for journals.) 

As regards journals, I have already written** (in any case 
I am repeating it, although I think that some of them, at 
least, have been sent here) that you should subscribe to 
(1) Russkoye Bogatstvo, (2) Russkiye Vedomosti*** (3) Vestnik 
Finansov (from the beginning of the year), (4) Soziale Pra- 
xis, (5) Archiv fur soziale Gesetzgebung und Statistik (heraus- 
gegeben von Braun). I think I have also written partly 
about books, especially about Ukazatel fabrik i zavodov, 
third edition, St. Petersburg, 1894 (I think it costs 5 
rubles) and the book by Chuprov and Posnikov on grain 
prices.**** If they have not been sent with the other books 
(which would be a pity because in that case they will be 
travelling about three months), then please send them by 
post as printed matter. These are the books (and also the 

* He should send the journal directly to my address; tell him that. 
The money should be sent to you. 
** See Letter No. 22.— Ed. 
*** Perhaps you will calculate whether it would not be a saving 
to send me your copy when you have read it. If you arrange it to fit 
in with my mail days (we shall learn to do that soon), you would have 
to send them only twice a week. That means less trouble in sending 
them and much less expense than would be involved in sending them 
daily, which would be no less than the cost of the newspaper itself. 
**** See Letter No. 22.— Ed. 



114 



V. I. LENIN 



Yezhegodnik if you managed to find it) that I need more 
than any others for my work. Please send me direct any 
particularly interesting new books, so that I shall get them 
quicker and shall not lag too far behind. By the way, if 
a report of the Free Economic Society's discussions on grain 
prices (in connection with the book by Chuprov and Pos- 
nikov) has been published, send it to me 45 . 

I am still thinking about the possibility of using a Moscow 
library; have you managed to do anything about it; i.e., have 
you managed to join some public library? If it is possible 
to take out books for two months (as you can in St. Pe- 
tersburg at the library of the Free Economic Society) it 
would not cost very much to send them by post as printed 
matter (16 kopeks a pound, and you can send 4 pounds for 
64 kopeks, and 7 kopeks to register them), so it would pro- 
bably be more profitable for me to spend money on postage and 
have a lot of books than to spend much more money on buying 
a few books. I imagine that it would be much more conveni- 
ent for me; the only problem is whether you can get books 
for such a long period (leaving a deposit, of course) from 
some good library — the University,* or the library of the 
Moscow Bar Association (you must get information from 
there, get their catalogue and find out the terms for the 
acceptance of new members, etc.), or some other. There are 
probably a number of good libraries in Moscow. You can 
even find out about private libraries. If any of you are 
staying on in Moscow they can probably find, out about all 
this. 

If you go abroad, write to me and I will send you details 
of books from there. Send me more catalogues of all kinds 
of second-hand books, etc. (libraries, bookshops). 

Yours, 

V. U. 



* I think it would be easy for Mitya to arrange this either through 
some law student or by going straight to the professor of political econ- 
omy and saying that he wishes to work in that field and take books 
from the central library. The only thing is that he will have to post- 
pone it now till autumn. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



115 



As far as news from St. Petersburg is concerned I have 
almost lost all hope; there is nobody to expect a letter from, 
I've already given up hope of the director. 

When you write to the Bulochkins send them my regards. 
They should send me their photographs in exchange for 
mine. How are their affairs going on? 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 the original 



116 



26 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

June 8, alten Styls (June 20) 

The day before yesterday, Mother dearest, I received 
a letter from you and Manyasha from Warsaw. It was only 
from this letter that I learned that you had put an end 
to all your doubts and had set out on your journey. 
Excellent. I hope you will make good arrangements and 
will have a nice rest this summer. I don't know why you 
are afraid you will soon feel Heimweh.* If your trip is 
only for the summer? I doubt it. I shall continue writing 
as frequently as before and the extra three or four days the 
post takes, with Moscow at such a considerable distance 
anyway, will not mean much. 

You have, of course, received all my previous letters 
from Shusha and now know that I am fixed up here quite 
well. I have been here exactly a month today and still say 
the same — I am very satisfied with my board and lodging 
and have even forgotten about the Mineralwasser** you 
mention and hope that I shall soon forget its name. I am 
now expecting visitors here — one of the comrades wants 
to come from Minusinsk and Gleb wants to come here for 
the shooting. And so I shall not be bored. Yuly left on May 
27 for Turukhansk from Yeniseisk. Anatoly stayed there; 
the doctor who examined him on the instructions of the 
Governor-General found him weak. He will probably be 
sent to Minusinsk District now. Perhaps he will come here. 



Nostalgia (Ger.)- — Ed. 
Mineral water (Ger.). — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



117 



The doctor* was not sent to Yakutsk either. He is being 
sent to Kirensk. 

Thanks to Manyasha for the postscript. 



Anyuta, 

I think I have already written to you about the journals 
and newspapers. I am sorry I have not written to Mark. 
That oversight will probably cause considerable delay. 

Send me more "literary manifestations" of all kinds — 
at least catalogues and prospectuses to begin with. The 
best thing is to write everywhere for them so as to obtain 
as many as possible. I should very much like to get the 
classics of political economy and philosophy in the original. 
It would be a good thing to find out the cheapest editions 
(people edition,** etc.), and the prices. You probably will 
not find very much except at second-hand booksellers'. 
However, I shall wait until I hear how you have fixed 
yourselves up and then there will be time enough to write. 

Gleb sends you his special regards. They are all now 
living in Tesinskoye, A. M. as well (she has given up her 
job). They have had a lot of visitors recently, so they had 
a merry time. They write that they are fixed up quite well. 
I am still without newspapers. The May issue of Novoye 
Slovo for some reason has not arrived, either. Send me 
the newspaper you will be reading, or even the issues you 
buy casually. I can at least have a look at them. 

Good-bye for the time being. Write more often. 



Kisses for her and for you, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Written June 8, 1897 



Sent from Shushenskoye 



to Switzerland 



First published in 1929 



in the journal Proletarskaya 



Printed from 
the original 



Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 



Y. M. Lyakhovsky.— .Ed. 

Lenin wrote these words in English. — Ed. 



118 



27 

TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW MARK YELIZAROV 

June 15, 1897 

In the last post but one, Mark, I received your letter 
of May 23. At last you, too, are getting down to the busi- 
ness of "spoiling paper" — that's fine. I hope that the "ter- 
rible boredom" you complain of will make you write more 
often — I should be very glad of it. Moreover we are in rather 
the same position. We are both living in villages and quite 
alone — true, I am a bit further away — and so we must make 
an effort to correspond more often. 

It was news to me that Kokushkino is up for sale, and 
that Mitya has gone to Kazan to see about it. 46 Has he 
power of attorney to handle the estate? Write and tell me 
how the matter is settled. On the one hand it seems to be 
a good thing that it will be finished with once and for all, 
but on the other hand the "finish" is a most unpleasant, 
troublesome and, most likely, unprofitable one. 

I have not only not received the box of books — I did not 
even know that it had been sent. Who was it sent to and 
when? To whom was the carrier's receipt sent? Write to me 
about all this. From Mother's letter I know that they 
intended sending it through a carrier's office. That means 
it will take a long time, probably two or three months. If 
any new books were bought to be sent with the others, please 
let me know (if you remember) what they were, because 
I do not risk ordering any at the moment, thinking they are 
already on the way. 

I have begun receiving Russkiye Vedomosti and read it 
with a voracity that can be explained only as a reaction 
to the long absence of newspapers. Has anything else been 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



119 



ordered? (Russkoye Bogatstvo, Vestnik Finansov — in Ryb- 
kina's 47 name; German publications). I receive the news- 
papers on the thirteenth day after Wednesday and Saturday. 
That means that the post from Moscow here leaves on those 
days; bear that in mind in case you have to make any cal- 
culations about sending things. 

The day before yesterday I received the report of the 
Society for the Organisation of Popular Entertainment. 48 
Thanks. 

I have not yet received a single letter from our people 
abroad. On account of their travelling they probably had to 
wait a long time between my letters and wrote to me less often. 
I do not know how to write to them now. It would hardly 
be convenient to write to Demo and I have no new address. 
The last time I wrote to Mother was a week ago, the same 
time as I sent you a postcard. Today I shall not write a spe- 
cial letter to her, but please send this letter on to her so 
that she will not worry and will have some news of me. 

It would not be a bad thing if Mitya, on his return, were also 
to take up paper-spoiling. I have not yet given an answer 
to his "theoretical" letter; the fact of the matter was that 
I was so absent-minded when I was in Moscow that I did 
not remember anything of what he told me about the ques- 
tion that interested him. I could not gain a completely 
definite impression from his letter— first, because it was too 
short and, secondly, because I have here no Russian transla- 
tion of the book he quotes and cannot get the necessary 
information. 

All the best, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

P.S. I am thinking more keenly and more often over the 
idea of arranging for parcels of books to be sent here from 
some capital-city library; I am at times beginning to think 
that without that arrangement I shall not be able to carry 
on literary work here; an outside stimulus is very necessary 
and I have absolutely nothing of the sort here. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 the original 



120 



28 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA 

July 19, 1897 

Yesterday, Mother dearest, I received your letter and 
Manyasha's dated the 29th. Merci for them. 

Because of the exceptionally long time our letters take, 
answers to questions arrive so long after they are asked 
that many of them turn out to be unnecessary. In this let- 
ter, for instance, you are still worrying about money and 
the bale of books — it is now, of course, a long time since 
you received my letter explaining all that; I received the 
money a long time ago, I did not draw it for some time 
because I did not need it and because nobody came from A. M. 
I still have not received the bale of books; I do not know 
if it has arrived in Krasnoyarsk (it was expected there at 
the end of June), and from there it will be brought by some- 
one coming here whom I expect shortly. To send it from 
Krasnoyarsk by post would probably cost quite a lot because 
the post is not sent by steamer but by rail to Achinsk and 
from there by road to Minusinsk. 

Similarly you also must know by now not only that Mark 
has received an offer to go to St. Petersburg, but also what 
decision he has made; he wrote me that he was awaiting an 
answer from you from abroad. 

I received your letter with details of the Kokushkino 
business and have already answered it. Yesterday, too, I 
received the first letter from Mitya in which he, too, 
described his trip to Kazan. 

As far as hygiene is concerned, I do not think I am any 
worse off here than you are in Spiez. 49 I also bathe (some- 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



121 



times twice a day) in the Yenisei, take walks* and go shoot- 
ing. It is true that there are no decent walks near here, but 
for shooting we sometimes wander a long way, and there 
are some nice places. 

Yesterday I received news from Tesinskoye about a wed- 
ding — Basil and A. M. I am invited to be best man. 50 It 
will not take place very soon, of course. 

I am very sorry about Pyotr Kuzmich!** Your letter 
was the only news I had heard of him. 

Kisses — and please do not worry about me. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I have received a letter from the doctor from Verkholensk 
(Irkutsk Gubernia), where he has been sent. N. Y. Fedo- 
seyev has also been sent there. 

Manyasha, 

You ask me to describe the village of Shu-shu-shu.... Hm! 
Hm! I think I did describe it to you once. It is a big vil- 
lage with several streets, rather muddy, dusty — everything 
as it should be. It stands in the steppes — there are no 
orchards or greenery of any kind. The village is surrounded 
by dung, which the people here do not cart to the fields 
but dump outside the village, so that if you leave the vil- 
lage you always have to pass through a certain amount 
of dung. There is a stream called the Shush right beside 
the village; now it is very shallow. At about a verst or a 
verst and a half from the village (or rather from me — the 
village is a long one) the Shush joins the Yenisei which breaks 
up here into a large number of streams with islands between 
them so that there is no way of reaching the mainstream on 
foot. I bathe in the biggest stream, which is now also very 
shallow. On the other side (the opposite direction from 
the River Shush) there is, at a distance of about a verst 
and a half, what the peasants quite seriously call "the pine 
grove"; it is really a very poor bit of woodland, in which 



* I wear a net to protect myself from the swarms of mosquitoes 
we have here. And they say this is nothing compared with the north! 
** Pyotr Kuzmich Zaporozhets.— 



122 



V. I. LENIN 



most of the trees have been felled so that there is no real 
shade (but a lot of strawberries!); it bears no resemblance 
to real Siberian taiga which I have as yet only heard 
about but have never been in (it is at least some thirty 
or forty versts from here). Mountains ... when I wrote about 
those mountains I was very inaccurate, for they are about 
50 versts from here so that you can only look at them, when 
they are not hidden by clouds, in exactly the same way 
as you can see Mont Blanc from Geneva. Because of this 
the first (and last) line of my poem contains a sort of poetic 
hyperbole (the figure is used by poets!), about "Sayan's 
foot".* I can give only one answer, therefore, to your ques- 
tion about which mountains I have climbed — the sandhills 
in the "pine grove", so called — and in general there is plen- 
ty of sand about here. 

My work is progressing very, very slowly.** I do not know 
whether I shall need any extracts from books. I hope that 
by autumn I shall make an arrangement with some Moscow 
or St. Petersburg library. 

I read with pleasure your description of life abroad and, 
your impressions from there. I should be glad if you would 
write to me more often. 

Your plan to send "a pood of cherries" here, over a dis- 
tance of six thousand versts and a bit, made me open my 
mouth in amazement (not from a desire to gorge myself on 
cherries — there aren't any here but there will be water 
melons) at the richness of your imagination. What are our 
chemists, compared with this! 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye 



to Switzerland 
First published in 1929 



in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 



Printed from 
the original 



* See Letter No. 24. —Ed. 
**This refers to Lenin's work on The Development of Capitalism 
in Russia. — Ed. 



123 



29 

TO HIS MOTHER 

August 17 

The day before yesterday, Mother dearest, I received 
your letter of July 29 (August 10) and also a letter from 
Manyasha. 

I am surprised that you are always saying that I do not 
write often; for a long time, as far as I remember, I have 
been writing every week and sometimes twice a week — 
with every post, that is. 

I am also beginning to wonder about the box of books; 
since I received information from Krasnoyarsk at the end 
of June that the books should arrive about that time and 
that a further 9 rubles would have to be paid on them, 
I have heard nothing more, although I immediately (July 1) 
sent two letters to Krasnoyarsk about the books, one of them 
with money.* An acquaintance who had promised to see 
about my books has turned out to be irresponsible in the 
extreme and does not even answer my letters.** I have 
written a postcard with a pre-paid answer to Popova, per- 
haps she will reply. It is a most annoying business! The worst 
of it is that they do not even write, do not inform me of 
the state of affairs! Has the carrier's office been holding 
it up? The scoundrels probably do not even guarantee to 
deliver goods in time, nor accept responsibility for delays, 
do they? 

Anyuta also writes about the loss of your letters (by 
the way, I have received Gumplowicz and Archiv from 



The letters have been lost. — Ed. 

It is not known who this was. — Ed. 



124 



V. I. LENIN 



her — my thanks for the two books). I do not know which 
letters have been lost, I always acknowledge those I receive. 
One letter was lying about for some two months in Minusinsk, 
as I wrote before. I then wrote a complaint to the Minusinsk 
post office and enclosed the envelope of that letter as 
documentary evidence.* If registered letters or packages 
by book post are lost, you must keep the receipts and 
absolutely must demand compensation; that is the only 
way to teach these Siberian Ivan Andreiches 51 to be 
careful. 

There is nothing I can write about myself. The letters 
are short because life is very monotonous; I have already 
described the appearance of things from the outside; inward- 
ly day differs from day only because today you are reading 
one book, tomorrow you will read another; today you take 
a walk to the right of the village, tomorrow to the left; 
today you write one article, tomorrow another (I have now 
been distracted from my main work by writing an article 52 ). 
I am perfectly well, of course, go shooting now and again. 
The weather is nasty — wind, cold, autumn rain, so I stay 
at home most of the time. Probably there will be some fine 
days in September. I intend going to Minusinsk to buy 
myself a few things — a lamp, some things for the winter, 
etc. I am thinking of going with Prominsky. 

Thank Manyasha for her letter. She wrote asking me what 
I should like from abroad; Mitya, she says, wants a steel 

watch Hm! Hm I have a watch and it still keeps 

time, but an alarm clock would be (or, rather, might 
be) very useful because here I sleep far too much and 
have probably not only made up for the sleep I lost in 

the remand prison but have badly overdone it Only 

how will you send it here?... Unless you wait till someone 
comes.... 

It is quite clear that Anyuta, as long as she lives in the 
country, cannot fulfil my requests for books. If she should 
chance to be in Berlin or Leipzig on the way back, then 
perhaps she will be able to. I have already written that the 
writer has agreed to my request to send me books, and that 



The letter has been lost. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



125 



I have received several from him (and shall probably receive 
more in future) — which means that I am well enough off 
in this respect and as yet do not experience any shortage. 

Kisses for you and my sisters, 

V. U. 



Written August 17, 1897 
Sent from Shushenskoye 
to Switzerland 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 the original 



126 



30 

TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW AND HIS SISTER MARIA 

September 7 

I am sending you a registered package, Mark, containing 
my article.* Please send it on to the writer as quickly as 
you can (it is already late) together with the enclosed letter 
to him. 53 

At last, on September 5, I received Novoye Slovo for 
June. I am afraid another copy will come from you — what 
should I do with it? 

The next half of this letter is for Manyasha, from whom 
I received a letter dated 18 (30) August postmarked Lau- 
sanne. I hope our people are all borne again by this time. 

All the best, 

V. U. 

I read in Russkiye Vedomosti that the statisticians in 
Tula have not been confirmed. 54 Was the Chicagoan among 
their number? Why did he not answer my second letter 
sent through Manyasha from Krasnoyarsk?** 

What is the library situation like? 

September 7, 1897 

Manyasha, 

On September 5 I received your letter of 18 (30). Thanks. 
That was an excellent idea to take excursion tickets to see 
all Switzerland. 

* In case of emergencies, and for a check, let me tell you that 
it consists of 130 numbered pages. 

**The Chicagoan— V. A. Yonov. His correspondence has been 
lost.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



127 



I am very glad that you have begun to enjoy being 
abroad. What are your plans for the winter? You are probably 
busy now searching for an apartment. The problem of finding 
accommodation in a big city is a difficult and tedious bu- 
siness! You are probably running around searching, if Mark 
and Mitya have not yet found anything for you. 

Mother's letter, in which she spoke about her petition, 
I received and answered immediately. 55 The efforts made by 
Gleb and Basil to get transferred to Minusinsk have not 
come to anything although they were very energetic about 
it. 56 I am not trying to get a transfer and so far do not 
intend to; I have no complaints to make about Shu-shu-shu 
and I do not like that state of uncertainty when you start 
making applications, get excited waiting for a reply, keep 
getting ready to leave and so on. 

Well, all the best. I have not written much because today 
I am late with the despatch of my article and am in a great 
hurry. Kiss Mother. 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 the original 



128 



31 

TO HIS MOTHER 

September 30 

I am writing to you from Tesinskoye, Mother dearest, 
as I promised. I arrived here yesterday evening. It took 
us a long time to get here because there were three of us 
(Basil, I and a boy I took with me) with our luggage on 
a one-horse cart, and the horse a lazy one at that. 

The Tes people* are well fixed up. They have an excel- 
lent flat in a big two-storey house (in Shusha there are no 
such houses), the best in the village. They have the entire 
top floor, four good rooms with a kitchen and an entrance 
hall. The rooms are big, light, and clean with high ceil- 
ings and the furniture is good — in short, an excellent apart- 
ment for six rubles a month. Gleb now has a job of some 
sort. Thanks to this they have been able to manage and the 
financial crisis is over — there was, however, a time when 
things were tight. A. M. has taken a job as a nurse in the 
village of Sagaiskoye, several dozen versts from here in the 
same district. She will probably not keep the job for long 
because her health will certainly not permit her to continue 
such work and she is expected to return in a month. Gleb 
does not look too well, he is always poorly and gets irrit- 
able. Basil is flourishing. E. E. feels quite at home in the 
family and is doing all the household chores; she had a hard 
time in the summer and even now it is not easy for her, as 
she has to do all the work herself. It is impossible to find 
servants here. In summer you cannot get anyone, even tem- 



G. M. Krzhizhanovsky, his mother, and V. V. Starkov. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



129 



porarily. At the moment there is a woman who comes in 
and helps with the work. 

We all went shooting together today. The weather is 
excellent and we are enjoying ourselves. I have permission 
for five days and will leave on Friday or Saturday — straight 
back to Shusha, about 70 versts from here. 

I received a letter from Mark quite a while ago (dated 
September 12). I am awaiting news of how he finished up 
his "liquidator's trip" to Kazan. He wrote to me, among 
other things, about a dog. In Shusha I have a mongrel pup 
and hope to have it as a gun dog next year. It would cost a mint 
of money to bring a dog here from Russia. He also asks 
about my book — it is still frozen. When I get back to Shu- 
sha I hope to get down to work more seriously and will then 
write in greater detail. Kisses for you and Manyasha. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Everybody here also says that I have put on a lot of 
weight this summer, am sunburned and look like a real 
Siberian. That is what shooting and village life do for you! 
All the Petersburg ailments have been shaken off! 

All the people in Tes send you, it goes without saying, 
lots of greetings. 

Written September 30, 1897 
Sent from Tesinskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1931 in Printed from 

Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 



130 



32 

TO HIS MOTHER 

October 12, 1897 

On the 7th, Mother dearest, I received a letter from you 
and Mitya dated September 20. I was in a great hurry last 
time and, as I remember, did not write much. Today I 
must make up for it. 

Thanks to Mitya for his letter. In answer to his ques- 
tions — I am receiving Voprosy Filosofii i Psikhologii for 
1897 and have also received one issue for 1896 and will 
send it when I have read it (for the time being I have given 
it to the people at Tesinskoye). 

I still go shooting. The shooting is not as successful as 
it was (shooting hares, grouse and partridge is new to me 
and I shall have to get used to it), but it is no less pleasant. 
Whenever there is a fine autumn day (and this year there 
have been many of them) I take my gun and wander off 
across the fields and forest. Usually I go with Prominsky; 
I take my landlord's dog, which I have trained to follow 
me, and which has some (although not much) skill as a gun 
dog. I have acquired a dog for myself — I got a pup 
from an acquaintance here and hope that I shall be 
able to train it by next summer; I don't know whether 
it will turn out a good dog and whether it will have any 
hunting sense. I don't know how to spot that kind of thing, 
and no very definite opinion of the qualities of my Pega- 
sus can be had from his pedigree. The quilted jackets we 
all had bought for us in St. Petersburg are very convenient 
for shooting and I can never praise mine enough. In general, 
as far as my winter clothes and other things (which you 
ask about) are concerned, I have ample. I have already 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



131 



bought many winter things in Minusinsk and will buy some 
more. In general, shopping in Minusinsk is difficult; there 
is practically no choice, the shops are the village type of 
general store (all sorts of odds and ends; goods are deliv- 
ered periodically and I got there at a time when the old 
stock had run out and the new had not arrived) and it 
is difficult for one accustomed to city shops to find anything 
in them. Incidentally, it is high time I got rid of these big- 
city habits; they are of no use here and I must get used to 
local ways. I seem to be fairly well acclimatised, but as 
far as shopping is concerned I still think in the St. Peters- 
burg way — you have only to go into a shop and get what 
you want.... 

I will tell you about my journey in greater detail. I was 
in Minusinsk for two days only and all the time went in 
running round the shops, in seeing about Basil's case (we 
wrote a complaint together about the magistrate's sentence 
and the magistrate himself admitted that it was too severe. 57 
We'll see what the higher court has to say) and in visiting 
acquaintances. There are now many political exiles in Mi- 
nusinsk—A. V. Tyrkov (the March 1, 1881 case), N. S. Tyut- 
chev and Y. K. Yakovlev (Narodnoye Pravo group), 
S. I. Melnikov (Narodnaya Volya Party), Blazejewski 
(Polish worker), S. G. Raichin (my closest acquaintance 
and a man of the same views), F. Y. Kon (Polish intellec- 
tual who has served a sentence of penal servitude), and 
Stoyanovsky (arrested in connection with the Ginsburg case 
and has served a sentence of penal servitude). I saw almost 
all of them. I think I shall be able to go there again in win- 
ter. Such temporary visits are probably better than living 
in Minusinsk, which does not attract me. Its only advan- 
tage is the post (this advantage is even greater in Achinsk, 
so I would naturally "prefer" Achinsk). But this is only 
by the way, for I have settled down completely in Shu- 
shenskoye and have got used to the idea of wintering here 
and am not applying for a transfer and advise you not to. 

I went to Tesinskoye with Basil. We had a good time there 
and I was very pleased to see the comrades and to have 
company after my Shushenskoye solitude. That company, 
however, seems to be worse off than I am. Not as far as 
lodgings, etc., are concerned, in that respect they are better 



132 



V. I. LENIN 



off, but they are not adjusted. Gleb is often quite ill, is 
often despondent; Basil, too, it seems, is not so "flour- 
ishing" after all, though he is the most balanced of the Tes 
crowd. E. E. does the housekeeping, enjoys life at Tesin- 
skoye, but is also often ill. Keeping house is not easy for 
her since there are no servants; it is extremely difficult 
to find a servant in the Siberian villages — in summer it is 
absolutely impossible. You can live well if you are fixed 
up as I am with full board and lodging, but keeping house 
yourself is very difficult. The Tes people live much more 
"sociably" (so to speak) than I do; they are acquainted 
with the district nurse in Tesinskoye and not far from them 
(about 15 versts) there are some former women students 
whom they see quite often. 58 I have not lost hope that their 
despondency will pass. Gleb and Basil now have jobs 59 ; 
they could not live without work, for the allowance they 
receive is only 24 rubles (the authorities won't give Basil 
an allowance for his wife because he got married while 
in exile). 

Again about the library. Which library did Mitya 
get the Voprosy Filosofii i Psikhologii from? If he got them 
from the Petrovskaya library, can he get their catalogue 
(a new one)? I think they lend books for an indefinite 
period. 



I am perfectly well, of course; I am working, I feel fine. 
The doctor (from the north) asks me to give you his 
regards.* (I correspond with him and Columbus fairly reg- 



Yours, 



V. U. 



ularly.) 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 



Printed from 
the original 



*A. P. Sklyarenko.— Ed. 
**The letters have been lost.— Ed. 



133 



33 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA 

October 19, 1897 

I received Manyasha's letter of September 29th, Mother 
dearest, on October 14; it told me about the delay of my 
letters to Mark.* I must admit I was afraid of this before, 
when I knew that Mark was leaving. The delay, however, 
was not very great, so small, in fact, that the manuscript 
I sent reached its destination in time. 60 

I am still living as usual, in peace and quietness. The 
weather is getting wintry, we have long since sealed our- 
selves up behind double windows, keep the stove going, 
etc. The real cold is still to come, of course, and so far there 
have been mostly autumn days when it is pleasant to stroll 
through the forest with a gun. I shall probably continue 
that exercise through the winter. Shooting in winter, 
going after hares, for instance, is no less interesting than it 
is in summer, and I regard it as one of the important 
advantages of rural life. 

I usually get the magazines in the first half of the month. 
I am now reading the September issues with interest. Soon 
I hope to get some information from the editors about the 
article I sent. If it is accepted I shall subscribe to a few more 
magazines-I think I had better do it through the same 
editorial office, so that there is no more muddle and I don't 
get the same copies twice. 

I am awaiting news of the arrival of Anyuta, Mark and 
Mitya. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I had a letter recently from Yuly. He writes that he 
had moved to a new flat, much better than the old one, 



See Letter No. 30.— Ed. 



134 



V. I. LENIN 



and is now fixed up so comfortably that he has been able 
to work for the past month; he has written something and 
sent it off. We shall see how he will stand the winter in 
Turukhansk. Anatoly has found work, temporarily. 61 

Manyasha, 

Merci for the letter. Why do you keep saying that 
I should write more frequently? Do you think I do not write 
often as it is? You say yourself that you now receive two 
of my letters at a time — what more do you want? 

Up to now I have not received the L. G* and Bulletin. I do 
not know the reason for the delay. If you happen to be near 
the shop in which you ordered them, look in and hurry 
them up. 

Buy me Programmy domashnego chteniya na 3-i god sis- 
tematicheskogo kursa; it costs 50 kopeks at the warehouse 
in Nikitskaya Street, Rikhter House, apartment 3. (I read 
about this book today in Russkiye Vedomosti and want 
to see what it is like. It is probably to be found in other 
bookshops besides that warehouse.) And subscribe for me 
to the new monthly publication Izvestiya knizhnykh maga- 
zinov tovarishchestva M. O. Wolfe, 35 kopeks a year (Kuz- 
netsky Most, 12, Moscow). I want to see what sort of pub- 
lication it is. In general I have nothing that gives me bib- 
liographical information and which will tell me about new 
books. If you are interested in this publication, subscribe 
to it in your own name and send it on to me afterwards. 
Its programme is so extensive and the price so low that 
one cannot help thinking there may be some catch in it. 
We'll see. 

I recall that either Anyuta or you wrote to me about 
having sent the second issue of Mehring. I have not received 
it. It is quite possible that the first got through by chance. 



All the best, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 



Printed from 
the original 



The Labour Gazette. — Ed. 



135 



34 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTERS MARIA AND ANNA 

December 10, 1897 

According to my estimate, Mother dearest, this letter 
should arrive by Christmas. I have decided to send it off 
by the first post and not wait until Sunday (I am used to 
writing to you on Sundays). I have received a letter from 
Gleb in which he says he has submitted an application for 
permission to come to me for ten days during the holidays. 
I hope lie will get permission. It will give me great pleasure. 
They have written from Tesinskoye that Zinaida Pavlovna 
has been sentenced to three years' exile in northern guber- 
nias, and that she is asking to be sent to Minusinsk Dis- 
trict.* I believe Nadezhda Konstantinovna** intends to 
do the same, although her sentence is not yet properly 
known; it will probably be very much the same. 

I kiss you warmly, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I hope that Mitya will be free by the time you receive 
this letter. They are not likely to hold him long. 62 

Anyuta, 

I am now reading the French translation of Labriola's 
Essays on the Materialistic Conception of History. It is a 
very sensible and interesting book.*** The idea came to me 



* Zinaida Pavlovna Nevzorova. — Ed. 
** Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya. — Ed. 
*** For Lenin's opinion of the book see Collected Works, Vol. 2, 
p. 486.— Ed. 



136 



V. I. LENIN 



that you ought to translate it. (The original is in Italian 
and Kamensky in Novoye Slovo says that the French trans- 
lation is not very good. You would, of course, have to get 
the original.) The book is in three parts: (1) In Memory 
of the Communist Manifesto, (2) Historical Materialism 
(the biggest part) and (3) Appendix: The Manifesto of the 
Communist Party (translated into French by Laura Lafar- 
gue). It goes without saying that only the second part is 
suitable for translation, and not all of that (I have not yet 
finished reading it). If something is left out, it will not by 
any means detract from this extremely clever defence of 
"our doctrine" (Labriola's expression). I am writing to 
St. Petersburg this very day to find out whether the writer 
proposes using this material for the journal. You can either 
get his opinion from N. K. (I am writing to her) or propose 
directly to him that you start the translation. 63 

V. U. 



Manyasha, 

I received your letter of November 24 and the second 
issue of the Vyatka Returns. Earlier I received the Ulo- 
zheniye and Ustav 64 — I do not remember whether I acknowl- 
edged them. 

You say that "goods for Minusinsk are still not being 
accepted from Moscow". Perhaps they will soon be accept- 
ed. Mark could probably find out. Books are no longer 
urgent. Perhaps you can send them with someone coming 
at Christmas or with the girls* who intend to come here 
(I am writing to Mother about them) or, eventually, with 
someone else. If things are sent to Krasnoyarsk the delay 
is, in any case, tremendous. If any book is needed for work, 
I shall write and it can be sent by post. We had better wait 
a while before using the carrier's office. 

Savchenko's book, it seems, is Peskovsky's. 

Programma domashnego chteniya has arrived; I have 
looked at it, it is dull and I do not want to write a review. 



* The girls are Nadezhda Krupskaya and Zinaida Nevzorova.— 
Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



137 



Wolfe's little publication starts quite well and is fabu- 
lously cheap. 

I have ordered Seignobos. I do not intend to order Ziber 
yet. If I get some money I shall probably order it, too. 
Kalmykova's bookshop gives me a discount of 15 per cent, 
so I order books from there; it is convenient, too, because 
it saves you trouble. 



All the best, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 



Printed from 
the original 



138 



35 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTERS MARIA AND ANNA 

December 21, 1897 

I received your letter of December 5 the day before 
yesterday, Mother dearest. I am very, very glad that there 
is a hope of Mitya's business being cleared up. In any case it 
is obvious that it is mainly a misunderstanding and that 
there can be no question of anything serious. You ask me 
whether I received a package sent on November 16 — what 
package do you mean? If, in general, it is possible to send 
things to Minusinsk you should address them to me direct, 
because my letters go through Minusinsk Post Office any- 
way and I have given our postman power of attorney to 
collect my mail. 

I seem to have got mixed up over all these packages you 
have sent or intended to send me. Have you sent anything 
to Popova in Krasnoyarsk? I think not, but just in case 
I will ask an acquaintance who is going there soon (from 
Minusinsk) to make enquiries.* 

I am in no hurry for books. I now have so many that I 
cannot manage them all, let alone more. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Manyasha, 

I received your postcard of December 2 and the two 
Semyonov volumes. Merci for them. I shall send them back 



* It is not known who this acquaintance was. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



139 



soon, not later than a week from now (I am afraid our post- 
man will not go for the mail at all on Wednesday 24th). 

These first two volumes proved to be without interest. 
Such things are, of course, inevitable when you order books 
you know nothing about, and I was prepared for it before- 
hand. 

I hope at least that we shall not have to pay any fine — 
they will extend them for another month. 

I did not understand your sentence "To get into the 
jurists' library — I asked Kablukov about it — you must be 
a jurist and submit two recommendations from members 
of the Society of Jurists". Is that all? You do not have to be a 
member of the society yourself? I shall try to get a recom- 
mendation through St. Petersburg. 

I know for a fact that one does not have to be a jurist 
to join the society. 

All the best, 

V. U. 



Anyuta, 

Merci for your letter of December 5 and for the list. It 
is a pity you took so much trouble copying it a second time. 
I seem to have expressed myself badly about the accounts; 
it stands to reason that it is of interest to me to know 
results — plus or minus so much — and not those details that 
caused you so much trouble and nevertheless mean noth- 
ing to me.* 

It is strange that they do not send me any accounts from 
the office of the journal. I am shortly sending something 
else 65 there. I shall have to put a note in with it (when I 
send the manuscript) asking them to send an account of the 
fees and expenditure on the journals, etc. It seems that I 
have overstepped the mark through not knowing exactly 
how much I own. 

It seems that there was some misunderstanding between 
us about my question concerning how the project for the 



* This apparently refers to financial settlements for literary 
work. — Ed. 



140 



V. I. LENIN 



journal got into the hands of our acquaintance; 66 I under- 
stood that it came from you, and now I see quite well that 
it did not. It stands to reason that what I said about my 
first assumption does not hold now that the opposite has 
been proved. Oh, that Yegor! I'll give him what for. 

The photos, including the group, have still not arrived. 67 
I have written to Nadezhda Konstantinovna but have 
not received a reply. Should I write to Yuly's sisters? 

By the way, I received a letter from Yuly dated October 
29 (sic!). He writes that he lives reasonably well, they 
have all moved into one house (this is much more conve- 
nient and cheaper and the meals are more easily arranged 
at the expense of their one and only "lady"), they have 
received their allowances so he is looking and feeling bet- 
ter and is not a bit despondent. Our poet friend* should 
be coming to me soon for the holidays, if he does not let 
me down again. Anatoly is still worried about his wife 
who has been locked up in Yeniseisk (for three months), 
the cells are cold and she has been taken ill. 68 A bad 
business! It would have been far better for her to have done 
her term in Russia! 

Fedoseyev and Lyakhovsky have not written a word. 
The devil knows what's happening where they are. 

I should like to have Saint-Simon and also the following 
books in French: 

K. Marx. Misere de la philosophie. 1896. Paris. 3 frs 50 
Fr. Engels. La force et V economie dans le developpement 
social. 2 frs 50 

K. Marx. Critique de la philosophie du droit de Hegel. 



all these are from the "bibliotheque socialiste internation- 
ale" where Labriola came from. 



1895. 



1 fr 



All the best, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 



Printed from 
the original 



G. M. Krzhizhanovsky.— Ed. 



141 



36 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA 

December 27, 1897 

The money has arrived, Mother dearest, both the first 
and the second lots (i.e., of November 16 and December 8). 
We are now receiving our allowance regularly, too, so that 
in this respect things have returned to normal and I think 
for a long (relatively long) time no emergency additions 
will be necessary. 

Gleb has now been living with me for several days, having 
obtained permission for a ten-day trip here. We are having 
an excellent time and do a lot of walking because the weath- 
er is mostly very warm. Ever since one day, when the 
frost was said to be 36° R (about ten days ago) and after 
a few days of snowstorm ("of weather", as the people here 
say), the days have been very warm and we go shooting 
very zealously but without much luck. What shooting is 
there to be had here in winter! The walks are pleasant, 
though. Because of the holidays there was no outgoing mail 
on Wednesday this week and no incoming mail on Friday; 
this is the third time since I have been living in Shusha that 
the mail has missed a turn — that is not very often. Thanks 
to my guest, I scarcely notice it. 

Many kisses, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I am sending an article of mine for the journal. It would 
be good if you could pass it on quickly; perhaps you will 
be in time for the January issue. 69 

Gleb sends his regards. He asks you to tell Manyasha 
that he expects he will have a lot to argue about with her. 



142 



V. I. LENIN 



Manyasha, 

Do not work so hard, Manyasha, over Stange; it is quite 
probable that I was mistaken. How could I remember after 
so many years! You have found one article so we may con- 
sider ourselves lucky. It has even occurred to me that the 
second was not in Ekonomichesky Zhurnal but in Severny 
Vestnik for 1891 (at least I recently came across a reference 
to that effect somewhere). In any case there is no need to 
go through Ekonomichesky Zhurnal up to 1895. 

As far as concerns your visit to me — I shall be very glad. 
Things are different now and I have no particular reasons 
for objecting. If you wait for a steamer up the Yenisei you 
can travel without any particular discomfort. It is quite 
possible that Nadezhda Konstantinovna will also come to 
me; the matter will probably be settled soon, and may even 
have been settled by the time you are reading this letter. 
If she is allowed to choose Shu-shu-shu as her place of exile 
instead of the north of Russia, she will not, of course, be 
allowed to put it off until spring but will have to travel 
at once. 

Best wishes, 

V. U. 

I recall that Mark once wrote to me asking if he should 
get a gun dog for me in Moscow. My attitude at the time 
was very cool since I counted on my Pegasus, but he has 
let me down badly. I would now be in hearty agreement 
with such a plan, of course, but as far as I can see, it is 
purely Utopian and would not be worth the trouble. The 
transport is very expensive. Gleb gets fantastic ideas — why 
not take a little pup and bring it in a basket! We had a 
good laugh over that plan, which is, of course, little better 
than any other. It was simply that Mark let his imagination 
run away with him; from this postscript you can see what 
petty problems sometimes engage the attention of the 
inhabitants of Shu-shu-shu and Te-te-tes. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 the original 



143 



1898 



37 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW 

January 4, 1898 

I have received, Mother dearest, your letter of December 
15. One mail delivery was missed this week (January 1), 
so I do not know the outcome of Anyuta's efforts. 70 It is 
probable, however, that the outcome is favourable because 
if the case has already gone to St. Petersburg it means that 
it is a petty one and there is no reason for any great delay.* 

You need have no fears about my big coat. With my 
winter suit (which we all brought with us from St. Peters- 
burg) it is quite enough even for travelling (and I very rarely 
have to travel). For walking it is too warm and I wear a 
quilted jacket — there have been a couple of cold days (yes- 
terday and the day before) but they are the exception. 
Altogether, the winter here is exceptionally warm. Nor is 
there any need to be afraid of my going shooting; there is 
no danger. Now, by the way, there will be an end to all 

shooting, probably until spring (The money has arrived, 

the first and the second lots, both for the same sum.) 

It is 55 versts from Shusha to Minusinsk, in winter there 
is a shorter road — 50 versts. 

Gleb left here the day before yesterday, after a stay of 
ten days. There was a real holiday this year in Shu-shu-shu 
and the ten days passed unnoticed. Gleb liked the place 
and said that it is much better than Tesinskoye (I said the 
same thing about Tes! I made fun of Gleb by saying that 
anywhere is better than where we are), that there is forest 
near here (in which it is good to walk in winter) and an 
excellent view of the distant Sayan Mountains. He was 



* See Letter No. 34.— Ed. 



144 



V. I. LENIN 



enthusiastic about the Sayans, especially on a clear day when 
the sun is on them. Gleb, by the way, has become very fond 
of singing, so my silent rooms grew merry during his stay 
and fell quiet again after he left. But he has no music and 
no songs. I think we had a lot of that rubbish (from the 
times when we also used to "bawl"). If nobody needs them 
any longer it would be a good idea to send them to him; 
he would be very glad. Basil is the musician (on the guitar) 
and would rearrange them for him. Gleb's health improved 
somewhat during his stay with me due to the regular life 
and plenty of walking; he was much livelier when he left. 

I think I have already written that Nadezhda Konstan- 
tinovna intended asking to be sent here (she was sentenced 
to three years in the northern gubernias). If that plan is 
carried out it will afford a good opportunity for books, 
music and everything. 

Kisses, 

Yours, 

V. U. 



January 4, 1898 

Mark, 

I have received your letter of December 16 in which two 
interesting announcements with theses were enclosed. I must 
admit that the prohibition of the lectures by Tugan-Bara- 
novsky and Struve did not very greatly surprise me since 
the latter's article on the same subject was cut out and the 
theses were perfectly clear. I did not understand, however, 
which minister banned the lectures. But, of course, it does 
not take the St. Petersburg government departments long 
to get in touch with each other 71 .... 

I was very surprised to learn that the Chicagoan is in 
St. Petersburg. The last time I heard of him it was said 
(or rather, written) that he was somewhere in the Cau- 
casus. So he has a job now. He does not answer my letter 
and I suppose I shall have to stop expecting him to; he is 
probably very busy now at his job, and with his perpetual 
journeyings could have forgotten it a dozen times over. 
I'll manage without him. How did you find him? How 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 145 



is he looking (not in the physical sense) and what does 
he plan to do? What contacts has he made and is he think- 
ing of resuming his attempts at literary work? (Perhaps 
Anyuta will write and give me answers to some of these 
questions, as many [answers, that is] as she can, so I am 
probably wasting your time asking you.) By the way, have 
you written to him about my last request (I wrote to 
Manyasha about it) — to inform H. Braun about permission 
for a translation?* 

The lecture (Lozinsky's) is really a masterpiece of fool- 
ishness. 72 If P.B. does not write about it in the home news, 73 
send me the issue of Trudy Volno- ekonomicheskogo obsh- 
chestva containing it — if it is easy to find. He should be 
put in his place beside Mr. Yuzhakov. If you send the 
lecture buy me at the same time the verbatim report of the 
discussion in the Free Economic Society, 1896, on the cur- 
rency reform. Some Narodnik, it might even have been 
Lozinsky, also distinguished himself on that occasion.] 

What have you heard about Syn Otechestva? 14 I wrote 
to St. Petersburg that they should subscribe to it for me if 
it is worth the trouble.** It is interesting because of the 
Narodniks on its staff. Do you ever see that sheet? 

All the best, 

V. U. 

P.S. I have a gun dog again, a setter. A friend brought 
it from town. We'll see how it turns out, whether it will 
live till spring (it is still very young and I am again afraid 
it will get distemper). It has one disadvantage — it is of 
the female estate.... 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 2-3 the original 



It is not known what translation is referred to. — Ed. 
The letter has been lost. — Ed. 



146 



38 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

January 24, 1898 

I have received letters from Manyasha and Anyuta and 
also two books — Semyonov (Vol. Ill) and Yuridichesky Vest- 
nik. Many thanks to Manyasha for the latter. I have also 
received Basil's photograph 

Please buy me the books — Kablukov, Lektsii po ekonomii 
selskogo khozyaistva, and V. V., Ocherki kustarnoi promysh- 
lennosti (1 ruble 50). The latter may perhaps be found 
second-hand; the former was recently issued for students 
and Manyasha can probably get it for me even if it is not 
on sale (as is possible, judging from the absence of adver- 
tisements in Russkiye Vedomosti). 

I have nothing new to say about myself. It is pleasanter 
now three of us go shooting together — we are having real 
spring weather; it is even thawing today. 

Nadezhda Konstantinovna has been given reason to hope 
that her three years' exile in Ufa Gubernia will be changed 
to two years in Shusha 75 and I am expecting her and Yeli- 
zaveta Vasilyevna. 76 I am even getting lodgings ready — 
the next room in the same house.* If other guests come in 
summer we can take the whole house (the owners will move 
into the old log cabin in the yard), which would be much 
more convenient than our setting up house here ourselves. 



* An amusing competition is going on between us and the local 
parson, who is also asking our landlady for a room. I am protesting 
and insist that she wait until my "family" affairs have been finally 
settled. I still do not know whether I shall be able to get rid of my 
rival. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



147 



What I do not know is whether N. K.'s case will be 
settled by spring; it is said that we shall get an answer 
in February, but so far that is only a rumour. 

It is most annoying that Mitya's case is dragging on so 
long; it will be unpleasant for him if he has to lose a year. 
Still, he will probably be allowed to enter another univer- 
sity or to take his examinations as an external student.* 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I am enclosing a letter to Columbus.** 
Anyuta, 

I have read in the newspapers about the publication of 
your translation of de Amicis's book. If you have any spare 
copies please send me some. On what terms did you do the 
translation? Was there a contract with the publisher, and 
what sort? 

My head is now fall of plans to issue my articles as a 
separate book. 77 A few days ago I received N. Vodovozov's 
Ekonomicheskiye etyudy, and that gave me the idea. It would 
be very inconvenient to publish the article about the handi- 
craftsmen as a separate pamphlet. It would be far better 
to print it together with the Sismondi article. It could 
then be published without preliminary censorship (10 
printer's signatures are needed for that and these articles 
will make about 12 — about 200 pages, that is), which is 
much more convenient. It could be given the title of An 
Assessment of the Romantic Doctrines of Narodism. Such 
a book would be more interesting and varied. The main 
question, in my opinion, is whether the censors will permit 
the reprinting of an article from a suppressed journal. I 
should imagine they will permit it, as it is an abstract 
article and was published a long time ago, long before the 
journal was suppressed. I am also writing to N. K. about 
this — she should ask the writer's opinion. I do not want 
to wait until their new plans are put into effect. The 
articles are actually not very suitable for a journal, as they 



*See Letter No. 34.— Ed. 
** The letter has been lost.— Ed. 



148 



V. I. LENIN 



are too long. Let the other articles that I think it would be 
dangerous to include in the book (they would not be allowed) 
and not very suitable (they are of a different character) 
go for the journal. The article about handicraftsmen is 
quite mild and full of figures. As far as the financial side of 
the business is concerned I think it is much more favourable 
than the censorship side of it. Assuming that the price is 
a ruble fifty kopeks and only a thousand printed* we can 
allow 500 rubles for the publication and the same sum each 
for the booksellers and the author. The sale of 500 copies 
would cover costs, and that number is certain to be sold. 

The question is who will undertake the publication. There 
is no one to be relied on in St. Petersburg. Would not Mark 
undertake the publishing job (buying paper, contract with 
the printer) and Manyasha the proofreading?** If that plan 
can be put into effect I will immediately send corrections 
to the article on Sismondi (it must be broken up into §§ 
and some important misprints need correcting). If you agree, 
telegraph me "send corrections". I calculate that the book 
could come out in April, if not sooner. 

It seems to me we should try ourselves and not wait for 
the plans of the Novoye Slovo people, who move at a snail's 
pace. And, besides, it is a pity for me to write for nothing — 
I must earn something, too. The objection may be raised 
that the articles are quite different in character, but I do 
not think there is anything wrong in that; Vodovozov's 
are also different in character, and, in general, such collec- 
tions of articles are published. There is, moreover, something 
common to them both; they are a criticism of Narodnik 
economics — one is abstract and the other uses Russian data. 
Please answer me as quickly as possible about this — can 
the plan be carried out or not? If it can, we must start on 
it without losing time. 

N. Y. F. does not write to me and does not even answer, 
although I have written him two letters.*** Scold him for 

* If 2,000 copies are printed the price may be reduced to lr. 25k. 
**The proofs will not be very difficult since half the book is a 
reprint and the other half from a manuscript I have rewritten in a 
fair copy. 

***The correspondence between Lenin and Fedoseyev has been 
lost.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



149 



that if you write. I have heard of the "scandal" in Verkho- 
lensk — some disgusting scandal-monger has been attacking 
N. Y. 78 No, don't wish me comrades from among the intel- 
lectuals in Shushenskoye — I'd rather not! When N. K. 
arrives there will be a whole colony anyway. 



Regards to all, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



150 



39 

TO HIS MOTHER 

February 7, 1898 

Yesterday, Mother dearest, I received letters from you 
and from all the family dated January 22 and 23 and was 
very glad to get them; I send you my thanks for all the 
good wishes. I guessed, of course, that you would write 
to Nadezhda Konstantinovna and invite her to visit you; 
it is to be hoped she will be allowed to. I still know nothing 
about her transfer to Shu-shu; she keeps writing that it 
will be settled "in a day or two", but it is still dragging 
on. Now, however, we probably shall not have to wait 
long for a final decision. 

As to what you should send with N. K. — I think you should 
give her a real load of books since we do not know whether 
there will be an opportunity in summer. Manyasha intends 
going abroad (and that, of course, is a bit more interesting 
than Shu-shu and the Siberian mosquitoes), and you will prob- 
ably go off to Kokushkino with Mitya.... It's bad that in 
two and a half months he has already begun to look puffy. 
First — does he stick to a diet in prison? I suppose not. In 
my opinion that is essential. Second — does he do physical 
jerks? Probably not, either. Also essential. I can at least 
say from my own experience that every day, with great pleas- 
ure and profit I did my gymnastics before going to bed. You 
loosen up so well at times that it makes you warm even in the 
worst cold, when the cell is like an ice-well, and after it 
you sleep better. I can recommend to him an exercise that 
is very convenient (even if funny) — bow to the ground 
50 times. I set myself that stint and was not embarrassed 
when the warder watched me through the peephole and was 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



151 



amazed that a prisoner who had never expressed a desire 
to attend the prison church should suddenly have become 
so pious! He must bow not less than fifty times without 
bending his legs and must touch the floor with his fingers 
each time. Tell him that. Most of these doctors, you know, 
only talk about hygiene. 

I have already written something about clothes. I do 
not need any underclothes except socks. As for the local 
tailors, I do not place much hope in them. It is very incon- 
venient to get clothes made in Minusinsk; one has to go 
there. There is a tailor here who makes clothes for every- 
body (he told me so today), including former political 
exiles, even for all the priests (he boasted to me of that). 
Although it all sounds very impressive, you had better buy 
ready-made clothes in Moscow and give the material you 
have to Mitya or Mark. One thing I do ask you for in par- 
ticular — a pair of moleskins, because I tear my clothes 
terribly when I am out shooting. If my straw hat is still 
in good shape (it's a Paris hat, after all, the devil take it!) 
she should bring it. Prominsky, as a matter of fact, has 
begun making hats (sometimes they look like felt boots!) 
but they are suitable only for spring and autumn and not 
for summer. The only other thing is — kid gloves, if they 
can be bought without knowing the size (which I doubt). 
I have never worn them, either in St. Petersburg or Paris, 
but I want to try them in Shu-shu-shu in summer as a pro- 
tection against mosquitoes. I can wear a net over my head 
but my hands get badly bitten. Gleb assures me that the 
local mosquitoes bite through gloves but I do not believe 
him. The gloves have to be suitably chosen, of course, not for 
dances but for mosquitoes. Then I need some paper, ruled 
in squares; I do not suppose there is any in Minusinsk — any- 
way I do not need much, about four quires with squares of 
different sizes from the smallest to the largest. 

Anyuta asks when the wedding is to be and who we are 
"inviting"! Isn't she in a hurry! First of all Nadezhda Kon- 
stantinovna has to get here, and then we have to get permis- 
sion from the authorities to marry — we are people with- 
out any rights at all. So how can I do any "inviting"? 

As far as concerns verbalisme and phraseologie it seems 
to me that they should be translated as verbalism (with an 



152 



V. I. LENIN 



explanation) and phraseology.... That, of course, is not 
really translation but simply transcription, but what else 
can you do? "Dilettantism" is quite wrong for verbalism — 
almost the opposite, in fact. Verbalism is probably closer 
to scholasticism, i.e., to superfluous (pseudo) learnedness, 
than to dilettantism. But I don't remember exactly how 
Labriola uses these words. 

Merci for Bogdanov. I have read half of it. Very interest- 
ing and to the point. I am thinking of writing a review. 79 

In reply to Manyasha's questions: what sort of voice 
has Gleb? Hm, hm! I suppose it must be baritone. He sings 
the things that Mark and I used to "bawl" (as Nanny 80 
used to say). 

The next question — will Paris go to her head? Very like- 
ly. She has now seen for herself what it is like abroad 
and can judge. I lived only one month in Paris, did very 
little work and spent most of the time running round to 
see the "sights". It is not clear to me either whether 
Manyasha wants to go to study or for the summer only. 

Thanks to Mark for his letter. He must not, however, 
forget Gogol's "Ivan Andreiches". 81 I do not know what 
progress has been made in Russia, but here in Siberia they 
are doubtlessly flourishing, and they are interested in other 
things besides knowing whether a government official is 
arriving and whether the young ladies are on the way. 
I am surprised that you have not even heard about Syn 
Otechestva. I saw in Russkaya Mysl &2 today (the issue of 
November or December 1897) that the newspaper declares 
itself a Narodnik organ pur sang* 

Till next time. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

The real cold has now arrived, so we have given up shoot- 
ing and only go for walks — in the forest, though. My lodg- 
ings are warm, however, and my clothes still warmer. 

Manyasha should send Nadezhda Konstantinovna the list 
of books I should like to have — she will look for them in 
St. Petersburg, if, of course, it is not too late by now. 



Genuine (Fr.).— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



153 



If we have any other children's picture books let N. K. 
bring them for Prominsky's children. 

A. Semyonov. Obzor istoricheskikh svedenii o promyshlen- 
nosti i torgovle. Three volumes. An old book, published in 
the fifties or sixties, or even earlier. 

Sbornik svedenii i materialov po vedomstvu Ministerstva 
finansov. St. Petersburg, 1865, No. 6. 

1866, No. 4 and No. 5. 

1867, No. 6 (June) especially. 
Materialy po opisaniyu promyslov Vyatskoi gubernii. Five 

issues. Vyatka, 1880 (Manyasha already has the second 
issue). 

Vasilenko. Promysly selskogo naseleniya Poltavskoi gu- 
bernii. 

Svod svedenii ob ekonomicheskom polozhenii selskogo nase- 
leniya Yevropeiskoi Rossii. St. Petersburg, 1894. Published 
by the Office of the Committee of Ministers. 

Shcherbina. Ekonomicheskiye otnosheniya v raione Vladi- 
kavkazskoi zheleznoi dorogi. 

Bezobrazov. Narodnoye khozyaistvo Rossii. 

Trudy obshchestva selskikh khozyayev yuzhnoi Rossii 
(those issues for 1895 that carried articles by Mr?? Perhaps 
Borinevich?... on suburban farms near Odessa). 

Ragozin. Zhelezo i ugol na yuge Rossii. 

Mendeleyev. Tolkovy tarif. 

Yuridichesky Vestnik, 1887, Nos. 11 and 12. 

Lyudogovsky.... (? Osnovy selskokhozyaistvennoi ekono- 
miil or something like it. I do not remember the exact title. 
A book published in the 70s.) 

Statistical tables compiled in the Statistical Division 
of the Council of the Ministry of the Interior according 
to the data of 1849-52. 

Statistichesky vremennik Rossiiskoi imperii. Series I, 
Issue 1, St. Petersburg, 1866. 

Vremennik Tsentralnogo statisticheskogo komiteta. 1894, 
No. 34 (average grain and potato harvest for 1882-92). 

Vremennik Tsentralnogo statisticheskogo komiteta. 1889, 
Nos. 10 and 12. 



154 



V. I. LENIN 



Vremennik Tsentralnogo statisticheskogo komiteta. The 
issue for 1897 (one of the last issues) which carried the 
processed data of the army-horse census of 1893-94. 

(See the catalogue or the list of publications of the Central 
Statistical Committee.) 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



155 



40 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW 

February 14, 1898 

I have received a book (Bulgakov 83 ) from Manyasha, 
Mother dearest, and thank her for it. She asks whether 
I received a registered package sent by Anna on December 
27.* It is difficult for me to remember now because it was a 
long time ago. I remember that I received some foreign 
catalogues and Neue Zeit. Si Manyasha's letter is dated 
January 26, so it is quite possible that my answer to the 
letter of December 27 had not reached Moscow by then.** 
I received Bogdanov's book before that; I liked it very 
much and have written a review.*** Bulgakov's book is 
not too bad, either, but I do not like the chapter on turnover 
and his formulation of the question of the foreign market 
is not quite correct. I was, of course, very pleased to 
receive it. 

Again our allowance is being delayed — owing to the new 
year. Another piece of news — a new chief of police has 
arrived from Yeniseisk (it is the one who wanted to take 
the shotguns away). 85 He does not seem to have done any- 
thing to distinguish himself yet. For some unknown reason 
Prominsky has had his allowance reduced from 31 rubles 
a month (he has five children) to 21 rubles — seven people 
cannot live on that sum in Shusha and his hatter's business 
(that is his trade) is not a going concern here. Another 



* I have received Neue Zeit No. 3. 
** See Letter No. 38.— Ed. 
***See Letter No. 39. —Ed. 



156 



V. I. LENIN 



comrade* went to see a doctor in Minusinsk and has been 
admitted to hospital there. 

It is still very, very cold here; the Siberian winter intends 
to make itself felt after all. But I seem to have got fairly 
used to the frosts, and do quite a lot of walking every day. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Did you send N. K. money to subscribe to Vestnik Finan- 
sovl I did not expect it at all (because I asked her to sub- 
scribe only in the event of my finances being in a brilliant 
state) and now I get it from her as I always did. 

Today I am sending Anyuta the books from the library 
and the technical reports by registered post. 



Mark, 

Nadezhda Konstantinovna writes that the writer has 
proposed either to look for money for the publication of 
my articles or a publisher for them, and for this reason 
she will not take the manuscripts away from him. I answered 
that she should take them and send them to you because one 
can "look" for many years, and, indeed, who would willingly 
go to so much trouble. I shall start on the corrections to 
Sismondi in a couple of days without waiting for your answer 
to one of my earlier letters and as soon as they are finished 
I shall send them to you. 86 (The writer's proposal is impor- 
tant to me only because it shows the feasibility of this 
enterprise from the standpoint of censorship, which is actually 
the only thing that interested me.) As regards my other 
manuscripts, with the exception of the article on handi- 
craftsmen,** 87 do not think they should be included, first, 
because they are of a different character, suitable only for 
a journal, the subjects are polemical and of temporary 
interest, and, secondly, because it is not worth the risk. 



* 0. A. Engberg.— Ed. 
**That is, the articles on the "heritage" and on Yuzhakov. The 
note on Mikulin's book is, of course, absolutely unsuitable for in- 
clusion in the book. 88 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



157 



When you receive this letter you should be able, I think, 
to begin negotiations with the printers (in the plural, 
because you will probably have to seek and haggle) and look 
for a shop in which to buy paper. While these preliminary 
searches are going on I shall send the corrections, and you 
will then be able to go straight on with the printing. It 
seems to me important not to waste time, so that the book 
can come out in April. 



I think the article on Sismondi had better go first, followed 
by the handicrafts. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 
First published in 1929 



All the best, 



V. U. 



in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



158 



41 

TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW 

February 18, 1898 

Today I am sending you, Mark, the corrections to the 
Sismondi article by registered post. There were fewer cor- 
rections than I expected — only the misprints and the 
division of the article into chapters (two) and paragraphs. 
It is to be expected that the compositors will find it much 
easier to work from a printed text, so there will be fewer 
mistakes and less proof-reading to do (but the proofs abso- 
lutely must be read). The magazine pages I am sending 
can go straight to the printers, but give them strict warn- 
ing not to lose them* (they usually do lose manuscripts) 
and that each time they should send the original (manu- 
script or magazine page) together with the proofs; without 
this it is terribly difficult for a stranger (not the author) to 
correct them (I know this from my own experience) and 
there will be many unpleasant misunderstandings and mis- 
takes. I hope Manyasha will find time to undertake the 
proof-reading. In general, it is very important for the proofs 
to be read by one person from beginning to end, otherwise 
there will be a muddle because of the signs the proof-readers 
use, and, furthermore, they usually forget, when subse- 
quent proofs are received (there must be at least two), to 
verify whether the mistakes indicated in the first proofs 
have been corrected and whether fresh mistakes were not 
made in correcting the old ones. Accurate printing and an 
elegant edition are very important. 



* If it has to be torn up into separate pages (printers usually do 
that), number them all with special numbers to prevent losses. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



159 



The article (together with this letter) will arrive at the 
very beginning of March and if you set about the printing 
immediately and carry it out without delay, and if you 
hurry the printer, you may manage to finish it and present 
it to the censor by Easter. That would be very good; the 
sale of the book will probably be much slower if it does 
not come out until May. I am awaiting news from you on 
the way things are going. 

I have been thinking a lot about the other two articles 
(on the "heritage" and on Yuzhakov); on the one hand, 
caution tells me that they should not be printed, but, on 
the other hand, it is a pity to abandon them, especially 

the second The fact is that it analyses a book and not 

a magazine article Perhaps we should try? If experienced 

people had not decided that it was impossible I should not 
have been averse to trying. We should have to cross out 
a few places recalling the defunct journal* (I have no rough 
copy of the Yuzhakov article, so the publisher will have to 
do it. It is not a big job), and then place them at the end, 
so that if they are removed (in case the authorities demand 
it) it will not spoil the preceding articles. If you estimate 
the cost of the publication at 40 rubies a printer's signa- 
ture, the loss on those two articles (together four signatures) 
would not be so great. In any case the book should not be 
delayed on account of them. 

If they have not yet sent you the manuscripts from St. Pe- 
tersburg, write an urgent letter to Nadezhda Konstantinov- 
na to send them immediately and start printing what I send 
today. 

All the best, 

V. U. 

Please hand or send the enclosed letter to N. K. She 
asks me to write to Moscow now, since they will probably 
be moving her soon. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



* This refers to the journal Novoye Slovo, suppressed by the tsar- 
ist government in December 1897. — Ed. 



160 



42 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA 

February 24, 1898 

Today, Mother dearest, I received a pile of letters from 
all parts of Russia and Siberia and have therefore been 
in a holiday mood all day. 

From Manyasha and Anyuta I received their letters of 
February 9 and also Yuridichesky Vestnik 89 and Statisti- 
chesky Vremennik and also the Dnevnik syezda (of techni- 
cians). 90 Thank you for everything. The last-named was very 
interesting and thank Anyuta very much for it. She writes 
that the book by de Amicis is a children's book. I did not 
know that, but even children's books will be useful here, 
for Prominsky's children have nothing to read. I even 
thought of doing a thing like subscribing to Niva. 91 That 
would be very nice for the Prominsky kids (pictures every 
week), and for me a complete edition of Turgenev in 12 
volumes as promised by Niva. And all this for seven rubles, 
including postage. Very tempting! If only Turgenev is pub- 
lished decently (that is, without distortions, cuts, clumsy 
misprints), it would be well worth while subscribing. Have 
any of our people seen the Niva supplements for past years? 
I think they issued Dostoyevsky? Was it decently done? 

I now expect to set my money affairs right, since the book 
edition of the articles should also bring in something what- 
ever happens, and, moreover, I am getting a big transla- 
tion from English (from St. Petersburg) — Adam Smith — and 
I shall get something for that. 92 I shall then be able to pay 
off my debts (I must not forget them). That is why I think 
it is also possible to subscribe to Niva. Whether Turgenev 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



161 



will be "decently" published, our people must decide, 
they have more facts to go on. 

Today I received Russkoye Bogatstvo No. 1 for 1898. 
I have been receiving Vestnik Finansov for a long time. 

I shall have to ask you to send a smallish sum of money 
by N. K. (there will be no need for it earlier. The allowances 
were paid today), since there may be some fairly big expens- 
es to meet. That means that my debt will increase slightly. 

Things here are still the same — no news, no visitors and 
still no acquaintances. 

Anyuta writes that N. K. has written to her saying that 
a publisher has been found in St. Petersburg. She wrote to 
me only that they had "promised to look for one". We 
may have an amusing muddle; the plan was evolved in St. 
Petersburg independently and prior to my letter, and mine 
was also independent, prior to the receipt of the St. Peters- 
burg letter. And so we are dancing round each other like 
people who have bumped into one another in the street and 
do not know whether to step left or right to allow their vis- 
a-vis to pass. 

The matter has probably settled itself by now. 

Kisses for you and regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I understood from Manyasha's letter that both books 
(Yuridichesky Vestnik, 1887, No. 12, and Statistichesky 
Vremennik) had been bought and would not have to be 
returned. 

N. K.'s case is still dragging on. She will probably have 
to drop the claim for a shorter term, but they do promise 
to permit her to come here. 

I am enclosing a letter to her because she may now be 
in Moscow. If not, send it on. 

Manyasha, 

Send me, in addition, the following things: 
(1) Hardmuth pencil No. 6 (Anyuta bought me one last 
year and I liked it very much, but it has now, unfortu- 
nately, served its time). 



162 



V. I. LENIN 



(2) A box of sealing wax and some sort of a seal to seal 
my letters. (If we have not got an old seal, either buy or 
order a cheap one.) There is no need for a name on the seal, 
even initials are not necessary, as long as there is some sort 
of a figure or drawing on it that is easily remembered and 
described to others. 

(3) essuie-plume* \ I had both of these but, alas, 

(4) small scissors J they got lost somewhere on the 
road. In place of the former I am now using the skirt of 
my jacket and have inked it up beautifully. The scissors I 
get from the landlord — sheep shears. Their advantage is 
that they always arouse laughter and general amusement. 



Au revoir, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



Pen-wiper (Fr.).— Ed. 



163 



43 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW 

March 1, 1898 

I am still waiting for news, Mother dearest, of Mitya's 
release, but it is a long time coming. 

I am quite well and life goes on as usual. Even winter 
at last seems to be coming to an end. We have got very 
tired of it here. Today and yesterday there has been real 
spring weather. 

I am enclosing a letter for N. K. in case she has not yet 
left, and a business letter for Mark on the other side of the 
paper. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Mark, 

I have received some information that compels me to 
change my original plan to publish the book in Moscow.* 
The writer informs me that censorship conditions in Moscow 
are impossible. Bulgakov's book (about markets) was held 
up for a year by the censors! That is something quite unbe- 
lievable! If that is the case we cannot even think of Moscow; 
we must turn all our attention to St. Petersburg. The writer 
has every chance of publishing it at the moment but he wants 
to delay it till autumn (wrongly, in my opinion). As regards 
financing the edition, I think we can raise "an internal 



* This refers to the publication of Economic Studies and Essays. 
-Ed. 



164 



V. I. LENIN 



loan" from Mother, because the book will certainly pay for 



This information has put me so much off my balance 
that I have nothing to propose. You will probably be see- 
ing N. K.; talk to her about it and come to a decision. To 
make a "decision" from here means writing, writing, writ- 
ing, and all for nothing, without knowing anything, depend- 
ing on guesswork, etc. 



I hope you have not had any more unnecessary trouble 
over this unfortunate business. (N. K. writes that she has 
not sent the manuscripts.) Awaiting your answer. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 
First published in 1929 



itself. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



165 



44 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

March 8, 1898 

This week, Mother dearest, I do not think I have had a 
single letter from you. From this I gather that Mitya is 
still inside, and that is very sad. 

I do not know now whether this letter will find N. K. 
in Moscow. In case she is still there I am adding one forgotten 
request. Send me one of our sets of chessmen; it turns out 
there are some players among our comrades in Minusinsk 
and I have once already recalled old times most enjoyably. 
I was wrong in thinking Eastern Siberia an outlandish 
place where no chessmen would be needed. There are all 
kinds of places in Eastern Siberia. 

Life goes on as usual. From Tesinskoye they write that 
E. E. has had her allowance stopped — "mothers are not 
regarded as members of the family" (a new interpretation!). 
They have also reduced Prominsky's allowance from 31 
rubles to 19 a month. Anatoly has at last "rescued" his 
wife after a lot of trouble. Yuly writes from Turukhansk 
that he is living tolerably well — not the kind of fellow to 
lose heart, fortunately. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I am enclosing a letter for Nadezhda Konstantinovna. 

Please send me as much money as possible with her; 
if she has already left, send it to Yelizaveta Vasilyevna's 
address. There may be fairly heavy expenses, especially 
if we have to set up house for ourselves, so I am going to 
make my debt a good round sum and raise another internal 
loan. By autumn I shall probably receive enough for my 
translation to cover my debts — / believe more than five 
hundreds* 



The italicised phrase is in English in the original. — Ed. 



166 



V. I. LENIN 



Anyuta, 

I should like to ask you to get me some English text- 
books. I asked for something to translate and have received 
the Webbs' 93 big book. I am afraid I may make mistakes. 

I need (1) an English grammar, especially syntax, and 
especially a section on idioms. If N. K. has not got a Nurok 
(I think she had one but I do not know if it was hers), send 
me yours (or Manyasha's) at least for the summer, unless 
you (or Manyasha) need it. The only thing is that I do not 
know whether Nurok will give enough on this question. 
If you could get a good textbook of English it would be a 
very good thing. 

(2) A dictionary of geographical and proper names. They 
are very difficult to translate and transcribe from English 
and I am very much afraid of making mistakes. I do not 
know whether suitable dictionaries exist. If there is no 
information in The Book about Books or in some other refer- 
ence work or catalogue, perhaps there is some other source 
from which you could find out. 

If you have a chance to find out and to get something 
(in this case I do not grudge money, for the fee will be a 
large one and I must make a good job of the first attempt) — 
but there is no need to take any particular trouble; I shall 
get the German translation and will be able to refer to it. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

What do you think about summer? Will Mitya be allowed 
to go to Kokushkino? Are you thinking of staying there 
or not? 

Moscow is a rotten town, isn't it? It is a rotten place to 
live in and a rotten place to publish books in — so why stay 
there? I really was surprised when Mark informed me that 
you were against moving to St. Petersburg. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



167 



45 

TO HIS MOTHER 

March 14, 1898 

I have received, Mother dearest, your letter of Febru- 
ary 28. I did not expect you to return from Kazan so soon. 
A few days ago I got a letter from there from Alexander 
Ivanovich which greatly surprised me. He says he is now 
working, that Nikolai Ivanovich is in St. Petersburg; and 
that they are living in the same place in Kazan. 94 I must 
make up my mind to answer it some time. I know nothing 
about his health — it is difficult to draw any conclusion 
from his letter; if he is the same as he used to be, it will be 
difficult for him to go to work and it will not be easy for 
him to make a living, either. 

If books can be sent by express on the railway and the 
charge is the same as for a slow train, it is, of course, better 
to send them that way. The thing is when and to whom to 
send them? It is risky to send them to Achinsk, for Nadezhda 
Konstantinovna to take them on with her from there; they 
may be delayed and get left in Achinsk. They will most 
likely have to be sent to Krasnoyarsk again and wait for 
someone coming from there. I shall probably be able to find 
someone more easily now. 

With regard to being transferred from here, I am not 
so far thinking of it. In my opinion it would be premature. 
I shall wait until Nadezhda Konstantinovna arrives and see 
how things turn out. I am not writing to her today because I 
hope that she will have left Moscow by the time this letter 
arrives. If, despite my hopes, she is still there when it 
comes, please tell her that yesterday I received the German 



168 



V. I. LENIN 



translation of Webb (it is a great help to me — I could not 
have managed without it) and Vestnik Finansov. 

There is no need to worry about my health — I am now 
quite well. 

We are now having fine weather, the sun is getting appre- 
ciably warm and the roads are beginning to deteriorate. 
Winter, however, retreats very reluctantly here and there 
is still a long wait ahead for the warm weather. 

You will probably receive this letter about April 1, or 
only shortly before. I offer you and Manyasha my best 
wishes on the occasion of your name day. I hope Mitya 
will definitely be out by Easter. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

From Manyasha I have received Moskovskiye Vedomosti, 95 
at first one issue (I forget which) — there were no interesting 
articles in it. Yesterday I received four more issues (Nos. 
53-56) in which I read some interesting little articles badger- 
ing Marxists. Merci for them. 

In the near future, in three or four weeks or perhaps 
earlier, we must expect the spring breakdown of communi- 
cations with Russia; for a fortnight or perhaps as much as 
three weeks, there will be no post to and from Russia. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



169 



46 

TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW 

March 28 

Mark, 

I received your letter of March 10 acknowledging receipt 
of my manuscripts and proposing various plans. 

You have, of course, received my letter in which I reject 
the idea of publishing in Moscow (I wrote that letter imme- 
diately after I learned about censorship conditions in Mos- 
cow)*. 

It stands to reason that if things are so impossibly bad 
with the Moscow censor it is no use thinking of publishing 
there. Why should we risk such a large sum of money when 
there may be a delay of a year or a year and a half {at least)! 
You must gather the manuscripts together, do them up in 
one packet and send them back to St. Petersburg, to the 
writer, since he is kind enough to take the trouble upon 
himself. Write to him about the money, telling him we have 
it, and that he should inform you how much he needs; and 
that he should see about the publication in autumn, without 
losing time, as soon as his own work permits. 

Such is the outcome of two months' correspondence! 
I hope you have not yet done anything definite. If you 
have bought paper you can send it on to St. Petersburg, 
and if you have started having it set you must pay for the 
pages already set. It is better to lose a few dozen rubles 
than risk hundreds. The writer (and you can believe him) 
speaks confidently about St. Petersburg. 



See Letter No. A3.— Ed. 



170 



V. I. LENIN 



Of course, if I had had any idea of the charms of our 
"first capital city" and its censors I should never have 
dreamed of publishing a book in Moscow. I found out too 
late, from N. K.'s letter, after she had consulted the writer. 

All the best, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

My work has come to a complete standstill*; I am busy 
with the translation and spend a lot of time over it. After 
that we'll see — the rough translation will soon be ready, 
but it will require radical revision. 

P.S. I am surprised that you write as if you want to 
publish the book in Moscow — and at the same time point 
out how impossible censorship conditions are there. Why 
kick against the pricks? 



Written Match 28, 1898 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



* The work referred to is Lenin's book The Development of Capital- 
ism in Russia. — Ed. 



171 



47 

TO HIS MOTHER 

May 10, 1898 

At last, Mother dearest, my visitors have arrived. 96 
They got here on the evening of May 7, and on that very 
day I was clever enough to go shooting, so they did not 
find me at home. Nadezhda Konstantinovna, I find, is not 
looking at all well — she will have to take more care of her 
health while she is here. As for me — Yelizaveta Vasilyevna 
exclaimed, "Oh, how fat you're getting!"; and so, you 
see, you could not wish for a better report! 

The terribly sad thing is that they did not bring any 
good news about Mitya! 

I received your letter sent with them and that of April 20. 
A big merci for the things you sent. N. K. has made arrange- 
ments in Minusinsk about the books that are to come and 
I hope I shall get them soon without any trouble. I may 
fetch them myself as I intend going "to town". 

About steamers. They took N. K. only as far as Sorokino 
(some 70 versts from Minusinsk) after they had waited a 
week in Krasnoyarsk. The water in the river is still low; 
there will be high water about the end of May or beginning 
of June. It is 55 versts from Minusinsk to Shusha. The 
local steamers make irregular trips; there is no timetable, 
but, on the whole, once navigation begins they will probably 
run more or less regularly and without any unusual delays. 
I would very much like you to come here if you could 
manage it — if only Mitya is released soon. 

By the way, Anyuta asked me who I was going to invite 
to the wedding; I invite all of you, only I do not know 
whether it would not perhaps be better to telegraph the 



172 



V. I. LENIN 



invitations! As you know, N. K. has been confronted with a 
tragi-comic condition — she must get married immediately (sic!) 
or back to Ufa! Since I am not at all disposed to allow that, 
we have already begun "bothering" the authorities (mainly 
for identification papers, without which we cannot get mar- 
ried), so that we shall be able to marry before the Fast of 
St. Peter*; we permit ourselves to hope that these strict 
authorities will consider this a sufficiently "immediate" mar- 
riage?! I am inviting the people from Tesinskoye (they are 
already writing that I shall certainly need witnesses) and I 
hope they will be allowed to come. 

Regards to all. 

My kisses, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I almost forgot — Nadya tells me that some books on 
philosophy were on their way to me, and that they went 
past here to Irkutsk. Why is it that I have never heard 
anything about this? Has some letter been lost? I would 
ask Anyuta to find out what happened. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



* Marriage could not be celebrated during any of the three fasts 
practised by the Russian Orthodox Church — Lent, St. Peter's and 
Christmas. — Ed. 



173 



48 

TO HIS MOTHER 

May 17, 1898 

This week, Mother dearest, I received Manyasha's letter 
of May 1. 

I have not yet received my books but I hope to get them 
soon. Nadezhda Konstantinovna made detailed arrange- 
ments for them in Minusinsk. 

It is probably not worth while subscribing to a newspa- 
per; I hope to get Syn Otechestva from Tesinskoye. 

The weather here is still foul — wind and rain. Spring 
just can't settle down. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Regards to all. Have I got the address right? 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



174 



49 

TO HIS MOTHER 

June 7, 1898 

I received your long letter of May 20 the day before 
yesterday, Mother dearest, merci. Last time I forgot to 
tell you that I had received the box of books in Minusinsk 
and brought it from there myself. 97 

I cannot understand why you have not had any letters 
from me for a long time; I have been writing to you 
every Sunday "from time immemorial". 

Our wedding has been somewhat delayed. I handed in an 
application for the necessary papers to be sent to us a month 
ago, and myself went to the police chief in Minusinsk to 
enquire the reason for the delay. It turned out that the 
"status sheet" has not yet (Siberian ways!) been received 
in Minusinsk although I have been here in exile over a year 
(the "status sheet" is a paper identifying the exiled person 
and without it the police chief knows nothing about me and 
cannot give me any certificate). It has to be obtained from 
the Krasnoyarsk prison authorities — I am afraid the police 
chief will not hurry with this. In any case there cannot be 
a wedding earlier than July.* I asked him to allow the 
people to come from Tes to my wedding and he refused out- 
right on the grounds that one political exile in Minusinsk 
(Raichin) got leave of absence to go to a village last March 

and disappeared My arguments that there was no reason 

to fear that the Tes people would disappear had no effect 
on him. 



Lenin and Krupskaya were married on July 10, 1898. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



175 



The Tes people have been given permission to stay in 
Tes till autumn, then they will move to Minusinsk. 

I think I have already written you about steamer traffic 
on the Yenisei. The water is still high — it is even rising 
again; it is very hot and the snow is probably melting in 
the forests on the mountains. The steamers here (they 
are all tugs) do not run to a schedule; they take two days 
and sometimes more to get to Minusinsk from Krasnoyarsk. 
From Minusinsk it is 55 versts by road to Shusha. I hope 
I shall get a telegram from you if Mitya is released and 
you decide to come to us. Yelizaveta Vasilyevna is worried 
that the journey may be too much for you. If you can trav- 
el second class on the railway I do not think it will be too 
tiring. 

Regards to all. I am anxiously awaiting a letter from 
Anyuta. Did she receive Voprosy Filosofii? 



My kisses, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



176 



50 

TO HIS MOTHER 

June 14, 1898 

I received a letter dated May 30 from Manyasha, Mother 
dearest; tell her merci for it. But why does she not say a 
word about Voprosy Filosofii that I sent on May 14? Did 
she receive the book? (I sent it at Anyuta's request; Manyasha 
writes that my letters of May 10 and 17 have been received.) 

Life goes on as usual. I think Nadya is going to write 
today. 

We are now having real summer weather. The heat is 
exceptional — Y. V. finds it very difficult. Nadya and I 
have begun bathing and have gone over to a summer system. 

There is little news, and what there is is bad. In Tesin- 
skoye Comrade Yefimov (a worker from Yekaterinoslav) 
has gone mad; he is suffering from persecution mania and 
Gleb has taken him to hospital. There has been a very 
nasty affair which concerns Yuly in Turukhansk; one of 
the exiles (a scandal-monger) made all sorts of silly accusa- 
tions against him and they had to part company; Yuly 
is now living alone, is ill, his nerves are all to pieces and 
he cannot work. God save us from these "exile colonies" 
and exile "scandals"! Yuly has asked his father to try 
to get him transferred somewhere else, no matter where. 

I am quite well (Nadya and Y. V., too). I am finish- 
ing the translation and shall then go back to my work 
again. 98 I have been informed that the collection of my 
articles is soon to be printed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



177 



Regards to all. Is Mitya working? He should have some 
regular work, just "reading" in general is not much use. 

My kisses, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

If anybody should be coming here ask Manyasha to send 
me from among my books (1) Borovikovsky, Zakony grazh- 
danskiye (Vol. X, Part I), and (2) Ustav grazhdanskogo su- 
doproizvodstva (pocket edition). 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



178 



51 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

July 15, 1898 

Yesterday I received your letter of June 27. 

I had a letter from the doctor yesterday, about N.Y. — 
he shot himself with a revolver. He was buried on June 23. 
He left a letter for Gleb, and manuscripts, also for him. 
They say he asked me to be given a message to the effect 
that he died full of faith in life and not from disappointment. 

I did not expect such a sad ending. Probably the trouble 
caused by that scandal-monger had a terrible effect on him. 

I believe I have already written about a box of books 
addressed to me from Vilno (I have not yet received it). 
Can those be the books that have gone on to Irkutsk? When 
I get them I will inform you. By the way, the mix-up over 
my books worries me far less (I have plenty of books) than 
the mix-up over the library book (which you say you will 
return in a few days). I did not anticipate such an indescrib- 
ably lengthy delay! So all our efforts to avoid delays, 
to manage the return in six weeks instead of six months, 
have been a waste of time, have they? If so, it will be a very 
sad state of affairs, especially as all my chances of using 
the St. Petersburg libraries came to an end when N. K. 
left. I have even thought of asking you whether you could 
see the librarian yourself and persuade him to give you 
exact terms for the despatch of books, time of sending, 
general punctuality, etc. It would not seem a very dif- 
ficult thing to do and yet in eighteen months absolutely 
nothing has come of it. I think it's about time we gave it 
up — it is no joke trying to do battle against "long distances". 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



179 



I am extremely surprised that you have not received 
Voprosy Filosofii. It would be a pity for it to get lost, for it 
is a competently written book and not a cheap one; the set, 
furthermore, would be broken up. I addressed it to Maria 
Ulyanova by registered post on May 15. I still have the 
receipt. Could I have sent it to the wrong place? (I may 
have sent it to your address at Sobachya Ploshchadka). 
Please get all the information you can and let me know. I 
will present the receipt at the post office and claim compen- 
sation for the loss. I always inform you in my letters of 
books that I send. So, if a book is a long time coming, you 
may expect information about it in due course. It seems 
as if another of my letters has gone astray. 

Sergei Ivanovich has written to me that he will be glad 
to have the post of doctor in Sredny Kolymsk. I think 
he is right. It is better to have a job; without it you go under 
in exile. He will probably be able to live there well enough 
on 2,500 rubles a year. 

Nadya and I are making a fair copy of the Webbs' book. 
I have to post it, by the terms of the contract, in the middle 
of August. I am utterly fed up with this copying (about 
1,000 pages for the two of us). The translation was interest- 
ing, for it is a very, very useful book. 

Yesterday Nadya received a letter from Apollinariya Alex- 
androvna in Krasnoyarsk. She is being sent to the village 
of Kazachinskoye in Yeniseisk District, about 100 versts 
up the river from Yeniseisk. There are a number of politi- 
cal exiles there — Lepeshinsky, Lingling, Rostkovsky, Gri- 
goryeva. She has been in Krasnoyarsk for about 10 days and 
is now apparently continuing her way to her place of exile. 

When do they intend to release Mitya? I did not expect 
them to make such a fuss over nothing. And where will he 
go when they let him out? 

Kiss Mother, and regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Are you going to the Caucasus with Mark or not? 

I was very glad to learn that you have sent the money 
for the publication to the ecrivain. A big merci for that. 



180 



V. I. LENIN 



I shall now await events. But tell them to reserve 25 copies 
for me as author — I will send them to comrades and acquaint- 
ances. When you get them, send me 12 or 15 copies at 
once; I will write to you about the rest and tell you where 
to send them. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



181 



52 

TO HIS MOTHER 

August 2, 1898 

A few days ago I received your letter of July 15, Mother 
dearest. 

I hope Mitya will have been released by the time you 
receive this. His release has been promised so many times 
that he will probably be free by autumn. The investigation 
of his case is dragging on much too long. 

I think Manyasha's plan to go to Brussels is a good one. 
She can probably study there better than in Switzerland. 
She will probably soon be able to cope with the French 
language. They say that the climate there is good. Nadya 
has an acquaintance* who lived in Belgium for about five 
years and is now preparing to go back there from Russia 
(to Liege). He is married to one of Nadya's close friends.* 
Nadya is writing to her today asking her to write to Manya- 
sha (in Podolsk) and give her all the information and 
addresses that might be useful to her. 

If the janitor at your old flat says that the postman brought 
"a yellow book" in May, it must have been the Voprosy 
Filosofii that I sent. So we may hope that the book has not 
been lost and that we can still get it back. I will wait 
another week to see what Mark can find out about it at 
work, and then report the loss. 

I am very glad Anyuta intends to inform everyone not 
to send anything to the address of S. M." That foolish 



* For purposes of secrecy Lenin's relatives removed names from 
his letter. The "friend" was N. L. Meshcheryakov and the "acquaint- 
ance", his wife, A. I. Meshcheryakova (Chechurina). — Ed. 



182 



V. I. LENIN 



person recently received something for me and wants to make 
a whole "affair" of it.... Of course I pay no attention to these 
foolish antics (probably caused by our quarrel with the 
Minusinsk crowd) and I shall receive the books that were 
sent to her. But it would be pleasanter to manage with- 
out her. If there are still people who have not been 
informed, let Anyuta write to them. A few days ago I 
received some of the books (mostly on philosophy) that 
Anyuta bought for me. The books for me that have now 
been received are still in Minusinsk; they include the con- 
tinuation of the philosophical series. 

Among the books the following got in by accident — 
I think they are Anyuta's — Baedeker, Suisse, and Jahrbuch 
des Unterrichtswesens in der Schweiz, 1892, 1893 and 1894 
(three volumes); Anna should write and tell me what to do 
with them. If I am to return them to her, should it be now 
or in the autumn (when we intend sending a box of books by 
rail). 

[Apollinariya Alexandrovna Yakubova]* is being sent 
to the village of Kazachinskoye, Yeniseisk District (I 
believe I wrote this before); it is on the post road a hundred 
or more versts upstream from Yeniseisk. The political 
exiles there are Lingling, Rostkovsky and others. She has 
not yet written to us from there. 

The Tes people expect to get transferred in the middle 
of August. 

A detailed letter has arrived from the doctor in Verkho- 
lensk in which he describes the death of N. Y. Fedoseyev, 
and returns a letter from Anna to N. Y. which arrived after 
his death (he does not know whose letter it is) and asks 
what to do with the 25 rubles. (They are collecting money 
there for a memorial.) They (the comrades in Verkholensk) 
have also undertaken to pay N.Y.'s debts (about 80 
rubles). 

The doctor writes that the filthy accusations made 
against him by some scoundrel (also a political exile) concern- 
ing money affairs had a very adverse effect on N. Y., and 
he decided not to take any money from anybody (and he 



* For purposes of secrecy Lenin's relatives removed this name 
from the letter. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



183 



stuck to his decisions), so that he suffered extreme hardship, 
could not work, and, as the doctor put it, "when he real- 
ised he could not work he decided that he would not live".... 
After his death a telegram arrived in Verkholensk to the 
effect that Maria Germanovna* had been given permission 
to join him.... 

Kisses for you and regards to all. I wish Mark a pleasant 
journey and a good holiday. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Y. V. and Nadya send regards. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



M. G. Hopfenhaus.— Ed. 



184 



53 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

August 16 

This week, Mother dearest, I received Anyuta's letter 
of July 30. I received it on Monday, August 10, in Minu- 
sinsk where I had gone to have my teeth seen to. 100 I was 
very surprised to get this letter, which came, as it 
turned out, by express train. Incidentally, the transfer of 
letters from this express train (which goes to Tomsk) to 
an ordinary train usually involves a loss of time. On 
Tuesday August 11, I received a Moscow newspaper for 
July 29 by ordinary train and the letter by express was 
sent on July 30, i.e., not much quicker. 

I cannot send letters by express train from here; to do 
so I should need friends in Ob 101 to whom I could send 
letters for posting on the express. 

Try once again sending a letter by express and we will 
see when it arrives. 

Today I am sending my Webb translation to St. Peters- 
burg. I have written that they should send my fees to you; 
if the ecrivain does not know your address, inform him for 
this purpose. 

There ought to be some news about my collected articles, 
but there is none and Nadya and I are beginning to think it 
a fiasco.... 

Manyasha, I think, is wrong to hesitate. It would be 
useful for her to live abroad and study in one of the capitals, 
and studying in Belgium is especially convenient. What 
subjects does she think of reading? 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



185 



You see, I was right in postponing the report that Vop- 
rosy had been lost; the book has not been lost but has been 
delayed so long that the reason for sending it is no longer 
valid. 



Anyuta, 

By this mail I am sending you a registered packet contain- 
ing Negri, Tempeste, and the catalogue you asked for. The 
address is the same as in this letter. Acknowledge receipt. 

At the same time as your letter I received news from Ar- 
changel that M. G. also shot herself (July 18) two days 
after she received news of N.Y.'s death. A terribly tragic 
story. And the wild slanders of some scoundrel by the name 
of Yukhotsky (a political exilel exiled to Verkholensk) played 
a major part in this finale. N. Y. was terribly shaken by them 
and disheartened. Because of them he decided not to accept 
help from anyone and he suffered terrible privations. They 
say that two or three days before his death he received a let- 
ter in which the slander was repeated. The devil knows what 
it all means! For people in exile, these "exile scandals" 
are the worst thing of all, but I would never have believed 
that they could assume such proportions! The slanderer was 
exposed a long time ago and condemned by all comrades, 
but I never thought that N. Y. (who had some experience 
of exile scandals) would take it so much to heart. 

The day before yesterday I received Shakhov, Gumplo- 
wicz and Izvestiya (two issues, January and March); the 
delay of one mail day was the fault of our postman. 

Yuly hopes to get out of Turukhansk soon. In Tesinskoye 
they are having a wedding and will soon be moving to Mi- 
nusinsk.* Basil has got a job as a technician with a local 
industrialist. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Written August 16, 1898 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



* The wedding was that of G. M. Krzhizhanovsky and Z. P. Nev- 
zorova.— Ed. 



186 



54 

TO HIS MOTHER 

August 26 

Yesterday, Mother dearest, I received your telegram of 
the 21st about Mitya's release and also your letter and 
Anyuta's. I was very glad to get all the news, especially 
about Mitya. His being released means the investigation 
is finished; now it will be interesting to know what the 
prosecuting authority is preparing for him. 102 I am waiting 
for news of how you are getting fixed up for the winter. 

Anyuta's letter is very interesting and I was very glad 
to learn that my fears of a fiasco were premature.* I am 
sending a registered package (to the same address as the 
letter) containing the manuscript of an article written a 
few days ago. Please send it on to the ecrivain with a request 
to try and place it somewhere; if it is too late for the collec- 
tion of articles, try one of the journals {Mir Bozhy, or per- 
haps Nauchnoye Obozreniye would be more convenient). 103 
I don't know whether it is convenient for me to send manu- 
scripts direct to St. Petersburg. I did that with Webb 
because the deadline (September 1) was only a fortnight 
away, but I don't know whether it gave rise to any dis- 
satisfaction there. For the time being I shall continue send- 
ing them to you. 

I have already written about having received Gumplo- 
wicz, Shakhov, Wolfe's Izvestiya and books from Friedmann. 

I thank "Auntie"** very much for her regards, etc. It is 

* This is a reference to the publication of Economic Studies and 
Essays. — Ed. 

**A. M. Kalmykova.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



187 



a pity that there are only regards. I am not at all to blame 
that I "do not reply". What does. Anyuta think? Should 
I answer now or would it be better to wait, if I have to? 

The weather here is showing signs of autumn, although 
the last few days have been very fine. That our house will 
not be a suitable one to winter in is something we do not 
think about and are not afraid of. It is always possible to 
find other lodgings. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

What about Manyasha Is she still hesitating or has 
she at last come to a decision? 



Written August 28, 1898 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



188 



55 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Krasnoyarsk, September 16, 1898 

I have been living here for several days, Mother dearest. 
I expect to leave tomorrow if the steamer is not a day 
late. I shall have to leave without A. M. and E. E. (I think I 
wrote to you from Minusinsk, didn't I, that we had arranged 
to travel together?) E. E. has been admitted to the local 
hospital; one of the doctors is an acquaintance of A. M.'s, 
and E. E., it seems, has been decently provided for and 
feels better. The doctors have not yet been able to give an 
exact diagnosis — either it is just a pain caused by a blow 
(she fell from a carriage about six or eight weeks ago) or 
an abscess of the liver, a serious complaint that is difficult 
to cure and requires lengthy treatment. I am very sorry 
for A. M., who has not recovered from the death of her 
child and her own illness; she becomes so agitated at times 
that she almost has nervous fits. I would rather not leave 
her here alone, but my time is up and I must leave. I am 
asking the local comrades to visit her. As a result of my 
trip and of the need to help A. M. and make certain purchas- 
es, my finances are in a sorry state. Please send Yelizaveta 
Vasilyevna (from whom I have received a loan) about a 
half of the sum that should be sent you for the (whole) Webb 
translation (sent to St. Petersburg on August 15*). If it 
has not yet been sent I think it will be better to wait a little 
while (or get someone to bring the money if the opportu- 
nity arises). I shall not experience a crisis so there is no par- 
ticular hurry. 



The translation was sent on August 16 (see Letter No. 53). — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



189 



I am very pleased with my trip here; I have had my 
teeth treated and have had a breath of fresh air after eigh- 
teen months in Shushenskoye. Few though the people in 
Krasnoyarsk may be, it is nevertheless pleasant, after 
Shusha, to see people and talk about something else besides 
shooting and Shushenskoye "news". The journey back is 
quite a long one (five days or so); the Yenisei steamer makes 
devilishly slow headway against the stream. I shall have 
to stay below decks because the weather has turned unusu- 
ally cold (it goes without saying that I am wearing my 
winter clothes [and here I have also bought a sheepskin 
coat for Nadya] so I shall not suffer from the cold). I have 
got in a supply of candles and books, so as not to die of bore- 
dom on the boat. I shall probably have travelling with me 
Lepeshinskaya, the wife of an exile, who is going to work in 
the village of Kuraginskoye (about 40 versts from Minusinsk, 
where our comrade Kurnatovsky lives); her husband has 
been transferred to the same place. Yesterday I heard the 
good news that Yuly had been transferred, but I do not 
yet know exactly where to. The last letter I received from 
home was from Anyuta dated August 24. Thank her very 
much for it and for the books (Neue Zeit, reprints from the 
Archiv, Kokhanskaya's 104 biography and others). 

I shall answer when I arrive in Shusha, in about ten days, 
that is; it is a pretty long delay but there is nothing I can 
do about it. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Many kisses for you and regards to all. 

I have just seen A. M. and learned that Elvira Ernestovna 
is much better and that the doctors do not think she is in 
any danger; they promise that in about eight days she will 
be discharged in good health and will be able to travel to 
Minusinsk. That is very pleasant news. 

Sent to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 5 



Printed from 
the original 



190 



56 

TO HIS MOTHER 

October 11, 1898 

This week It have received no news from you, Mother 
dearest. I suppose you are fixing things up with Mitya and 
the tourists that have arrived. It seems that Anyuta's trip 
was not very successful. That is a great pity because one 
does not manage to go to the Crimea very often. How is 
Manyasha? Has she left yet? Did they arrange details of 
addresses and letters with her? If they did, write and tell 
me and I will write to her from here. I am greatly surprised 
at the stubborn silence of St. Petersburg; I sent the Webb 
translation on August 15 and up to now they have not even 
acknowledged receipt of it (I sent it by registered post, 
of course, addressed to P. B., care of the warehouse). There 
is also amazing silence about the collection of articles; 
the last letter was dated August 7 which said that proofs 
of over a hundred pages had been read, and means that 
the book was half ready. Surely there could not be a delay 
of more than a month. Probably it is a fiasco, but even 
so I expected them to send me the book (by registered 
post — there is nothing inconvenient in that). I am quite 
at a loss, but Nadya and I are more and more inclined to 
think it a fiasco. That would be unfortunate in the extreme. 
I have finished the rough copy of my "markets" and have 
begun polishing it.* The writing of the fair copy is proceed- 
ing simultaneously, so I am thinking of sending it piece- 
meal and having it printed as I send it, to prevent any 



* By "markets" Lenin means The Development of Capitalism in 
Russia. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



191 



delay (I expect to send the first package off in a month's 
time at the very latest); if the printing of the book begins in 
December, it could be in time for this season. It will be 
necessary, however (if the previous book was a fiasco), to 
find a publisher and conclude a contract with him. I am writ- 
ing all this in case Anyuta sees the ecrivain — she often goes 
to St. Petersburg or learns something by chance, and in 
general (even if she does not see or learn anything) it is 
interesting to talk and hear other people's opinions. 

We have no news at all. The weather is cold — soon it 
will be winter. Autumn this year is not so good as last year. 

Regards to all, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I almost forgot to tell you that with the last post (Octo- 
ber 8) I sent you a registered packet containing two books, 
one issue of Nauchnoye Obozreniye and one of Voprosy Fi- 
losofii i Psikhologii; Anyuta asked me to return them both, 
and I must apologise for the delay. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 5 the original 



192 



57 

TO HIS MOTHER 

November 1, 1898 

The day before yesterday I received your letter of Octo- 
ber 14, Mother dearest, and was very glad to get it. Today 
I have Gleb staying with me; he has come alone for three 
days. E. E. is still ill, the illness is a serious one, and she 
will probably have to be sent to St. Petersburg or Moscow, 
the local doctors are no good. 

I am not writing much because I am late for the post — 
we have been out walking all day. The weather here is 
excellent — clear, frosty, calm days; there is no snow yet. 
Regards to all. Did Mark's health improve in the Crimea? 
I am expecting a letter soon from Anna. How is Mitya get- 
ting on? 

Please, send the enclosed letter on to A. P. Sklyarenko*; 
I have lost his address. 

If Anyuta is really thinking of going to St. Petersburg, 
it would be good if she were to do something about my big 
composition.** I am sending the first two chapters soon 
(in a week or ten days) direct to Anyuta; I shall at least 
know what is happening to them. Then I shall write about 
my plans for this composition. 

Many kisses, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I have still not received a letter from Manyasha. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 5 the original 



* The letter has been lost.— Ed. 
**Here and in the next letter The Development of Capitalism in 
Russia is referred to. — Ed. 



193 



58 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Anyuta, 

Today I am sending to Mother's address two notebooks 
of the "markets". These are the first two chapters, about 
a quarter or a fifth of the entire work. Altogether there are 
eight chapters and I am now finishing work on the third, 
so that by January it will most probably be finished 
because Nadya copies it quite quickly, as I write it. Although 
I am abridging the first rough copy very considerably it is 
still an enormous size. In the first two chapters 1 reckon 
there are about 270,000 letters, and if you count 33,000 
letters as a printer's signature, there will be about eight 
and a half signatures. The whole book, therefore, will be 
about 35 or 40 signatures; I still hope to keep it down to 
35, but even that will be a thick book (560 pages). It is desir- 
able to have it printed in a big format with average-sized 
type, so that there will be about 2,400 letters to a page 
and more than 33,000 letters to the signature — that will 
be more convenient since there will be fewer pages. 

As far as concerns the actual publication, apparently 
we shall have to place our hopes on finding a publisher. If 
you happen to be in St. Petersburg, perhaps you will discuss 
it with the ecrivain. Would Mrs. M. Vodovozova undertake 
to publish the book? 105 [I do not count on an independent 
edition because I consider the collection of articles to be 
a flop — although up to now I have not heard a single word 
about it or about the translation! If it should so happen that 
this is not the case, our own edition will also be possible; 
then it will be necessary to find a good, intelligent proof- 



194 



V. I. LENIN 



reader, pay him properly and make it a condition for him 
to send off every signature immediately it is read.] 

Printing can (and should) begin now (I say "should" 
because otherwise it will not be out by spring); it can then 
be sent by chapters and I promise that I shall not be late. 
If a publisher is found, a detailed contract must be conclud- 
ed with him, and one absolutely definite condition must 
be the despatch of proofs [it is very difficult for anyone 
but the author to find misprints, for instance, in tables; 
and then there may be corrections and addenda, etc.]. In 
spring the ecrivain wrote to me that it could be printed 
in serial form in Nauchnoye Obozreniye or some other journal. 
Of course I am not against that, but it is hardly feasible 
for any journal to take such a big thing — that would be very 
unusual. It is far more likely that they would take a chapter 
or two for publication. The second chapter, and the first as 
well, are independent and complete. Having this in mind, 
we hurried to send off those parts that were ready imme- 
diately. The only thing is, that if they are given to a journal 
an agreement must be reached on the deadline for printing 
them and also on the author's right to publish the whole book 
without waiting for the journal to complete publication. 106 

I am sending the Preface to the book, not for it to 
be printed (it will probably have to be revised or added to 
after a time) 107 but in order to give an impression of the 
plan of the book as a whole. I will send the summaries for 
the table of contents with each chapter. If such detailed 
summaries are not required (although in my opinion detailed 
contents are more convenient for the reader), they may be 
abridged and only the titles of the sections left.* By the 
way, these section titles should not be set in bold-face type 
or italics (that is too imposing) but should, on the contrary, 
be set in the smallest available type. That would take up 
less space and be more in accordance with the purpose of 
the headings. As far as the tables are concerned, I also 
think they would best be set in small type, so as to take 
as little space as possible. 

I feel that all these details may prove to be of no value — 



* The detailed table of contents to The Development of Capitalism 
in Russia was not abridged. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



195 



but for my part, at least., I want to do all I can. It is quite 
possible that the ecrivain will want, or will agree, to take 
the matter into his own hands — the one pity is, however, 
that he is unbelievably and incomprehensibly unpunctual 
in maintaining communications and is, apparently, absolute- 
ly incorrigible in this respect. In general, he is rather too 
lavish with his kindness; his wife, for instance, herself read 
the proofs of the beginning of the collection of articles — 
a tedious job that takes up a lot of time. Why should she 
have undertaken it when she already has so much to do? 
Under the circumstances it would have been much more 
convenient to hire (even if it has to be one they recommend) 
a special proof-reader 108 and demand that he is punctual 
in his work and informs you of the despatch of every sig- 
nature of the proofs. 

Here I have to stop. Please answer quickly, if only to 
acknowledge receipt of the manuscript. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Written between November 7 
and 11, 1898 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 5 



Printed from 
the original 



196 



59 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

November 11, 1898 

We received your letter, Manyasha, and were very glad 
to have it. We have now got out the maps and are trying 
to find out just where Brussels is — the devil take it. We 
have discovered it and have given it some thought— a 
stone's throw from London, and from Paris and from Ger- 
many, which puts it pretty well in the very centre of 
Europe.... Yes, I do envy you. During the first period of my 
exile I decided not to look at a map of European Russia 
or Europe; there was always such a bitter taste in my mouth 
when I opened those maps and looked at the various black 
dots on them. Now it does not worry me, I have learned to 
be patient and look at the maps more calmly; we even begin 
to wonder which of those dots it would be interesting to 
reach later on. During the first half of my exile I looked 
mostly backwards, I suppose, but now I am looking ahead. 
Oh well, qui vivra, verra.* As for newspapers and books, 
please get hold of whatever you can. Send all sorts of cata- 
logues from second-hand booksellers and bookshops in 
all languages. There is a request I should like to make of 
you today, but I have decided to put it off till next time. 
I would remind you of what I wrote to you or to Anna last 
year — the most interesting newspapers are the official 
organs that contain verbatim reports of parliamentary dis- 
cussions. If you find out where such newspapers are sold 
(are there only Belgian or are there also French and English 
newspapers in Brussels?) and send the interesting issues 



He who lives will see (Fr.)- — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



197 



(you keep up with the press, I hope?), it will be fine. I 
advise you not to confine yourself to Belgian newspapers 
but to subscribe to some German paper; you will not forget 
the language, and will get excellent reading material; the cost 
of the newspapers is not great. 

Are you going home for Christmas? 



After a long wait I have received my collection of articles 
at last.* I will ask Anyuta to send you a copy. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Brussels 
First published in 1929 



Yours, 



V. U. 



in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 5 



Printed from 
the original 



Economic Studies and Essays. — Ed. 



198 



60 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

November 15, 1898 

How are you managing to winter in Podolsk, Mother 
dearest? This is not a very merry winter for you — Mark has 
to live away from you, Mitya is chained to Podolsk. He did 
not answer my questions about how he has to do his army 
service — in the ranks or as an assistant surgeon? Is there 
any information about his case, when it will end and how? 
Or none at all? How is Mark keeping? Is he not miserable 
alone in Moscow or is he up to his neck in work at his office 
and his evening lectures (does he still give them?)? 109 

We have no news. The only change is in amusements — 
now that winter has come I go skating instead of shooting; 
I recall the old days and find that I have not forgotten 
how, although it is about ten years since I last skated. 
Nadya also wants to learn to skate, but I am not sure 
whether she will manage it. 

Regards to all, 

Many kisses, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Anyuta, 

I forgot to write to you by the last post that I had 
received Neue Zeit then. Yesterday I got a bill from A. M. 
Kalmykova. I have accumulated a debt of about eight 
rubles and still go on ordering and ordering. I cannot under- 
stand why I still have not had the fees for the translation I 
sent to St. Petersburg as long ago as August 15! If the money 
comes, please send fifty rubles or so to the book warehouse, 
and if it does not come by the time this letter arrives, I 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



199 



do not know what to do. If it is possible, it would be a 
good thing to send even ten rubles to the warehouse; as far 
as the fee for the translation is concerned, I have been told 
it will be paid in any case (there should not be any objec- 
tions from the censors) — and so it is only a matter of time. 

Last time I wrote to you I asked you to send the book 
to various acquaintances of mine but forgot that you do not 
know the addresses. 110 I do not know the Archangel address- 
es myself. Today at a guess I am writing to M. E. Grigoryev* 
at that sawmill where he works. I think you have had 
some correspondence with Archangel; would it not be bet- 
ter, then, if you were to send them to your acquaintances 
to be handed on? If that cannot be done, leave them until 
you get the addresses. The address of Lalayants is: Is. Chris- 
toph. Lalayants, House No. 11, corner of Bogoslovskaya 
and Krutoi streets, Voronezh. It would be a good idea to 
send a copy to the Samaran, who writes in Nauchnoye Oboz- 
reniye.** He is in St. Petersburg, but I don't know his 
address. 

Am I not loading you down too much with requests? 

Wolfe's are advertising a library of French classics at 
ten kopeks an issue. Have you seen what sort of an edition it 
is? 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I was amazed to read that Labriola is being published 
in Russian! I can imagine in what distorted form! 

Could it have been you who translated Labriola? 

I read in Frankfurter Zeitung 111 a very interesting article 
about the Stuttgart Parteitag. 112 We are thinking of sub- 
scribing to that newspaper next year. Do you read any 
foreign newspaper? 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 5 the original 



* The letter has been lost.— Ed. 
*This refers to P. P. Maslov.— 



200 



61 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

November 22, 1898 

Today, Mother dearest, I have to write a long business 
letter to Anyuta. For this reason I shall not write to you, 
especially as Nadya has already compiled a very lengthy 
description of our life here and I have nothing to add to it. 
Her story is true in the main — only there is some exaggera- 
tion about my work on the "markets".* 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Ask Mitya to send Pamyatnaya knizhka Tulskoi gubernii** 
to Alexei Pavlovich Sklyarenko as soon as possible; I don't 
know his address. 

Anyuta, 

I received two of your letters together — dated November 
1 and 4. There is a good side to the publication having been 
handed over to Vodovozova; at any rate, the work is certain 
to be done. Her account for the Studies seems to be perfec- 
tly correct and the smallness of the fee is due to the small 
number of copies. 113 I cannot, of course, accept such a fee 
for the "markets". I intend to take advantage of Vodovo- 
zova's offer (if you see her, convey to her, of course, many 
thanks from me) to publish my "markets" — as for the 
financial conditions, I leave it to you (if it will not be too 



See Krupskaya's Letter No. 11.— Ed. 

Which I am sending by registered post to your address today. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



201 



much trouble) to discuss that with her; I do not know which 
is better, a definite fee or "all the net profit". The more 
advantageous of those two methods of payment must, of 
course, be chosen, especially as I do not need the money in 
a hurry. The most important of the conditions attending 
publication is to ensure perfectly good proof-reading. Unless 
this is done it really is not worth while publishing anything. 
The proof-reading of the Studies was very bad. Apart from 
those misprints distorting the meaning* that I sent you, 114 
there are numerous minor ones that comrades are already 
complaining to me about. It is absolutely necessary to have 
a very intelligent, professional proof-reader; that must be 
made an absolute condition and I am even willing to pay 
such a proof-reader double in view of the author's being 
unable to read the proofs himself. This is especially true 
of tables — there are always mistakes galore, and in the 
"markets" there are a lot of tables. Then (even if you have 
the best proof-reader) I must have copies of the final page 
proofs sent to me immediately, signature by signature, 
and I will send you a list of misprints. The delay in issuing 
the book because of this will be (if they are sent punctually) 
at most a month; that is no great misfortune as long as the 
book is printed decently. With regard to the date of issue — 
the work can begin now (we have the third chapter in a fair 
copy and in a few days I shall finish the fourth, that is, 
half of the book; the second half is much easier, so I can con- 
fidently undertake to send to Moscow the last chapter by Feb- 
ruary 15, or even earlier); this would be particularly conveni- 
ent for me, because I would have time to send in not only the 
misprints to the first signatures but perhaps some more 
important changes. The format and the type should provide 
for about 2,400 letters to a page; the whole work would 
then be no more than 30 signatures, say 500 pages in round 
figures (more pages would probably be too many and would 
be bulky for the reader). Lastly, with regard to the chart 
in Chapter II — special attention will be needed to make 
sure there are no mistakes in it. Please talk to Vodovozova 

* At the same time as I sent the corrections to you I sent them 
to the ecrivain with a request to print them, without fail, on a sep- 
arate sheet, to be put into the book when it was sold. It is now neces- 
sary to make the same request of Vodovozova. 



202 



V. I. LENIN 



about all this and answer me as soon as possible after you 
receive this letter. We shall send Chapters III and IV when 
they are finished, in about a fortnight. 

Please send Manyasha another three copies of the Studies. 
Alexander Leontyevich's* address is Gudina's House, Oper- 
naya Street, Archangel. I have sent them to all the com- 
rades here. Another copy must be sent to the Samaran who 
writes in Nauchnoye Obozreniye. 

Out of the third of the fee you have received, a half will 
cover the money sent by Mitya for Yelizaveta Vasilyevna. 
From the other half, please send a half to Kalmykova's 
warehouse (I have run into debt there, and I order a lot 
of things) and use the remainder to subscribe to journals 
and newspapers for 1899; it is time, especially for the for- 
eign publications. 

Russkiye Vedomosti for one year — 8 rubles 50 kopeks (pay 

for ten months for me); 
Russkoye Bogatstvo for one year — 9 rubles 
Mir Bozhy for one year — 8 rubles 

Niva for 1899 ' —7 rubles 

Frankfurter Zeitung 

for the first quarter of 1899 — 4 rubles 70 kopeks 
Archiv fiir soziale Gesetzgebung und Statistik, herausgegeben 

von Heinrich Braun. For 1899 — 12 marks. 

We here greatly appreciate newspapers and journals, 
especially those that arrive in good time; that is why I 
ask you to subscribe as early as possible. 



Regards to all. 

(Bios has been given to Basil, we no longer have it.) 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 
First published in 1929 



Yours, 



V. U. 



in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 5 



Printed from 
the original 



A. L. Malchenko.— Ed. 



203 



62 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS BROTHER 

November 28, 1898 

I have received letters from you and Mitya dated Novem- 
ber 9, Mother dearest. 

With regard to telegrams to me here — you must bear in 
mind that our postman goes to Minusinsk on Monday and 
Thursday in the morning. This means that you must send 
telegrams on Sunday or Wednesday morning, so that I 
receive them on Tuesday or Friday morning (these are our 
mail days, local Shushenskoye "holidays")-* 

One letter came from Manyasha and we answered it,** 
but we have not yet had any more from her. 

I am very, very glad you like Podolsk. It is a pity, of 
course, that Mark cannot live with you. 

I have another request to make of Anyuta — to add to 
the list of subscriptions Trudy imperatorskogo Volnogo eko- 
nomicheskogo obshchestva, price 3 rubles a year (6 issues), 
including delivery — if that publication is still appearing. 

If you take out the subscriptions through Wolfe's they 
already have my address because I receive their Izvestiya. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Regards to all. 

Y. V. sends regards to all. 

I have finished one half of my book and am now sure 
that it will be shorter instead of longer than I assumed. 



The telegraphic address is Minusinsk, Shushenskoye, Ulyanov. 
See Letter No. 59. —Ed. 



204 



V. I. LENIN 



Mitya, 



Your information about my shooting is inaccurate. Who 
told you about it? Maybe Anyuta made some chronological 
errors and produced some ancient myths about hares as 
up-to-date news. In the autumn I made quite a good kill 
among the hares here — there are masses of them on the islands 
in the Yenisei and we soon got fed up with them. Prominsky 
shot several dozen because he wanted the skins for a coat. 

It is more interesting to shoot black grouse and partridge, 
but more difficult. In July I got a few grey-hen, but now 
people go after them on horseback with rifles; in winter 
you can't get near enough on foot (except on rare occasions). 
For partridge (autumn) you need a good dog and my Jenny 
is either too young or simply no good. In winter they mostly 
catch partridges in traps and snares.* 

We now have a new attraction, a skating rink that takes 
me away from shooting quite a lot. 

Next summer I hope to go shooting much more — there 
will be less work, the dog will be used to its job and it will 
be my last (I hope) summer in Siberia. 



All the best, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 5 



Printed from 
the original 



* Last year I got a few partridge (very few, though), but this year 
not a single one. 



205 



63 

TO HIS MOTHER, HIS SISTER ANNA 
AND HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW 

December 6, 1898 

I got your note, Mother dearest, that you added to Anyu- 
ta's letter. I am answering her in detail. I have nothing 
new to say about myself — life goes on as usual. The weather 
is still fine and today I am going out for the winter shoot- 
ing. Anatoly writes that lie is ill, poor chap, probably with 
typhus. Yuly is freezing in Turukhansk (2° below zero 
in his room in the mornings) and is anxiously awaiting 
a transfer. Yak. M. (Lyakhovsky) writes that 180 rubles 
are needed for a memorial-stone to Fedoseyev, and that 
so far only 70 rubles have been collected, and he asks all 
acquaintances to be informed of this.* He writes that on 
October 18, A. Yergin, Frelikh, Zmeyev, Alyushkevich, 
Talalayev, Tyutryumova-Abramovich and Goldman arrived 
at Alexandrovskaya Prison. All of them are on their way 
to Yakutsk. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Anyuta and Mark, 

I have received both your letters, thanks for them and 
here is a detailed answer. 

It is surprising that the ecrivain rejected the proposal 



* The address to which money can be sent is Y. M. Lyakhovsky, 
Verkholensk, Irkutsk Gubernia. 



206 



V. I. LENIN 



to employ a professional proof-reader (for the Studies) — 
there are numerous misprints, and I am particularly wor- 
ried about those that distort the meaning, a list of which 
I sent to you and to him. I am expecting an answer in a 
day or two as to whether they can be stuck in somewhere; 
they are essential. 

I think there is hardly any sense in undertaking an edi- 
tion of our own; first, it is desirable to establish permanent 
relations with Vodovozova, who is suitable as a publisher; 
second, the sum (needed for the edition) is very, big, 
and the matter is very tedious, complicated and difficult. 
In doing it ourselves for the first time we are certain to 
make all sorts of mistakes and I am very anxious that this 
publication should be outwardly irreproachable, even if 
it costs a few hundred rubles extra. Thirdly, there is no 
very great difference in time; my letter will arrive by Christ- 
mas and Vodovozova is arriving in February — it may per- 
haps be possible to communicate with her in writing. And 
how much time would be wasted (in the case of our own 
edition) on travelling, searching, etc. It is very hard to 
keep track of a publishing job from another town. Would 
it not be better, therefore, to write to Vodovozova? Ask 
her when she can start setting the book, how much time 
it will take, will it be possible to issue the book before 
the end of April, etc. As far as the terms are concerned, 
I think it is better to take the net profit rather than fees per 
signature. In the former case I would expect to receive about 
one-third of the gross sum or even more; in the latter, to 
make up such a sum it would be necessary to pay a minimum 
of 75 rubles for each printer's signature, which would be 
burdensome and risky for the publisher. 

I have finished four chapters and even the writing of 
the fair copy will be finished today, so I shall be sending 
you Chapters III and IV in a day or two. I hope you will 
receive the whole book in February. If you are going to 
read the manuscript, by the way, please send me your 
remarks. In my rough copy I have marked off the pages of 
the fair copy, so that I can send corrections. And, again, 
about the Studies — send me any press reviews that you or 
any acquaintances come across, because here I do not keep 
up with the current press. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



207 



If small type and tables cost more to set, the publisher 
will have to spend quite a lot on the "markets" because 
there are many tables, and some diagrams as well. The 
total volume of the book, as far as I can tell at present, 
comes to about 450 pages at the rate of 2,400 letters to a 
page, which is less than I anticipated. If the pages are like 
those in Vodovozova's publications (they are very widely 
spaced with no more than 2,000 letters to a page) there 
will be no less than 550, so smaller type is desirable. It is 
very desirable to print all the tables in small type, other- 
wise they will take up a lot of space, be less graphic and 
not be taken in at a glance by the reader. The tables that are 
printed sideways on a whole page are particularly incon- 
venient (i.e., you have to turn the book round to read them). 
All this is very important to the reader. It would be a good 
thing to have the type used in the tables in the appendices 
to Vodovozova's book Zemlevladeniye i selskoye khozyaistvo; 
all the tables in the second and other chapters should be 
set in this type (most of the tables are in Chapter II; there 
are fewer in the other chapters, but there are some). 
You must talk to the publisher about all this and also about 
sending me the proofs (as I have already written). To speed 
up publication it could be done at two printing works, 
Part 1 (the first four chapters) and Part 2 separately, with 
the pages numbered individually. With regard to Mark's 
proposal to change the title and make it a two-volume 
edition — I do not think this would be convenient. The more 
modest and heavier-sounding title is better because of the 
censorship; to change the title would mean that I would 
have to make a large number of petty, and, therefore, 
onerous changes in the text. It is not a good thing to split 
it into two volumes. If you take the format and type of 
the Studies as the standard, each volume would be smaller 
than that book (and they could not be sold as separate 
volumes because the composition is a single whole with cross 
references to different chapters, etc.). As to price, I did 
not expect it to be more than 3 rubles and consider a higher 
price to be undesirable (and a lower price would mean los- 
ing money). As many copies as possible should be printed*; 

* I agree completely with Mark that there "must be" at least 
2,400. But what will the publisher say? 



208 



V. I. LENIN 



it is a pity that such a small number of the Studies was 
put out. With regard to censorship obstacles to the "mar- 
kets" — I do not expect any, unless there is to be a period 
of toughness and special severity against our people. If the 
Studies sell well, the "markets" will probably sell better. 
This should be impressed on the publisher. There is also 
the question of the number of copies to be supplied to the 
author (I hope you sent Manyasha another three copies of 
the Studies). I think we should take fifty, because this time 
I shall have to send them to many people and sometimes 
to exchange them for Zemstvo statistical publications. 

Well, I think I have chattered away long enough — and 
there must be many repetitions of what has been said 
before in other equally long business letters! You must 
be bored with reading all these repetitions. It is very much 
like my writing — the first rough copy of the "markets" 
I have scratched about and abridged most ruthlessly. 



All the best, 



V. U. 



All our people send their regards. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 5 



Printed from 
the original 



209 



64 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

December 12, 1898 

From Anyuta I have received Neue Zeit and the report 
of the Committee on Literacy, also a postcard dated 
November 28. I am answering her on another page. Mail days 
here are Tuesday and Friday, but that, of course, is not 
what interests you. We receive Wednesday's and Friday's 
newspapers, on the fourteenth day from the day of issue, 
that is. It is, therefore, more convenient for you to write 
on Tuesdays and Fridays (from Moscow, of course; about 
Podolsk I do not know). Nadya and I have submitted an 
application to go to Minusinsk for Christmas and stay there 
for a week. 115 We shall receive letters just the same, so 
there is no need to change the address. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Anyuta, 

Today I am sending a registered letter containing the 
third and fourth chapters of the "markets" to Mother's 
address. I have made a more exact calculation of how much 
I have written; in the first four chapters there are about 
500,000 letters.* That is fewer than I imagined (and the 
second part will be less than the first). My fears were ground- 
less; the type that gives 2,000 letters to the page will 



* I have counted about 900 letters to a page (and about 1,600 
letters in those long pages that have been used for Chapter II). 



210 



V. I. LENIN 



be quite all right. I have nothing against an edition of two 
separate volumes — decide yourselves with the publisher. 
The only thing is the figures — the figures! — they will get 
them all wrong unless they send me the proofs to correct.* 

Please make two corrections to the manuscript: (1) in 
the Preface strike out everything from "As we know" in the 
second sentence to "opponents' views" in the third; in the 
next sentence instead of "it seemed to us" write "it seemed 
to the author". 

I think it might be rather dangerous to speak about 
"opponents" in the very first paragraph. 116 

(2) On page 44 cross out the footnote at the end of Section 
VI and in place of it write: "cf. V. Ilyin, Economic Studies, 
St. Petersburg, 1899, p. 30". 117 

Please acknowledge receipt of these corrections. 

Thanks for Neue Zeit and the report of the committee. 
Is it possible to obtain the missing numbers of N. Z. for 
1897-98; we have Nos. 7-8 and 11-24; Nos. 1-6 and 9-10 are 
missing. I should very much like to have a full set for 
1897-98. 

You write that you received my letter of November 15** 
and did not receive the previous one about books. I no 
longer remember exactly when I sent it, but I know for sure 
that immediately after I received books from St. Petersburg 
I sent you an ordinary letter with a list of misprints that 
distort the meaning and a request to distribute a few copies 
among acquaintances, including another three for Manya- 
sha (in addition to one for herself), one to St. Petersburg, 
not to the old man but to the Samaran, one to 
Kokushka (I have not sent him one); and three for you, 
three for the Chicagoan, the author of The Factory (T.-B.) and 
Markets (Bulgakov), 118 two for Grigoryev and Columbus 
— I make it fourteen copies about which I wrote, as I 
remember, in the lost letter. 

I was very surprised to learn from the doctor that the 
censor seems to have banned the translation of the Webbs' 



* Figures followed by decimal fractions should be printed in a 
special manner; the fractions should be printed in smaller type than 
the whole numbers and should be printed below the line, i.e., not 6.3 
but 6.3. This is very important in order to prevent mistakes. 
**See Letter No. 60.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



211 



book finally and unconditionally. How can that be? I am 
of the opinion that it is a rumour — due to the translation 
History of Trade Unionism, which is more zensurwidriges.* 
Our translation is still in the press, isn't it? 

All the best, 

V. U. 

I wrote to the Statistics Department of the Zemstvo 
Board of Tver Gubernia asking them to send me their sum- 
maries (Vol. XIII, Issue 1, 1897). They have not sent it, 
canaille. Is there anyone of your acquaintance who could 
get it? Krasnoperov (if he is there) would surely not refuse. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 5 the original 



Contrary to the censor (Ger.). — Ed. 



212 



65 

KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

December 20 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Today Volodya has unexpectedly gone out shooting so I 
am writing. Recently the frost here has been as much as 
20° below zero, but today it is only two and a half degrees 
below and Volodya was tempted to go out with his gun, 
especially as the Shushenskoye sportsmen have a theory 
that this is the best time to go after grouse; the birds have 
not eaten during the heavy frosts and are now so busy eating 
that they do not see a man approaching. Volodya has taken 
somebody else's gun because he has broken his own; the 
barrel proved to be made of cast iron and cracked merely 
from being dropped on the ice. We sent the gun to Minu- 
sinsk but the gunsmith there refused to repair it. And so we 
shall have to buy another. We have heard that a very good 
double-barreled gun is for sale in Minusinsk and Volodya 
is thinking of acquiring it. 

We are now busy preparing for a trip to Minusinsk. 
Actually our preparations boil down to Volodya pinning a 
sheet of paper to the wall and writing down everything we 
have to buy in town. Mother is not going with us — first she 
said "no" because the road was bad, and now she says it is 
too cold. We are going on Christmas Eve and shall return 
on the first or second, so Volodya's next letter will be from 
Minusinsk. I do not know whether Volodya told you that 
Kurnatovsky and the Lepeshinskys are coming to Minusinsk 
for Christmas, and that they intend to skate, play chess, sing, 
argue, etc. It looks as though we shall have a good time. 

When the "markets" are finished there is a plan to settle 
down to the study of languages in general and German in 
particular. Volodya is ordering Pavlovsky's Russian-Ger- 
man Dictionary from the warehouse and asks Anyuta to 
get hold of Turgenev in German and a decent German gram- 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



213 



mar. I have heard that one of the best German grammars 
is that of F. Fiedler but I do not know for sure. 

Oh, by the way, we suspect that our surmise about 
Zhizn 119 was incorrect. If so, it is not, of course, worth 
while subscribing to it. 

We have received only one letter from Manyasha. Why 
doesn't she write? Perhaps her letters do not reach us — she 
should register them. Volodya has come home and is making 
a fuss about my staying indoors and not going skating. So I 
shall close now. "Happy New Year!" Kisses for you and 
Anyuta, regards to D. I. and M. T.* Mother sends best 
regards to all. There is nothing to write about at the moment, 
but there may be after Minusinsk. Again, kisses, 



I add my New Year's greetings. 

With regard to the translation of Turgenev — I should 
think it would be best to enquire at Wolfe's and at the same 
time to get a catalogue of Reclaim 120 editions. It does not 
matter to us which of Turgenev's books you get, the only 
thing is that the translation must be a good one. We should 
like a German grammar that is as complete as possible, 
especially as regards syntax. It would probably be better 
if it were in German. Perhaps we should go over to Wolfe 
altogether for ordering books and for information. Kal- 
mykova's warehouse is not very forthcoming with infor- 
mation; I asked them to get me a reprint of N. Karyshev's 
article "Material on the Russian National Economy" from 
the Second Issue of the second part of Izvestiya Moskov- 
skogo selskokhozyaistvennogo instituta for 1898, but they 
refused to fulfil my request or even send me the address 
of Izvestiya. Can you get it? 



Yours, 



Nadya 



All the best, 



V. U. 



Written December 20, 1898 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 5 



Printed from 
the original 



* Dmitry Ilyich Ulyanov and Mark Timofeyevich Yelizarov. — Ed. 



214 



66 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA 121 

Mile M. Oulianoff, 
Rue des Minimes, 40, 
Bruxelles, 
Belgique 

December 22, 1898 

I have received Kovalevsky's book from you, Manyasha, 
but not a single letter. This surprises me (and all of us); 
since that first letter from you we have not had another. 
Are letters being lost? Or, perhaps, you are so full of your 
new life that no time is left for letters? I have had Kova- 
levsky's book for a long time; I got it in November, when 
I ordered it from a Petersburg shop; I started reading it 
but, I must admit, did not finish it — it is a boring compila- 
tion. Write and tell us when you think of coming for the 
summer, what newspapers and journals you are reading, 
and whether you have got to know Brussels properly and 
the publishing business there. Send me Journal officiel, 122 
when it contains interesting parliamentary speeches. I 
intend writing you a long letter after Christmas, to celebrate 
which we are going to Minusinsk in a few days. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Nadya sends regards. 

I received your letter of December 20.* I am now in 
Minusinsk. I will reply on return. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Written on December 22 and 28, 
1898 

Sent from Minusinsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 5 the original 



New Style.— Ed. 



215 



67 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

Minusinsk, December 28, 1898 
I am writing to you, Mother dearest, from Minusinsk; 
Nadya and I are here for Christmas and will remain until 
the first. We are having an excellent time here. This is 
just the kind of holiday from work that we needed. Among 
other things we skate very strenuously, sing, and so on. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I am writing to Anna separately. 

Yesterday I got a letter from Manyasha with her new 
address in Brussels. 

Anyuta, 

I have received your postcard of December 5 and your 
letter of December 8. Thanks for them. I read a detailed 
account of the ecrivains lecture in Russkiye Vedomosti. 
Of course, it was hardly worth while putting forward such 
new views in a short lecture: The remains of Fedoseyev's 
work would be interesting in this respect; I think he held 
very different views on landowners' farms before the 
reform. 123 

(I do not remember whether I informed you that we have 
received N. Z. up to No. 24 inclusive.) 

With regard to Pamyatnaya knizhka Tulskoi gubernii, I 
wrote that it was for A. Sklyarenko whose address I did not 
have at the time. I informed you a long time ago that I had 
received the report of the literacy committee.* 

I am in agreement with the writer's advice (to send it 
to the printer immediately, use the same format and type 
as Tugan-Baranovsky's book 124 and not send the proofs 



* See Letters Nos. 61 and 64.— Ed. 



216 



V. I. LENIN 



here). The type used in that book will be compact enough; 
it will come to about 500 pages. I have finished another two 
chapters (V and VI) and chapter five has been rewritten. I 
hope to finish in January. 

Of course, I agree to entrust the second proofs to you 
and shall be very, very grateful to you for this strenuous 
and thankless work. I nevertheless think a professional 
proof-reader is indispensable; in my opinion two rubles a 
printer's signature is too little — pay him three rubles or 
more per signature for the reading of two proofs and take 
the third (not the second) proof yourself. For misprints 
send them to me (not one signature but 5-10 at a time). I 
do not think, however, that it will be very convenient for 
me to send you the rough copy; I sometimes need to make 
additions, inserts, etc., and I cannot do this without the 
rough copy. Could you not pay the proof-reader more and 
have him send the pages of the fair copy with the proofs? 
If that is impossible I will, of course, send the rough copy 
(you can demand it by telegram "send rough copy"). 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I answered immediately on receipt of your letter regard- 
ing my consent to Vodovozova's terms.* Bios is being 
read and you are asked not to take it away. Can you not 
get it in Moscow? 

Sent to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 5 



Printed from 
the original 



*See Letter No. 63.— Ed. 



217 



1899 



68 

TO HIS MOTHER 

January 3, 1899 

Nadya and I returned from Minusinsk yesterday, Mother 
dearest, where we had spent a week with Gleb and Basil 
very pleasantly and saw the New Year in among com- 
rades. 125 There were many toasts on New Year's eve but the 
one most heartily greeted was that proposed by one of the 
comrades "to Elvira Ernestovna and absent mothers". 

Today we have not been able to get back into our routine, 
but tomorrow we shall set to work again. Chapter VI of my 
book is finished (but not yet rewritten); in a month or so 
I shall finish the book altogether. I answered Anyuta's 
letters of December 5 and 8 while still in Minusinsk*; I 
wrote to her that I agreed to the immediate despatch of the 
first chapters to the printer, to having the proofs corrected 
without the author (it is desirable to have three and not 
two proofs) and the despatch of the final (clean) copy only 
to the author and, in general, that Anyuta should take 
charge of publication and do as she thinks fit. I hope Anyuta 
received my letter. At the same time I sent a letter to Mitya 
asking him to buy me a gun. Will it cause any difficulties 
of a financial nature? Something seems to have gone amiss 
with my fees and I keep ordering books from Kalmykova's 
warehouse, so I am beginning to have twinges of conscience. 

Many kisses for you and regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Y. V. and Nadya ask me to convey their regards. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 6 the original 



*See Letter No. 67. -Ed. 



218 



69 

TO HIS MOTHER 

January 10, 1899 

Your letter and Anyuta's, sent on December 24, I have 
received, Mother dearest. As Nadya will write in detail, 
there has been a hitch with the parcel.* 

You write that my letter of the 6th** arrived on the 22nd 
and that such a delay seems strange to you. I do not know 
the reason. Perhaps the letter was late in leaving Minusinsk; 
sixteen days is not long, seeing that we receive newspapers 
from Moscow on the thirteenth day. 

With regard to the proofs of the "markets", I have to 
admit that the writer's statement that the manuscript is 
exemplary does not appease me; the writer has on one 
occasion shown himself to be a poor proof-reader and, in gen- 
eral, it is not his business and not within his capacity to 
handle such tedious work properly. I think, therefore, 
that it will be necessary to insist on three proofs and not 
two (the last to go to Moscow), and on Anyuta being in direct 
contact with the proof-reader. I am afraid of its being pub- 
lished as badly as the Studies — that would be very sad. 
In general it is very difficult, impossible even, to give 
you answers to all minor and partial questions from here; 
they must be settled there, on the spot. I am not, therefore, 
quibbling over the change of the title, even though I do not 
like it, and the idea that it will "go" better with a broader 
title is something else I do not like. I deliberately chose 



* See Krupskaya's Letter No. 12.— Ed. 
**See Letter No. 63.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



219 



a modest title. If, however, it is preserved as a sub-title 
it is not so important and, I repeat, all minor questions 
must be decided immediately on the spot. My answers from 
here are always delayed and useless. If it is possible and 
convenient I should like to have the last proofs, even if at 
the rate of 5-10 signatures at a time. 

I read in Russkiye Vedomosti about Tugan-Baranovsky's 
debate. Yes, he should have answered Kablukov 126 more 
sharply! 

We shall soon be sending the fifth and sixth chapters; 
there may possibly be a delay with the end but it will not 
be very great. I do not think it will hold matters up. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Regards to all. 

I am sending an addendum to the second chapter, page 
152 of the fair copy. 127 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 6 the original 



220 



70 

TO HIS MOTHER 

January 17, 1899 

At last we have received the parcel, 128 Mother dearest. 
Merci for it. On Tuesday we also received Neue Zeit from 
Anyuta. It is most satisfactory that all last year's issues 
of Neue Zeit are gradually reaching us. Anyuta, of course, 
has read Die historische Berechtigung, etc., in the issues 
she sent me. I had read that article before this and am in 
complete agreement with its arguments (as are other com- 
rades here). By this mail I am sending you two more note- 
books with parts of my book (Chapters V and VI) ( + a 
separate page— the table of contents); these two chapters 
contain about 200,000 letters and the last two chapters will 
contain approximately as many. I should like to know 
whether they have begun to print the beginning, about how 
much time it takes to set a signature and if Anyuta is reading 
the last proof as she originally intended doing. If that is 
the case I do not think there would be anything inconveni- 
ent in sending the author the first few signatures together 
with other books. However, the pros and cons of this have 
probably already been considered without reference to my 
opinion. 

We have no news. Yuly has not written for a very long 
time, which surprises and worries me. Anatoly is still 
unwell, poor fellow; he recently went down with typhus and 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



221 



there were some subsequent lung and heart complications. 
We advise him to apply for a transfer to Minusinsk District 
because the climate in Yeniseisk District is much worse, 
but he will have his own way. 129 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Regards to all. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 6 the original 



222 



71 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Mile Marie Ouljanoff, 
Rue des Minimes, 40, 
Bruxelles, 
Belgique 

January 24, 1899 

I have received the catalogues you sent, Manyasha. A 
big merci for them. There are some interesting things in 
them. I intend sending you a list of the books I should like 
to acquire. Write and tell me if you have become familiar 
with Brussels in general and with book publishing and 
bookselling in particular. I should like to read the verbatim 
reports of some interesting parliamentary discussions. In 
Paris, for instance, they are to be found in the Journal 
officiel, each issue of which can also be bought separately, 
of course. I do not know whether it is obtainable in Brus- 
sels. The Belgian government newspaper most probably 
publishes similar reports too. 

Where did you get the English catalogues? Are there 
English bookshops in Brussels or did you order them from 
London? 

I am now busy with urgent work; there is not much left 
for me to do to finish my book, and then I shall most likely 
have to start contributing to the magazines. That is why I 
am writing very little, especially as Nadya says that she 
will write in detail about our life here. 

If you come across anything in second-hand bookshops 
on the economics of farming in France, Britain, etc. (farm- 
ing statistics, enquetes, the reports of British commissions), 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



223 



or on the history of industrial forms (among others, Bab- 
bage, Ure — the older writers on this subject), please buy 
them if the prices are moderate. 

Have you much work? When are you thinking of coming 
home? 



All the best, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 6 



Printed from 
the original 



224 



72 

TO HIS BROTHER 

January 26, 1899 

I have received your letter about guns and hasten to 
reply without awaiting the promised price list. I have the 
price list of the gunsmith's shop belonging to I. Schon- 
bruner (Stary Gazetny Street, between Tverskaya and Nikit- 
skaya Streets, in the house of Tolmachov), which Mark sent 
me last winter. The most suitable on the list seem to me 
to be the centre-fire guns by August Francott in Liittich, 
pp. 6-7 (45-55 rubles with a choke barrel — incidentally, is 
it true that the choke increases the concentration of the 
shot and the accuracy of the gun, as the price list claims 
and as I have heard from sportsmen? If so, it must be a 
very useful thing — 12 and 16 calibre, weight about l l k lbs) 
— and on page 22, a light gun by the same firm (6V2 lbs, and 
a barrel of 14 V2 vershki* and not 17, also with a choke, 
65 rubles for a 12 calibre).** You ask about calibre and 
weight. I have a 12 calibre gun and I have some cartridges 
(brass) of that calibre left (made by Y. Torbek; I paid 12 
kopeks each for them); this is the size.*** 

However, you'll probably have to buy new cartridges 
(25, brass, will be enough, I think) because the cartridges 
have to fit the gun exactly. And so you must choose the 
calibre and weight yourself; it is not important, as long 

* About 25 '/z inches; vershok= 1 3 A inches (approx.). — Ed. 
** There are cheaper guns: 42 rubles (p. 10), 35 rubles (p. 14, 
fig. No. 18, without choke). If it shoots well and is reliable, that 
will do. I am not interested in the ornament. 12 calibre is a bit 
big, perhaps 16 calibre would be better. 

***Here Lenin drew a small circle in pencil. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



225 



as it has a good range (it goes without saying that, all other 
things being equal, a light gun is preferable; perhaps it 
really is better to have a heavier barrel, in case of necessity 
it can be scoured, and it won't break or buckle so easily. 
I have been spoiled, you know, with my light plain-bore 
gun!). I was particularly interested in the terms Schonbru- 
ner offers; "selection of the gun is made by the purchaser 
if he is present at the test, or by the shop" (p. 3), and not 
a word about any special payment for a test! But you 
should not leave it to the shop, of course, to make the selec- 
tion, you must test the gun yourself and measure the spread 
of the shot* and take the test sheets. It is strange that they 
should test it "at 50 arshins**" (p. 3 N.B.)! What the devil 
do they mean by that? What game can you shoot at a 
distance of 17 sagenes?*** I always tested my gun at 25 to 
30 sagenes. That, incidentally, may be due to my inexpe- 
rience. If you "hold a consultation" (oho!) all this will 
probably be weighed up. I was extremely surprised to learn 
that Schonbruner considers the weight of a gun for transport 
purposes to be 35 pounds (sic! p. 108 — "over long distanc- 
es"). That's scandalous — 17 rubles 50 kopeks! The gun 
weighs 7 x /2 lbs which is 4 rubles and for the box (you write) 
about 2 rubles, which comes to about 7 rubles, just as I 
wrote to you and as I have been told in Minusinsk. Would 
it not be better to order a box yourself and send it? A device 
for filling cartridges, the simplest kind (I have one that 
cost a ruble seventy-five kopeks; the thing for getting the 
caps out is just a spike on a stick. In Schonbruner's price 
list, p. 75, fig. No. 133, the "ordinary local" kind are I 
ruble 75 kopeks). I do not need a game bag (when I kill 
anything I bring it home on a bit of ordinary string!), I 
have a cartridge pouch, a soldier's (leather) cartridge box 
that holds 12 cartridges, and the other 8 or 9 go in my pock- 
et; there is also a sling, although it would be better to fit 
a ring for it in the shop, if it can be done. What do you mean 
by "caps of a suitable calibre"? Caps are the same size for 
all breech-loaders, aren't they? I am marking out the size 

* It is as well to take the measurement if they test the gun in 
the shop, otherwise there will be a lot of trouble getting it. 
**Arshin = 28 inches. — Ed. 
*** Sagene = seven feet. — Ed. 



226 



V. I. LENIN 



of my caps at the top*; if they are not the same size you had 
better send about 500, of course, or even more; here only 
the kind I have are available. 

With regard to wads — I use ordinary newspaper and 
thought buying them an unnecessary luxury. If I am wrong 
in that (if wads are important for striking power) and if 
they are really cheap (as you write), then send me either 
some wads or an instrument for cutting them (in the price 
list p. 92, 75 kopeks; I have heard that it is a very con- 
venient thing to have. Write and tell me whether you use 
one and what sort of cardboard you use). There is no need 
to buy a cover specially — I have a simple one, the old one 
they gave me in the shop in Krasnoyarsk with the gun.** 
One of the comrades tells me that wire brushes are very 
useful. 

I think that is all. If there is a second-hand gun that 
has been tested and has no defects in the barrel, of course 
it is worth while taking it. Address the gun to Yelizaveta 
Vasilyevna. There is no great hurry — it should be here 
by March 1, and even the end of March will be all right. 



I am very, very glad that your case is taking a turn for 
the better, and that there are fresh hopes of getting into 
the University. The mistake at the beginning of §11 of Chap- 
ter IV (p. 346) you did well to notice; thanks for that. It 
should read 41. 3 million chetverts 130 and not 14. 3 .*** In my 
first rough copy I had it right, in the second rough copy 
I made a mistake and did not notice the absurdity. Please 
send the correction immediately . With regard to the word 
"rational" in the quotation from Kablukov, there is no 
need to change it; there is no doubt that here Kablukov 
means "reasonable" and not technically rational; / also 
understood "rational" to mean "reasonable" and not "tech- 
nically rational". I ridiculed him on this point because 



* Here Lenin drew an arrow pointing to the margin where he 
showed the size of the cap in pencil. — Ed. 

**Will the cover from a single-barrelled gun do? Incidentally, 
I think it would be better to get one made here, they sting you badly 
in the shops. 
*** Collected Works, Vol. 3, p. 257.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



227 



his argument is pure tautology, since the Narodniks con- 
sider natural economy to be "reasonable". Should the 
reader understand "rational" in the second case differently 
from the first (i.e., different in Kablukov's words than in 
mine)?* 



Tobacco plantations actually number 75 — 95 — 650 thous- 
and (i.e., 75,000, 95,000, 650,000).** 



Skating is something I do with the greatest of zeal. In 
Minusinsk, Gleb showed me a number of tricks (he is a 
good skater) and I have been practising them with such 
industry that once I hurt my hand and could not write for 
two days. My old skill has not been forgotten. This kind 
of exercise is far better than winter shooting, when you 
flounder up to your knees in snow, spoil your gun and 
rarely see any game! 



All the best, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 6 



Printed from 
the original 



* Collected Works, Vol. 3, p. 256.— Ed. 
**Ibid., p. 300.— Ed. 



228 



73 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Vinogradov's House, 
Bronnitskaya Street, 
Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia 

January 30, 1899 

Yesterday, Mother dearest, I received Neue Zeit from 
Anyuta and a price list from Mitya. Merci for them. Today 
I read an announcement about Nachalo 131 in Russkiye 
Vedomosti. It is a good thing I have managed to finish my 
"markets" just in time for the beginning of Nachalo (I 
finished them at long last today. On Wednesday I am send- 
ing in the last two chapters) and now I shall be free to do a 
little work on current affairs. I have received a little book 
to review, but have not yet managed to read it. 132 

I do not remember whether I wrote about Anatoly being 
ill all the time. He has had another misfortune; an order 
has arrived transferring him to the village of Antsiferovo 
(several dozen versts to the north of Yeniseisk on the road 
to Turukhansk) 133 — further banishment to punish him 
because an exile by the name of Makhnovets (who only 
arrived this winter) ran away and gave somebody Anatoly's 
address. From this the conclusion was drawn in some 
incomprehensible manner that Anatoly must have known 
about the escape! So far Anatoly has not been moved 
because of his illness — he cannot even go out of the house. 
He has applied to be transferred to Minusinsk District or 
to Russia for treatment. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



229 



Nothing has been heard about Yuly's transfer. 

Three exiles have also been transferred from the village 
of Kazachinskoye (where A. A. Yakubova lives); those 
transferred are Lengnik, to a place not far from us, Are- 
fyev and Rostkovsky, so the Kazachinskoye colony has 
been very, very much thinned out. 

Kurnatovsky (he lives in the village of Kuraginskoye, 
some 100 versts away from us) asked to be transferred to 
Shusha; he has been refused; he is now being transferred 
to the village of Yermakovskoye (about 40 versts from 
Shushenskoye), where he will be quite alone. 

We are having exceptionally good weather; very light 
frosts (10-12°), bright days and sunshine that is already 
springlike. This is not a Siberian winter! 

Many, many kisses for you and regards to all. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 6 



Printed from 
the original 



230 



74 



TO HIS MOTHER 



February 3, 1899 



Today, Mother dearest, I am sending you the last two 
parts of my "markets", Chapters VII and VIII, and two 
Appendices (II and III) 134 and the headings of the last 
two chapters. At last I have finished a work that at one 
time had threatened to drag on infinitely. I would ask 
Anyuta to send them on to the writer as soon as possible 
together with the enclosed review of Gvozdyov's book. The 
writer sent me the book "for review" and I thought it would 
be awkward to refuse from here. But I did not enjoy writing 
the review. I did not like the book — nothing new, general- 
ities, an impossible style in places (he writes about "con- 
nivances at farming" and things like that). He is at the same 
time a supporter and an opponent of the Narodniks and, 
most important of all, a Nachalo collaborator. Little as 
I like that "Samara" spirit,* I nevertheless decided to 
restrain myself and fill up four-fifths of the review with 
remarks against the Narodniks and one-fifth against Gvoz- 
dyov. I do not know whether the editors will like it; I do not 
know their relations with the "Samarans". Nadya is writing 
to the ecrivains wife about all this today. 

Many kisses for you and best regards to all. 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 6 



Printed from 
the original 



See Note 40.— Ed. 



/<-<s'iT-C^>. 

^ /y^fS^zy /WtiA ^ 

The first page of Lenin's letter to his mother 
February 3, 1899 




233 



75 

TO HIS MOTHER 

February 7, 1899 

Today I am sending you, Mother dearest, another small 
package (registered) — first, the issue of Izvestiya 135 I was 
asked to return and, second, a review 136 that I ask you to 
pass on to the writer. By the next post I will send a little 
addition to Chapter VII. I hope it will not be too late. 
I think I forgot to write last time that according to my 
rough calculation the whole book contains about 934,000 
letters. This is not very much, altogether something like 
467 printed pages, counting 2,000 letters to a page. If, 
however, there are fewer letters to the page, for instance 
1,680 (as in Tugan-Baranovsky's Crises) — which, of course, 
would make the edition unnecessarily expensive — there will 
be about 530 pages. 

Anyuta apparently did not receive the letter (written 
a very long time ago) in which I asked her to send me (1) a 
decent German translation of Turgenev and (2) a detailed 
German grammar (oven one in German for Germans, because 
those for Russians are usually very brief).* I want to make a 
real study of German. Now I ask you to send me a Russian- 
German Dictionary, one of those we have at home, 
Lenstrom, or bettor, Reiff's dictionary of Russian and three 
European languages. I wanted to order Pavlovsky's 



See Letter No. 65.— Ed. 



234 



V. I. LENIN 



Russian-German Dictionary from Kalmykova's, but 
it is being issued in parts and only half of it has 
appeared. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Regards to all. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 6 the original 



235 



76 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

February 13, 1899 

Anyuta, 

I have received your letter of January 27 and am delight- 
ed with the news about the "markets". If my letter of Ja- 
nuary 10 was, as you say, too pessimistic, this one will 
probably be far too optimistic. I am very grateful to 
V. A., Mitya and especially you for the trouble you have 
taken with the book, about the fate of which — as far as 
a satisfactory edition is concerned — I am now quite reas- 
sured. With regard to the title — I am inclined to agree 
that mine is too long; it is, true enough, a necessary one, 
but it would be better as a sub-title. The title itself sho- 
uld be more modest than The Development of Capitalism 
in Russia, which is too bold, too broad and promises too 
much. On the Problem of the Development of Capitalism 
in Russia would, in my opinion, be better. / did not receive 
Ribot's booklet (Affektivnaya pamyat) which you say 
you sent. 137 There seems to have been a delay, either 
in your sending the registered packet or in the delivery 
here. 

I wrote in an earlier letter about the approximate number 
of letters in the entire composition, so it should be easier 
for you to calculate how many more pages there will be. 
I am anxiously awaiting the first two chapters — typographic- 
ally the second is the most difficult. You did well to con- 
vince V. A. not to make changes "according to sense" 
(incidentally, with regard to the little illustration you were 



236 



V. I. LENIN 



quite right — that is indeed what I meant to say, little 
and not nice. As regards sharpness of tone, I am now in 
favour of toning down such passages and decreasing their 
number. I have realised that they are much stronger in 
print than in speech or in a letter, so one must be more 
moderate in this respect). I am also very, very pleased with 
the tables, with your having convinced the printer not to 
omit decimal fractions but to print them below the level of the 
whole numbers and in a different type and not to print the 
tables sideways. Even if it makes the publication somewhat 
dearer, it does not matter very much. Judging from your 
approximate estimate of the cost, you will probably be able 
to fix the price at no more than 2 rubles 50 kopeks for an 
edition of 2,400 copies.* With regard to all that, however, 
I leave it entirely to you to decide. It will also be interest- 
ing to see how well the diagram comes out. 138 What do the 
statisticians say about it (V. A. and the other**)? Several 
remarks have been made to me about its being unusual. 
Does it serve its purpose of being clear and convincing? 

The publisher*** wrote to me about the "Heritage"; 
there is a certain grain of truth in his remarks. 139 As far 
as the Samarans are concerned, I doubt very much whether 
they have said anything sensible (I have already had a 
letter about the accusation of "bourgeois sympathies"). 140 
The question of "from whom we received the inheritance" 
is not the one I posed in my reply to Mikhailovsky — do we 
renounce that heritage "that Moskovskiye Vedomosti attacks" 
and which I gave an exact definition of? 141 If polemics were 
to be started against the Samarans on the fundamental ques- 
tion of the attitude of Marxism to the liberal-enlightener 
trends, and of the role and significance of the "extra-eco- 
nomic", it would be very interesting and useful. 

All the best to you, Mark and Mitya, and many kisses 
for Mother. 

V. U. 



* To make the book cheaper for the public it would be a good 
thing to sell it for cash from the office of the journal, etc., with a dis- 
count — for I ruble 75 kopeks, say. I do not know whether it can 
be done. 

** It is not known who the other statistician was. — Ed. 
***A. N. Potresov.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



237 



Today Mikhail Alexandrovich (Silvin) passed through 
here. He has been transferred to the village of Yermakov- 
skoye (some 40 versts from us). He seems quite well, physic- 
ally and mentally; he has changed little; we were very 
glad to see him. 

I am sending you yet another addition to Chapter VII. 142 
I am surprised that 0. Popova is taking so long in set- 
thug up for Webb. 143 Nadya said that the terms were to 
pay the translator in any case, even if the censor banned 
publication of the book. Our finances are again at rock 
bottom. Please send 200 rubles to Y. V.'s address. If there 
is still nothing from 0. Popova and nothing is expected 
for a week or two, I would ask you to borrow the money; 
otherwise we shall be in trouble. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 6 the original 



238 



77 

TO HIS MOTHER 

February 21, 1899 

I am sending you another review, Mother dearest, and 
ask you to send it on to the writer. 144 I have never received 
the Ribot booklet that Anyuta promised; I am surprised 
at this and it is strange that Anyuta should single out 
the page on which the type is supposed to be the same as 
that used in the "markets" — page 24. Is Ribot's book set 
in different types? This book is of no importance to me 
in itself, by the way, since I hope to get the first batch of 
proofs soon. 

We are all well here, there is no change, but we are 
expecting visitors this week.* We are enjoying spring weather; 
it has been thawing for several days. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Regards to all. 

Nauchnoye Obozreniye for some reason do not think it 
necessary to send me either the first issue of the journal 
or reprints of my article. I have heard about P. Struve's 
objection but have not yet seen it. 145 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 6 the original 



* See next letter.— Ed. 



239 



78 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

February 28, 1899 

Today we said "Good-bye" to our guests, Mother dearest; 
the people from Minusinsk came here — Gleb, Basil, Z. P., 
local workers and others — and stayed here from Wednesday 
till today (Sunday). We had an excellent time and are now 
returning to our usual tasks. The Minusinsk people intend 
asking permission to come here for the summer; conditions 
are very bad in town in the summer. I do not know, however, 
whether material circumstances may not keep them tied to 
the town. If they can come here we shall be able to spend 
an excellent summer. Elvira Ernestovna, Gleb tells us, is 
ill all the time. A. M. did not come — she is acting as dis- 
trict nurse in the village of Kuraginskoye. 

Many kisses, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Are you planning how to spend the summer and what 
are you thinking of doing? 

Anyuta, 

I have received the issues of Neue Zeit; 146 merci for them 
and for the agricultural returns, 147 and also for the clean 
proofs of "markets". I was very much pleased with the 
last. You must have had a lot of trouble with them, but as 
a result there are practically no misprints. I have not found 
any in the tables (although you write about them) and 
those in the letterpress are a mere bagatelle. I think the 
type is satisfactory. There will be about 30 printer's sig- 
natures (that is the maximum, there will probably be 
fewer), just the number I counted on. The tables have been 
set excellently. It is particularly good that the decimal 
fractions stand out well and there are no tables printed 



240 



V. I. LENIN 



sideways.* The tables set in 6 point (p. 46) and in 5 point 
(p. 39) have come out very well — I could not wish for any- 
thing better. 149 The sub-titles and the numbers of the sections 
are all set in suitable type. In short, on this occasion I 
have no reason to regret that the author cannot read the 
proofs. In one of my next letters I shall send you a short 
list of my acquaintances to whom I should like you to send 
the book directly from Russia. It would cost more to send 
a lot of copies to me and for me to send them from here, 
and it would be less convenient. I hope that by the time 
you receive this letter you will have gone a long way 
past the second chapter, which, from the proof-reader's 
point of view, is the most treacherous chapter. I shall 
give the Preface a little more thought — perhaps I shall 
send another, or perhaps the old one can stay. 150 

I am adding a list of misprints to this letter. 

I have received Nauchnoye Obozreniye No. 1 with the article 
by P. B. Struve against Ilyin only from the Minusinsk peo- 
ple. I am thinking of answering it, although it seems to me 
that P. B.'s article is more for than against me. I do not know 
whether I can now write and quote from the "markets", 
i.e., will they be out in the first half of April? Write and 
tell me what you think. (It is important for me to quote 
in order to avoid repetitions.) 151 

All the best, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I am enclosing a letter to Mark. 

I do not know whether it would be convenient to write 
to him at your address or direct. (Administration of the 
Moscow-Kursk Railway — is that enough?) 152 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 6 the original 



* There are column headings printed sideways but they are not 
in the least inconvenient. In exceptional circumstances, tables printed 
sideways are not so bad, but those set in 5 point type and upright 
are much better. It will be a good thing if the table on p. 504 can be 
set in 5 point type. 148 



241 



79 

TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW 

February 28, 1899 

Mark, 

I received your letter of February 8. Your chess game 
came in very handy. The people from Minusinsk were here 
at the time as visitors and as they are now enthusiastic 
chess players we had some exceedingly tough battles. We 
analysed your game, too. Judging by that, you have begun 
to play much better. You must have given much thought 
to each move and (perhaps?) consulted your neighbours. 
Otherwise, you know, I shall now be afraid to play against 
a man who has defeated Lasker! 153 

With regard to the "forces of the true believers" arrayed 
against me for my article on the "heritage" 154 — I await 
with interest something in the press about this. The funda- 
mental question of "support" is, in my opinion, a very 
important one (in connection with the question of "econom- 
ics" and extra-economic relations. By the way, do the 
forces connect the two issues?). It would be very useful 
and very interesting to talk on this subject to people who 
do not limit themselves to Gvozdyov's theories (have you 
road his book about kulaks? I think it is very, very weak*). 
We shall wait a while. 

I read your remarks on the "markets" with great interest. 
We shall see what sort of impression they produce as a 
whole — what the critics say, especially those who are to 
our way of thinking. It is now impossible to correct the 



* See Letter No. 74.— Ed. 



242 



V. I. LENIN 



book (except in individual passages, of course), that is, 
it is impossible to change its general character, its laconic 
style (as it is there are about 500 pages! More would be 
absolutely impossible!) — masses of figures, tables, etc., 
and a narrow subject. Only one correction would have 
been possible here — to divide the book into two parts or 
two volumes and spend a year or two on reworking each of 
them. For various reasons I found this plan not very suit- 
able. The question of foreign markets is touched upon 
in general terms only in Chapter VIII, in one § and in con- 
nection with the problem of the border regions of Russia. 
In general I had to reject the examination of the foreign 
market completely. 

I have not heard anything at all about your plans to 
leave your job. Which school of engineering do you think 
of entering? A higher school? How many years is the course 
and what rights does the diploma give you? Are you think- 
ing of becoming an engineer-technologist? Will you be 
excused a year or two, i.e., not have to take the first part 
of the course, since you are a graduate of a mathematical 
faculty? 



All the best, 



V. U. 



Regards from Nadya and Y. V. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 6 



Printed from 
the original 



243 



80 

TO HIS MOTHER* 

March 7, 1899 

This week, Mother dearest, I have received three little 
books by Turgenev in German. Merci for them. I am glad 
you got the Reclaim edition — I think it is the most conve- 
nient. I am now waiting for a dictionary from Russian into 
German (I remember we had two — Lenstrom and Reiff, an 
old dictionary from Russian. The latter would be better, 
although the first of them is quite all right), and also some 
sort of a grammar. I wrote about this to Anyuta; Mark has 
a Book about Books in which several detailed German gram- 
mars written in the German language are listed. I wanted 
to order Pavlovsky's Russo-German Dictionary from Kal- 
mykova but it seems that it is not finished and is being 
published piecemeal. 

I am now finishing an article 155 in reply to Struve.** 
It seems to me he has got things badly mixed up and his 
article may cause a good deal of misunderstanding among 
supporters and malicious glee among opponents. If it is not 
possible to place the reply in the journal (for the simple 
reason that Tugan-Baranovsky or Bulgakov will get their 
answers in first; I still have not had the January issue of 
Nauchnoye Obozreniye) I think I shall include it in the 
"markets" as a fourth Appendix (the article is no more than 



* An envelope addressed to Lenin's sister Maria in Brussels in 
his mother's band was attached to this letter.— Ed. 

** At this point Lenin's mother added a note, apparently for her 
daughter Maria: "We read it with pleasure; it is well written."— Ed. 



244 



V. I. LENIN 



about sixteen pages). Of course it would be better in the 
journal. 

There are no changes here. The weather is warm. Spring 
is already making itself felt. 

There is little good news from the comrades. Apollinariya 
Alexandrovna was allowed to go to Yeniseisk for three 
weeks. Poor Anatoly is sick all the time, his temperature 
goes up to 40° C. They say he has consumption — he is not 
allowed to know this, of course. His transfer to Minusinsk 
District has still not been settled. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Many kisses. Y. V. and Nadya send regards. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 6 



Printed from 
the original 



245 



81 

KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

Mile Marie Ouljanoff, 
Rue des Minimes, 40, 
Bruxelles, 
Belgique 

March 7 

Again I am guilty of great unpunctuality, dear Manya, 
but do not be angry. Your letter came just before our 
guests arrived. We resolved to celebrate Shrovetide in style 
and invited everyone from the town (six people).* Our 
quiet Shusha suddenly became crowded and noisy. We 
spent the time in real holiday fashion and the five days 
passed before we realised it. On the last day Mikhail Ale- 
xandrovich also came (he is now our nearest neighbour 
and we hope to see him often — he lives 35 versts from here). 
After the visitors it took us all a long while to get back 
to normal again. Volodya has immersed himself in an arti- 
cle in reply to Struve. Still that eternally new question of 
the markets. It looks as though Volodya will have to put in 
quite a lot of time on polemics in defence of the postulates 
made in his Studies. He intends to write about Kablukov, 
too. I have no regular occupation, I just read. I have now 
been ten whole months in Shusha and have not managed to 
get anything done, I am always going to do something. 
Spring is in the air. The ice on the river is covered with 
water all the time and the sparrows in the willow trees are 
chirping furiously; the bullocks low as they pass up and 
down the street and the landlady's hen under the stove 



See Letter No. 78.— Ed. 



246 



V. I. LENIN 



clucks so loudly in the morning that she wakes everyone 
up. The streets are muddy. Volodya is more and more 
often thinking of his gun and waders, and Mother and I 
are thinking of planting some flowers. From this descrip- 
tion you can get some idea of the way we pass our time 
and will realise that there is not a great deal of material 
here for letter-writing. Judging by your letter, your life 
is the exact opposite of ours — there is life and movement 
all round you. You seem to be entering into local life and 
to be full of its interests. Thanks for the newspaper cuttings, 
send some more. Your irritation at your lack of knowledge 
of French only impresses upon us the pitiful knowledge of 
languages that Volodya and I possess — his knowledge is 
a little better, but mine is very poor. We have got hold 
of Turgenev in German and intend to start translating from 
Russian into German, but so far we have neither a diction- 
ary nor a grammar and, even if we had, it is hardly likely 
we should study. Apparently we shall get to know languages 
only when we go abroad and necessity forces us to study 
them seriously. When are you thinking of coming home? 
Will you have to take any examinations? Do you feel very 
homesick in Brussels? Have you many friends? 

Oh yes — did you know that Anatoly is very ill? The doc- 
tors have diagnosed consumption and he has a high tem- 
perature all the time. Kuba was given permission to go 
to Yeniseisk for three weeks and she has gone there. She 
writes rarely and only to clear her conscience, so I don't 
know how she is getting on — probably not too well. Zina 
is still the same as usual, merry and vivacious. And so, 
good-bye. Many kisses. All the best. Mother asks me to 
kiss you. Write more often. 



Best wishes, Manyasha, and I, too, thank you for the 
cuttings. I have nothing to add to Nadya's letter. 



Yours, 



Nadya 



V. U. 



Written March 7, 1899 
Sent from Shushenskoye 

First published in 1931 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



247 



82 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

March 17, 1899 

Yesterday, Mother dearest, I received your letter of 
February 28. A very big merci for your photograph. I think 
it came out quite well and I am all the more glad because 
the one I have is rather old. It would be wonderful if you 
could visit us in Shusha. In summer the journey is a rela- 
tively easy one — by rail to Krasnoyarsk and then by steam- 
er to Minusinsk (at the beginning of May the steamers do 
not usually go as far upstream as Minusinsk but in summer 
they go further, sometimes, though rarely, even to Shusha). 
Shusha is not a bad place to stay in summer. Gleb and 
Basil are applying for permission to be transferred here for 
the summer (summer in Minusinsk is very bad); I do not 
know whether permission will be given.* Manyasha wrote 
to us recently and we are writing to her today. 

Y. V. received the money. 

It is a good thing that Mitya intended going for a gun 
soon after your letter. The shooting season here begins at 
the end of March and we are already discussing plans for the 
shoot. 

Many kisses and congratulations for your name day. This 
letter will probably arrive before the first of April. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Y. V. sends regards, Nadya will also write to you today.** 



* It was not.— Ed. 
** This letter has been lost.— Ed. 



248 



V. I. LENIN 



Anyuta, 

I have received the Izvestiya 156 — a big merci for it — 
and the clean proofs.* By and large I am very pleased with 
them; the book is neatly printed, the tables are clear and 
without misprints, and very few of the tables are printed 
sideways. But I don't know about the diagram, how did that 
come out? I am sending you a list of the misprints in sig- 
natures 4 to 11. A few of them (I have underlined them) 
either make reading difficult or distort the meaning (these 
are very few). Perhaps it will be convenient for you to do 
this: in addition to the list of misprints at the end of the 
book you put in a special sheet at the beginning (it should 
be glued in) asking the reader to correct, before reading, 
the most important misprints, of which these (the ones I have 
underlined) are of significance, the remainder being given 
at the end of the book. I believe this is sometimes 
done. 

Since it is no use hoping for any book to appear without 
misprints, I can tell you (contrary to your expectations) 
that I feel fully satisfied. As far as accuracy is concerned 
the Studies will not compare at all with this publication; 
there are few misprints and most of them are quite unim- 
portant. 

As for the contents, do as you please; you may confine 
it to the section headings or add the detailed contents 
I have compiled. 157 

I am sending a list of acquaintances to whom I would 
like you to send the book when it comes out. Mitya will 
have plenty to do sending off such a heap of packages! But 
that is better than sending a lot here (three copies will be 
enough for me). 

I am also sending a Postscript to the Preface. If it is 
not too late I should very much like to print it, so as to 
make reference to Kautsky's splendid book. 158 Perhaps 
it will be possible to set the Postscript, even if the Preface 
has already been set. As soon as you receive this, write and 



* These were the proofs of Chapters II and III of The Development 
of Capitalism in Russia. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



249 



let me know whether it is possible and, in general, when 
the end is expected. 

V. A-ch has let himself in for a job! It must be very dif- 
ficult to read the proofs of such a book! 

All the best, and regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Columbus and the doctor have not written to me for a 
long time. 

Anyuta, 

I have one other request to make of you. Perhaps you 
will chance to be in St. Petersburg or will see the writer — 
if so, please find out about the Webbs' book. Why have they 
not paid any fee for it all this time, for, according to Nadya, 
it should have been paid irrespective of whether the book 
appeared or not. We should get it out of 0. Popova. We 
are not writing to the writer about it because we think this 
question cannot really be dealt with in writing. I tell you 
only in case you see him personally.* 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 
First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 6 



Printed from 
the original 



There follows, in the original, a list of the misprints. — Ed. 



250 



83 

KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

Mile Marie Ouljanoff, 
Rue des Minimes, 40, 
Bruxelles, 
Belgique 

March 17 

My greetings will not arrive in time, dear Manya, they 
will be late, but I nevertheless send you many, many kisses. 
Thanks for the views of Brussels, although I do not want to 
think of foreign countries too soon, I do not even want to 
think about Russia. All I allow myself to think about is 
the summer. In her last letter to us, M. Al. wrote that 
she is coming to see us this summer with Anyuta, and today 
in a letter to Podolsk I plunged into a description of the 
charms of Shusha.* I even outlined a trip to Lake Perovo, 
where we shall catch crucians and fry them. You see, the 
Minusinsk crowd are asking to come to Shusha for the sum- 
mer, and we are thinking of acquiring a horse, so that it will 
be easy to go everywhere. I have become quite a "patriot" 
and can talk with great enthusiasm about the Yenisei, the 
islands, the forest, etc. All the same I am sorry I am not 
a man; I should wander around a lot more. Although I 
should very much like to see you, I do not intend to tempt 
you with Shusha, because, speaking impartially, Shusha is 
a village like any other, and if I were asked today to choose 
between a place to spend the summer — near Moscow or in 
Shusha, I should choose the former. 



The letter has been lost. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



251 



Volodya is now greatly interested in Kautsky's Agrar- 
frage and is writing a review of it.* So far I can only glance 
at the book and lick my chops. In general, we have quite 
a lot of books and the very abundance of them only makes 
one conscious of how much there is to be read and how little 
one reads. We are not yet receiving Nachalo, so far only 
that boring Russkoye Bogatstvo. 

However, I must stop. Mother sends you kisses and con- 
gratulations. Volodya intends to write himself. 

We received M. Al.'s photo in the last post. It is an 
excellent likeness, isn't it? 



I apologise, dear Manyasha, that this time, too, I am 
writing very little, just adding my congratulations to Na- 
dya's. The fact is that today a lot of letters have to be 
written to Turukhansk (the post goes once a month), 159 
and then I have to send Anyuta a list of the misprints in 
the clean proofs she sent me. 

We have very little news. There is a lull in literary 
activity — we keep waiting. Foreign newspapers write of events 
in St. Petersburg and Finland (judging by Frankfurter 
Zeitung) but what they write is inked over, so we know 
very, very little. 160 

All the best. Perhaps au revoirl 



Many kisses, 



Yours, 



Nadya 



March 17 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Written March 17, 1899 
Sent from Shushenskoye 

First published in 1929 



in the journal Proletarskaya 



Printed from 
the original 



Revolyutsiya No. 6 



* S 



ee Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 94-99.— Ed. 



252 



84 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Vinogradov's House, 
Bronnitskaya Street, 
Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia 

March 21, 1899 

I am sending you a note (or a review) on Kautsky's book, 
Mother dearest; I would ask Anyuta to send it on. I have 
not yet received the first issue of the journal.* We hope 
to get it the day after tomorrow. 

If Anyuta has not yet written anything to Manyasha 
about German books, is she going to write? If Manyasha is 
leaving soon, let her leave instructions at the post office 
to send books on to some other address (a friend's, etc.). 
Perhaps Anyuta will also write to her about her own friends? 
If possible I should like to obtain the missing issues of 
Novoye Vremya for 1897-98. 

Many kisses and regards to all. 

V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 6 the original 



The journal referred to was Nachalo. — Ed. 



253 



85 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

April 4, 1899 

I have received your letter and Mitya's, Mother dearest. 
There is no need for you to worry about a place to stay 
in Shusha, there is plenty of room here. We had four 
visitors staying with us at Shrovetide. If your health per- 
mits we should be very, very glad to see you, so as not to 
have to wait until my term is up (sometimes the term is 
extended — although I hope mine will not be). Nadya is 
writing in greater detail,* but as regards the season I must 
make a correction to her letter, at the beginning of May 
the water is still low — the steamer put us ashore half way. 
It is no good travelling an extra hundred versts by road. 
The best thing is to reach Krasnoyarsk at the end of May, 
when you can easily go by boat as far as Minusinsk, and 
from there it is only 55 versts. As a summer resort Shusha 
is not much worse than any other, I think (if worse it is). It 
is only a question of the journey. 

There is no need for you to be worried about the gun. 
I am used to it and am very careful.** Shooting is the 
only form of amusement here, and some sort of "loosen- 
ing up exercise" is necessary because of my sedentary life. 

Thank Mitya for the trouble he took over the gun (which 
I have not yet received). 



See Krupskaya's Letter No. 15. — Ed. 

A centre-fire gun is much safer than an ordinary one. 



254 



V. I. LENIN 



I read in Russkiye Vedomosti that Mark beat Chigorin! 
So that's what he's like! I'll have to cross swords with 
him one day! 

Many kisses for you and regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

By the way, I almost forgot — some books will be sent to 
you C.O.D. from Vyatka. They are for me; please ask Mitya 
to make a list of them and send it to me. 

April 4, 1899 

Anyuta, 

I have received Prakticheskaya Zhizn and Heyse's German 
Grammar. Many thanks for the latter, it is an excellent 
book. I wrote you last time that I had received Tsion. 161 

By the last post I sent a telegram to Petersburg in answer 
to the following, which I received on March 26. "Proposed 
price of book two rubles, author's royalties about 1,500 
rubles, wire consent Kalmykova's warehouse."* I gave 
my consent — because I cannot, after all, haggle by tele- 
graph — and on the eve of publication! How can I hold it 
up for that! Actually I am not much in favour of that "con- 
sent". I was rather surprised that they (who? I do not know, 
there is no signature) should have done things in a round- 
about way and, instead of asking you as the person in 
charge of the whole business, applied directly to me. I 
now regret that I did not answer "Apply to Yelizarova in 
Moscow, she is in charge of the affair." That is how I 
should have answered! Because 1,500 is very little for three 
years' work, it works out at 50 rubles a printer's signature. 
Furthermore, since the Studies are selling exceedingly well 
there need be no worry about the "markets". If that is the 
case there is no reason for making the booksellers a present 
of 30 per cent. One could, if the publisher were a more 
practical man or woman, offer the booksellers half that 
percentage and also sell the book through the Nachalo 
office, which, it is to be hoped, would not refuse. By the 



The telegram has been lost. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



255 



way, it is probably a waste of time writing all this now, 
since the deed seems to have been done. Of course, we shall 
have to make concessions on the fees because of the cheap- 
ness of the book. Since it is not we, but other people, who 
are publishing the book there is no sense in making special 
claims. And so, all the preceding is merely platonic con- 
templation and not "business" propositions. 

I believe it most probable that even the list of misprints 
in signatures 11 to 16 (I received them from you the day 
before yesterday) will be too late, so I am sending it only 
in case, and without making a fair copy.* 

I have at last received issue No. 1-2 of Nachalo from 
comrades. (Please subscribe to it for us, if you have not 
done so. I did a very foolish thing in again relying on the 
ecrivain. I hope I shall not be so silly in the future.) In 
general, I liked it very much, but B. Avilov is rather weak, 
more scathing than sound. 162 Bulgakov simply made me 
mad; such nonsense, such utter nonsense, and such eternal 
professorial pretentiousness — what the devil is this?! 163 No 
wonder Syn Otechestva has already praised him! We'll see 
how he finishes up. I am thinking of writing "about Kaut- 
sky's book and Bulgakov's article". 164 I have given up 
the plan to write about Kablukov, he is not worth a second 
article. The ecrivain, as usual, is silent, and we do not 
expect any information on journal affairs from him although 
we feel a considerable need for such information. 



All the best, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 



Printed from 
the original 



This list has been lost. — Ed. 



256 



86 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

April 11, 1899 

I received Mitya's parcel on Tuesday, Mother dearest. 
Send him a big merci for all his trouble. I am pleased with 
the gun (the weather is bad at present; the usual spring 
squalls — strong winds from across the Yenisei; so there has 
been practically no shooting). A charge of 2 3 A measures 
seemed too big (the gun kicks) and so I have begun using 
2V2 measures. I don't understand how they could have used 
3 in the shop! I have not yet been able to observe that 
the left barrel is better than the right — probably because 
I fired from too great a distance, 60 paces or so, about 
30 sagenes. 

If you come here bring some plain black tulle for mos- 
quito nets — I cannot go about here without a net. The 
locality is rather swampy. And also, please bring me anoth- 
er 200 wads for powder and for shot (similar to those 
Mitya sent me. There are none to be had here, and they are 
light and easily packed). 

At Easter I intend to make a shooting trip to a much 
better area. 

Many kisses, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

(Next Sunday there will be no post on account of Easter. 
Then the ice on the Yenisei may begin to move — it usually 
does soon after the twentieth of April. There may be some 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



257 



interruption of our correspondence; but you should not 
let that worry you. Last year, I believe, there was practi- 
cally no interruption.) 

Anyuta, 

I shall send to Mother's address by the next post an 
article on Kautsky and Bulgakov. Please send it on to the 
writer with a request that he inform you immediately 
whether the editors accept it. I believe it quite possible 
that they may not do so, because the ecrivain is probably 
on Bulgakov's side and may find polemics inconvenient, 
especially sharp polemics. As far as possible I tried to 
modify my tone but I was unable to speak coolly about that 
disgustingly professorial and clumsy article, which strikes 
a terribly dissonant note. I do not, of course, want to res- 
trict the editors' right to make "corrections", but there is 
no need to write about this since it is understood, unless 
the author makes specific provisos. If they do not accept 
the article, inform me, please, as quickly as possible and 
send the article, if you can, to. Zhizn or Nauchnoye Obozre- 
niye [Mir Bozhy is hardly likely to accept it]. There 
has been no information from the writer on literary 
matters, and we do not hope for any. Meanwhile it is devi- 
lishly inconvenient to write without constant and regular 
communication. A long time ago, in January, I think, I 
wrote them (or Nadya wrote) that I intended doing an 
article about Kablukov; they did not inform me that they 
had another article.* You hear nothing about reviews. 
(The review of Kautsky's book should be cancelled or sent 
somewhere else in view of this article against Bulgakov.) 
You never know what they have and what they have not. 
It would be a very good thing, if it were possible, to start 
a correspondence with the Chicagoan, who is in the know 
and probably has fairly close connections, so that he could 
answer all questions and in general keep you au courant 
with journal affairs. I do not know whether this could be 
done. 



The letter has been lost. — Ed. 



258 



V. I. LENIN 



How am I to send manuscripts if you (and Mother) go 
away? 165 In any case, leave the post office an address to 
which letters and parcels can be forwarded. 

Oh, yes — in my article I have referred to my "markets". 
If the book does not come out by the time you send on the 
manuscript, please cross out the footnotes containing such 
references or write in the manuscript that they should be 
taken out. 166 



All the best, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 



Printed from 
the original 



259 



87 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

May 1, 1899 

On Tuesday, Mother dearest, I received Anyuta's letter 
of April 12 and on Friday I received my book* (3 copies) 
and the manuscript of the translation. I am writing to 
Anyuta separately. 

This year spring has come particularly early. The trees 
are breaking into leaf and the water in the river is rising 
rapidly. The steamer could no doubt get as far as Minusinsk 
already, but nobody can say definitely whether the high 
water will last and for how long. 

Mikhail Alexandrovich (Silvin) wrote me that his fian- 
cee wants to visit him at the end of May (not earlier than 
the 23rd). Her name is Papperek (Olga Alexandrovna), 
address, Yegoryevsk in Ryazan Gubernia (she teaches at a 
secondary school there). If you decide to come, perhaps you 
could set out together. In any ease it will provide a con- 
venient opportunity to send things. Mikhail Alexandro- 
vich has asked her to call at Podolsk on the way, but you 
must, of course, get in touch with her because there may 
be circumstances that prevent her from doing so. Yermakov- 
skoye (where M. A. lives) is 40 versts from here, and the road 
there from Minusinsk is through Shushenskoye. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



The Development of Capitalism in Russia. — Ed. 



260 



V. I. LENIN 



Many kisses and regards to all. 

How are you fixed up now? How are you feeling? When 
are you expecting Manyasha? 

May 1, 1899 

Anyuta, 

I have received your letter of April 12, my book and 
the Webb translation {three registered packages). 

I am very pleased with the appearance of the book. The 
publication is excellent thanks to the great trouble you 
took with the proofs. It goes without saying that you did 
well to raise the price. It is quite enough that there will 
be a 25 per cent discount for students. Have you sent the 
book to all our acquaintances? I think you should take 
a further fifteen or so copies as the author's reserve; we shall 
have to exchange them for various symposia, etc. I have 
already written to you about the Studies and asked you 
to obtain a few more copies (send me two copies, but there 
is no hurry). I am very pleased with the title of the book; 
the ecrivain 's correction proved worth while. If royalties 
arrive do not send them yet. (I am writing to Mother about 
a good opportunity to send things here that will soon occur.) 

I am willing to take the job of editing the Webb transla- 
tion. I shall edit it in conformity with my own translation 
of the first volume. Since I have been given the job of edit- 
ing there is nothing else to wait for, and the first volume 
should be sent to the press immediately, should it not? 
Or will that again depend on P. B.'s "preparations"? 

For the editing job the following are indispensable — 

(1) the English original of Volume 2 (I have only Volume 1), 

(2) the German translation of Volume 2 (K. Hugo, I have 
only Volume 1 although Volume 2 has also been published). 
If these books have not yet been sent, please write quickly 
and tell them to send them immediately. I am afraid this 
may also cause a delay. Is it not possible to give someone 
the job of getting those books from them and sending them 
to me? 167 

I did not very much like P. B.'s sending my reply to him 
on to Nauchnoye Obozreniye; is he trying to avoid polemics 
in Nachalo? ie& If he is, my article about Bulgakov will 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



261 



obviously not be published. At last I have received Nacha- 
lo — two issues, complete. By and large I liked it very much. 
But Bulgakov's article is outrageous. Kautsky he distorts 
outright, and then there is that attack on Zusammenbruch 169 
— it is an echo of Bernstein's "criticism" [the warehouse 
refused to send me Bernstein's book; I have asked Manya- 
sha, but I do not know whether she will bring it. Can you 
get it?] I am writing a second article against him.* Of 
course, polemics among one's own people are unpleasant 
and I tried to tone the article clown, but to keep quiet about 
differences is not only unpleasant, it is downright harmful — 
and, furthermore, one cannot keep quiet about the chief 
differences between "orthodoxy" and "criticism" that have 
come to the fore in German and Russian Marxism. Our 
opponents are already taking advantage of the differences 
anyway (Mikhailovsky in Russkoye Bogatstvo No. 4). While 
polemising among ourselves we can agree on general solidarity 
against the Narodniks. I want to do this at the end of my 
article. 170 One of Bulgakov's chief faults is that he did not 
say exactly in what he agrees with Kautsky against the Na- 
rodniks. 

All the best, 

V. U. 

In Nauchnoye Obozreniye No. 3 I saw a note by Maslov 
against my article on the heritage. It seemed quite uninter- 
esting. 

I am sending Negri. And what are these farming returns? 

A copy of The Development of Capitalism in Russia should 
be given to Maslov. Please do that through the Nauchnoye 
Obozreniye office or through P. B., or through V. A. 

Please send all reviews of the book and ask V. A. to send 
those from the St. Petersburg newspapers. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 the original 



See Note 164.— Ed. 



262 



88 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Vinogradov's House, 
Bronnitskaya Street, 
Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia 

May 9, 1899 

I have received a letter from Manyasha, Mother dearest, 
in which she says she is thinking of coming home soon. I 
shall await news of what you decide to do about coming 
here. 

For the last few days we have had what the Siberians 
call strong "weather" — by "weather" they mean the wind 
that blows from across the Yenisei, from the West; it is cold 
and violent, like a whirlwind. In spring there are always 
whirlwinds that tear down fences, roofs and so on. I was out 
shooting in the pine grove and I actually saw huge birches 
and pines being uprooted by a whirlwind. Such unpleasant 
"weathers", however, occur only in spring and autumn, and 
if there is a wind in summer it is not strong, so that should 
not cause you any alarm. Today has been better — there 
seems to be a turn towards summer. From mid-May to mid- 
August there is no reason to beware of Siberian "weather". 

Next Sunday I am sending to your address the manuscript 
of an article of mine*; if you go away, arrange for it to 
be forwarded to its destination. 



The second article "Capitalism in Agriculture". — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



263 



We are all well and all of us send regards to you and 
everybody. 



Anyuta, 

Today I finished my second article against Bulgakov. 
When I have corrected and rewritten it I will send it to 
Mother's address. I am anxiously awaiting a reply about 
the first article; I should get it by the middle of May. 

Many of the "disciples" 171 are going over to Zhizn. Do 
you know who is actually the editor of it? 

There is a very interesting discussion going on now in 
Germany over Bernstein's book — and I have not seen that 
book or anything written about it (with the exception of 
some casual notes in Frankfurter Zeitung). A great pity. 

Has Mitya sent my book to everybody on my list? If 
V. A. was to send off some of them, please ask him if he 
has sent them to everyone. P. N. Lepeshinsky (Kuraginskoye, 
Minusinsk District, Yeniseisk Gubernia) wrote me, for 
instance, that he had not received the book, although he was 
on my list. I think you should have about fifteen reserve 
copies (there is no need to send them here). 



Many kisses, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



All the best, 



V. U. 



Regards to Mark. 



Sent from Shushenskoye 
First published in 1929 



in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 



Printed from 
the original 



264 



89 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA AND HIS MOTHER 

May 29, 1899 

Anyuta, 

I have received your postscript to Mark's letter. 

You had not previously written to me about a proposal 
that I write a short course of political economy. I have 
decided to refuse the offer; it is difficult to write to order 
(in particular, it is difficult to compete with Bogdanov. 
Why not republish his book? 172 ), and it would be difficult 
to finish it by autumn. In general, I want to write less and 
read more. Since my correspondence with the ecrivain has 
come to a complete halt, please let him know of my refusal. 

/ have not yet started on Webb. I am still waiting for the 
original (of Volume 2) and the German translation (of 
Volume 2). If there is a delay it will not be my fault. There 
is more reason to fear a delay on the part of the ecrivain, 
incidentally. Is the first volume in the press? 

I learnt that a telegram had been sent me about the 
publication of the book only from your letter. I am writing 
to the Minusinsk post office asking them to search for the 
telegram. Was the address correct? You should write: 
"Minusinsk, to Shushenskoye by post, Ulyanov" , and pay 
seven or fourteen kopeks extra for postage. If you did not 
add "by post", it is possible that the telegram is still lying 
there. In general, I have not noticed that the despatch 
of telegrams to this place is a hopeless undertaking; others 
have arrived in time. You should send them so that they 
arrive in Minusinsk on Sunday or Wednesday evening and 
I will receive them on Tuesday or Friday morning. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



265 



I am sending the article on Sismondists that you asked 
for and the reply to Nezhdanov. 173 It would be most con- 
venient to print the latter in the same Zhizn.* If, however, 
contrary to expectations Nachalo revives, I should prefer 
it in that journal. 

I am now doing some reading and studying languages a 
little. In general I am doing very little work and do not 
intend writing anything. 

I am very sorry the ecrivain did not write anything to 
me about Gvozdyov. I wanted to curse him for all I was 
worth, but I saw that he was a contributor to the same 
journal and felt myself duty bound to be as gentle with him 
as possible. It would have been strange to squabble in the 
same journal. Perhaps the writer wanted to get rid of it- 
get rid of the "Gvozdyov school", as I now call these 
things. I do not know this and, in general, I do not know 
what sort of fellow Gvozdyov is. It is difficult to judge 
from a distance. 



I am sending you a registered package, Mother dearest, 
containing my article and a reprint of the article on the 
Sismondists that you asked for. I am writing in greater 
detail to Anyuta and Mark, from whom I received a letter 
this week. It was strange that their letter (dated May 14) 
was postmarked "Krasnoyarsk" . Was it sent by the Sibe- 
rian express? 

We here are all quite well and send regards to everybody. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



May 30, 1899 



Many kisses, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 



Printed from 
the original 



* If my answer to Struve has not yet been published, you might 
perhaps add this to it as a postscript and throw out my mention of 
a reply to Struve. 174 



266 



90 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS BROTHER 

June 20, 1899 

I have received your letter of May 31, Mother dearest. 
Merci. With regard to the statistical returns — from Tver 
and Vyatka — I think I have already written that there is no 
need to send them all to me; I am not working on this now 
and do not intend to until my term of exile is finished. 
If any particular book is needed it will be better for me 
to order it separately, otherwise I shall have a mountain 
of books to bring back. But you are probably sending only 
a few statistical returns. Mikhail Alexandrovich writes that 
he does not expect his fiancee until the end of summer. 

We do not think it worth while asking for a transfer to 
Krasnoyarsk. We have been talking recently with Yeliza- 
veta Vasilyevna, who is thinking of asking for permission 
for me to go with them to Ufa this autumn because of the 
difficulty of a winter journey for her and Nadya. If she 
carries out her intention I will let you know. 

We have been paid our allowances. 

We have news from Yermakovskoye that Anatoly is no 
better. 

We have also heard that Lyakhovsky has made a trip to 
Chita as a doctor. 

It is a pity you are having such bad weather and have 
no opportunity for a good rest in the country. June has 
been rainy here, too. 

Life here goes on as usual. I am not working much at 
present and soon, when the shooting season opens, I shall 
probably work even less. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



267 



I have received the May issue of Nachalo — pretty badly 
cut up. I do not think there is anything of particular 
interest in it. I am losing all hope of that journal regaining 
its health. I have had a letter telling me that the Ministry 
of the Interior has demanded that the editors reveal the 
names of the authors who wrote in the first and in the April 
issues under pseudonyms. It would be interesting to know 
whether we have any mutual acquaintances among the 
"revealed". 

Many kisses for you and regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Mitya, 

I have seen Nauchnoye Obozreniye No. 5 and find that 
Tugan-Baranovsky's article in it is monstrously foolish and 
nonsensical; he has simply arbitrarily introduced changes 
into the rate of surplus value in order to "refute" Marx; 
he assumes an absurdity — a change in the productivity of 
labour without a change in the value of the product. I 
don't know whether every such nonsensical article is worth 
writing about. Let him first fulfil his promise to develop 
it in detail. 175 In general I am becoming a more and more 
determined opponent of the latest "critical stream" in Marx- 
ism and of neo-Kantianism (which has produced, inciden- 
tally, the idea of separating sociological from economic 
laws). The author of Beitrdge zur Geschichte des Materialis- 
mus* is quite right in declaring that neo-Kantianism is a reac- 
tionary theory of the reactionary bourgeoisie and in rebelling 
against Bernstein. I am extremely interested in Bogdanov's 
new book (Osnovniye elementy istoricheskogo vozzreniya na 
prirodu, St. Petersburg, 1899) and have ordered it; the 
review of it in the May issue of Nachalo was written ridicu- 
lously, with pompous phrases but no mention of the real 
problem. I am very sorry that I somehow missed the adver- 
tisement of the book when it was published. I think it 
should be a sensible book and that such a review should not 
be left unanswered. 176 



* Essays on the History of Materialism by G. V. Plekhanov. — Ed. 



268 



V. I. LENIN 



Am very pleased with the gun. We did not shoot much 
in spring. Soon the real season will begin and I intend to 
spend more time shooting this summer. 

All the best, 

V. U. 

Please send me a list of the Zemstvo statistical returns 
that have been sent to me — titles and brief contents, i.e., 
tables or tables +text, nothing else. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 the original 



269 



91 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova. 
Cottage No. 3, 
Town Park, 
Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia 

July 11, 1899 

I am writing a few lines, Mother dearest, to tell you 
that we are all quite well. This week I received the books 
Manyasha wrote to me about (Labriola and Jules Guesde). 
Merci for them. 

We have put off the journey to Minusinsk for a while. 
Perhaps we shall go for a short time this week. The weather 
here is rotten; it has been a bad summer, all wind and rain. 

I have received a letter from Lyakhovsky; he has been 
working as a doctor, it seems, in Chita and thinks of going 
later to Sretensk, also as a doctor. 

I still have not received the original of the Webbs' book, 
although the writer promised it. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Y. V. and N. K. send regards. 

Sent from Shushenskoye 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 the original 



270 



92 



TO HIS MOTHER 



August 1, 1899 



I do not think there is very much news this week, Mother 
dearest. The weather has changed to real summer, it is 
very hot and rather interferes with shooting, which I am 
indulging in very strenuously because it will probably be 
over soon. 

I do not remember whether I wrote about the doctor 
(Y. M. Lyakhovsky), that he has made a trip to Chita as a 
doctor and intends to accept a similar post in Sretensk. 

Visitors have arrived — M. A. with his wife and others. 
Excuse me for cutting this letter short. We are all well 
and send regards. I shall write to Anyuta soon about the 
Credo (which interests and exasperates me and everybody 
else) in detail. 177 



Many kisses, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 



Printed from 
the original 



271 



93 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Cottage No. 3, 
Town Park, 
Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia 

August 7, 1899 

I have received your letter of July 15, Mother dearest. 
A big merci for it and for carrying out my request in respect 
of Anatoly.* I hope to see him again in a few days; they 
say he is very bad, the blood is flowing from his throat 
and he even coughs up pieces of lung.... The Governor was 
in Yermakovskoye and gave Anatoly permission to go to 
Krasnoyarsk, but now he himself does not want to go. 

We are expecting visitors today — Gleb and his wife 
and Basil from Minusinsk. It is said that Gleb has received 
permission to move to the railway and take a job as 
engineer. He will, of course, take advantage of the offer 
to get together a little money for his journey home. It would 
otherwise be rather difficult for him and Basil to get away 
from here, even impossible in winter. 

We have not put in any requests after all — it doesn't 
seem to matter, we shall wait for January 29, 1900....** 
If only we can get away from here at that time — where we 
shall be till then is not important. 



* The nature of Lenin's request in respect of A. A. Vaneyev is 
not known. — Ed. 

** The date Lenin's term of exile ended. — Ed. 



272 



V. I. LENIN 



E.E.'s health has improved. The Minusinsk people have 
had a good summer. A. M. has obtained a job in Minusinsk, 
I believe. 

Many kisses for you and regards to all. 



Manyasha, 

I recently read Stammler's book here, in German, and 
felt very dissatisfied with it. In my opinion it is learned 
nonsense and fruitless scholasticism. It would be interest- 
ing to know who praised it to you. It is true that Struve 
and Bulgakov, both of whom, like Stammler, take a stand 
on neo-Kantianism, 178 praised it in Novoye Slovo. Stammler 
in my opinion is an excellent argument against neo-Kantian- 
ism. To attempt to fight Marxism armed with nothing but 
foolishly compiled definitions in the way Stammler does 
(he has never written anything but textbooks for students 
of Roman Law...) is too absurd an undertaking. It was 
correctly said in Neue Zeit (Cunow) that Stammler's book 
is of negative significance. 

A few days ago I received the April issue of Nachalo 
and read almost all of it. It is very interesting in general 
and the article "Out of Turn" in particular. 

Webb (the original) we have still not received] It seems 
I shall have to postpone it till my return since I can get 
nothing done. 

I have read P. N. Skvortsov on markets in Nauchnoye 
Obozreniye No. 7 179 — in my opinion the article contains 
very little and the author's point of view is not clear to 
me. My reply to Struve has still not been published* — 
the devil knows, this is disgraceful and muddleheaded! 



Yours, 



V. U. 



All the best, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye 
First published in 1929 



in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 



Printed from 
the original 



* "Once More on the Theory of Realisation", Collected Works, 
Vol. 4, pp. 74-93.— .Ed. 



273 



94 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Cottage No. 3, 
Town Park, 
Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia 

August 15, 1899 

I have received letters from Manyasha and Mitya. Mother 
dearest, informing me that you have received my telegram 
and have taken a firm decision not to make the journey.* 
Are you better now? When (and where) is Manyasha leaving? 
When are you moving to a new apartment or to Moscow? 
I am sending you today a registered package with a book 
I should have returned long ago. I apologise for the delay. 
Many kisses for you and regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Nadya and Y. V. send regards 



Sent from Shushenskoye 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 the original 



This refers to a proposed trip to Shushenskoye. — Ed. 



274 



95 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Cottage No. 3, 
Town Park, 
Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia 

August 22, 1899 

The day before yesterday I received your letter, Mother 
dearest, letters from Anyuta and Manyasha, a book from 
Anyuta (Nauchnoye Obozreniye) and cuttings from Manya- 
sha. Merci for everything. I was terribly pleased to know 
that you are up and about again. What caused the epidemic 
of malaria in Podolsk? Is it a swampy place? Do you feel 
quite well now? It looks like being a good autumn here, 
dry and warm. What is it like where you are? 

Letters sent by express train do not seem to come any 
quicker than those sent by ordinary mail, which surprises 
me very much. I received your letter of August 7 on the 
20th (and on the same day I also received the newspaper 
of the 7th). Is the delay not caused by the express train 
taking letters to Krasnoyarsk (at any rate the envelope bears 
the stamp "Krasnoyarsk 14. VIII") and from there a letter goes 
back to Achinsk (the post road is from Achinsk to Minusinsk)? 
Either this train does not stop at Achinsk or the mail is not 
taken off it there. That must be the reason, because letters 
go quickly from Moscow to Krasnoyarsk (from 7th to 14th) 
but the gain is lost on the way back from Krasnoyarsk to 
Achinsk. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



275 



As far as the transfer is concerned, we only talked about 
it but did not submit any applications. We do not think it 
worth while applying — we will wait until January 29, 1900. 

Life here goes on as usual. The weather is fine and Nadya 
and I go walking a lot. We are all in good health. 

I embrace you, Mother dearest, and hope you will keep 
well. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye 
First published in 1929 



in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 



Printed from 
the original 



276 



96 

KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

August 22 

I received your letter long ago, dear Manya, but I have 
been terribly lazy lately and have got all behind with 
my letter-writing; there are several letters I must answer. 
It must be due to my present way of life; I spend whole 
days (as much as five hours at a time) out walking, some- 
how it is even difficult to read. The summer was foul, but 
autumn so far has been marvellous. Volodya also does a 
lot of walking, but he still does some work, although far less 
than before. 

What have you decided? When are you leaving and where 
are you going? When I read your letter to Volodya in which 
you asked him what institution you should enter, I remem- 
bered what a quandary I was in at your age. First I decided 
to become a village schoolmistress, but I was unable to 
find a place and wanted to go to the provinces. Then when 
the Bestuzhev courses were started I joined them, expecting 
to be told about everything I was interested in, but when 
they began to talk about something quite different I left. 
In short, I was in a hopeless quandary. I was twenty-one 
before I heard that there was such a thing as the "social 
sciences"; up till then my idea of serious reading had been 
either the natural sciences or history, and so first I would 
try to read Rossmassler, then the history of Philip II of Spain. 
You are placed in very different circumstances. Whether 
it is worth while learning "how to make a living", I don't 
know; I think it is not worth while. If money is needed 
you can get a job on some railway, where at least you will 
be able to work off the necessary number of hours and have 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



277 



no cares, you will be as free as a bird; but all this pedagogy, 
medicine and so on absorbs a person more than it should. 
It is a pity to waste time on special training when there is 
so much you want to know and should know, and, after all, 
your knowledge of languages will always feed you. Volo- 
dya and I are in trouble with languages; we both are rather 
bad at them; we take a lot of trouble over them, but we 
are still not good. We have taken up English again. How 
often we have done so before! I am beginning for the tenth 
time, at least. You are probably far ahead of me by now. 
Anya knows English quite well, doesn't she? But I keep 
forgetting to ask you whether you have made the acquaint- 
ance of Meshcheryakov? I believe he is in Moscow now. 
He is as much in love with Belgium as you are. At one 
time I corresponded with him, and I then had a good knowl- 
edge of all Belgian affairs and was very interested in them. 
If you see him, try to find out where his wife is. A friend 
of hers wrote me that she had gone to Munich. I should 
be sorry to lose touch with her. She is a very nice person. 
I don't know whether we shall ever meet again. All my 
St. Petersburg acquaintances have been so scattered in 
all directions that I don't know who is where. At first 
we wrote to one another, but now our correspondence is 
gradually drying up. It is no good writing letters, you 
can never really discuss anything, and you begin ... the 
result is that before you know where you are a misunder- 
standing arises. I do not know how Kuba is getting on, 
she wrote little, but it looked as if her nerves were giving 
out. But I have written so much there will be no space left 
for Volodya, so I had better stop. Many kisses for you, Maria 
Alexandrovna and Anyuta. Mother sends regards to all. 

All the best, 

Nadya 



August 22, 1899 

I was very pleased, Manyasha, when I read that at last 
you had got Bernstein for me; 180 I have been and still 
am waiting very impatiently for it. People have written to 
me from Yakutia that they are reading Bernstein and we 



278 



V. I. LENIN 



have not yet got it here! The more they shout about him, 
and the more various thick-headed bourgeois and "young" 
(in all respects) non-bourgeois make use of him, the more 
necessary it is to make the speedy acquaintance of this 
"newest" hero of opportunism. 

On October 9, 1899 (N.S.) there will be a Parteitag* 
in Hanover and they will talk about Bernstein. 181 I should 
very much like to have reports of it. Please try to get them 
for me; it is quite possible to do so in one of the following 
ways. Write to your acquaintances abroad (I ask Anya to 
do this, too) to send those issues of the newspapers in which 
the reports are printed, even if it is only Frankfurter Zeitung, 
which can enter Russia. If the acquaintances do not under- 
take to send either Vorwdrts m2 or Frankfurter Zeitung, 
perhaps you can subscribe to Frankfurter Zeitung for Octo- 
ber through the Moscow post office. (I know you can subscribe 
for three months, but that is too long and too expensive, 
4 rubles 70 kopeks. Perhaps you can subscribe for a month?) 
If you are abroad yourself, then please buy those issues 
and send them. 

I am not sending you any literary jobs because I am 
not writing anything now and do not intend to write. But 
if you go abroad I shall probably ask you to look out for 
some good old books for me. 



All the best, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 



Printed from 
the original 



* 



Party congress. — Ed. 



279 



97 

TO HIS MOTHER 

August 25, 1899 

Last Sunday we returned home, Mother dearest, and got 
a letter from Manyasha with newspaper cuttings (a big 
merci for them), and then Neue Zeit from Anyuta and 
reprints (2) of my articles against Levitsky. 183 I was particu- 
larly glad to receive them. Anyuta wrote that you are still 
undecided whether to come here or not, and that you would 
come if you were sure the boat would take you to Minusinsk 
and back. When we read that, we decided to send you a 
telegram saying that the boats run until the middle of 
September (last year a boat took me as far as Minusinsk 
after the twentieth — of course, it was the last), so you 
would have time to come if you have fully regained your 
health and Mitya's case permits it. I hope you receive the 
telegram sent on the 22nd in good time. In reply to it we 
shall await either you in person or a letter. Up to now (for 
two years) autumn here has been fine, but I don't know what 
it will be like this year after a rainy summer. 

Of the books sent by Anyuta I am particularly glad to 
have Mehring; I have just finished reading the second 
volume and am very, very satisfied. As far as the Credo der 
Jungen* is concerned, I was amazed at the emptiness of 
the phrases. It is not a Credo but a pitiful collection of 
words! I intend to write in greater detail about it. 

The writer's silence is exasperating. He does not send 
Webb. He does not publish articles about the "markets", 



The creed of the young (Ger.)- — Ed. 



280 



V. I. LENIN 



and nothing has been seen or heard about the anti-Bulga- 
kov article. I think you should take back all the manuscripts 
and send them in to editorial offices yourselves so as to get 
precise and timely answers regarding whether they will be 
published, and to have direct contact. It is, of course, in- 
convenient for me to do it myself, but Anyuta could do it, 
I think, if other affairs do not prevent her from giving her 
time to it; it would be better to send them direct than to 
send them through the writer. If he has held up my article 
against him merely because he has not yet finished his 
own answer to it-that is simply swinish on his part! It 
is useless for me to write to him, because he does not answer. 
Many kisses for you and regards to all. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 



Printed from 
the original 



281 



98 

TO HIS MOTHER 

September 1, 1899 

I did not manage to write to you on Sunday, Mother 
dearest, and am writing in the middle of the week. 

Yesterday we received books by Bernstein and Vander- 
velde* and two issues of Moskovskiye Vedomosti — Bernstein 
was wrapped in one of them — and half another issue (No. 223) 
came in a separate packet, which surprised us more than a 
little. Has something been lost, or has there been a mis- 
take? 

As regards Bernstein — I have decided that I may consid- 
er it mine; Manyasha did not say exactly that she wants 
it back by a certain date, but wrote that she is taking steps 
to obtain another copy. I need that book very much. If, 
contrary to expectations, Manyasha needs the copy she sent 
me, she should write to me about it immediately. 

Nadya and I started reading Bernstein's book immediate- 
ly; we have read more than a half and its contents aston- 
ish us more and more as we go on. It is unbelievably weak 
theoretically — mere repetition of someone else's ideas. 
There are phrases about criticism but no attempt at serious, 
independent criticism. In effect it is opportunism (or 
rather, Fabianism — the original of many of Bernstein's 
assertions and ideas is to be found in the Webbs' recent books), 
unbounded opportunism and possibilism, and cowardly 
opportunism at that, since Bernstein does not want to attack 
the programme directly. There is little doubt but what it 

* It is not known which of Vandervelde's books is referred to 
here.— Ed. 



282 



V. I. LENIN 



will be a fiasco. Bernstein's statement that many Russians 
agree with him ... (pp. 170 and 173, footnotes) made us 
very indignant. We people here must indeed be getting 
"old" and must be "lagging behind" the "new words" ... copied 
from Bernstein. I shall soon be writing to Anyuta on this 
subject in detail.* 

Yesterday (at long last!) we received Webb, Volume II 
in English (no German — we are asking for it today) — 
without any letter or news about the first volume! 

I now find that it is essential to make a few changes and 
add something to my article against Bulgakov. I will do 
this in thorough copy I have here. I ask Anyuta to demand 
the immediate return of the second article and to keep it 
until she receives my corrections. 184 

We have little news. Anatoly gets worse and worse. 
Gleb is leaving soon for Nizhneudinsk (Irkutsk Gubernia) 
to work on the railway. Yelizaveta Vasilyevna yesterday 
received a money order for 100 rubles. 

Many kisses for you, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Regards from all. 

P.S. I have found out that the Frankfurter Zeitung is 
delivered to someone not far from here, so you need not 
subscribe to it. I ask Manyasha to obtain for me (order 
from Dresden or try to find them among acquaintances) 
issues of the Sachsische Arbeiterzeitung for 1898 (1) contain- 
ing Parvus's articles against Bernstein and (2) issues 
Nos. 253, 254 and 255 for 1898. 185 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 the original 



Here a letter in invisible ink is meant. — Ed. 



283 



99 

TO HIS MOTHER 

September 11, 1899 

I have very sad news for you, Mother dearest. Anatoly 
died on September 8, and on September 10 we buried him 
at Yermakovskoye. There bad been no hope of his recovery 
for a long time past and the disease had been developing 
terribly fast lately. His wile is staying in Yermakovskoye 
for the time being. There is a threat that Mikhail Alexan- 
drovich Silvin will be recruited for the army; he has received 
a notice to report in Minusinsk and is going there on Sep- 
tember 14. If he is taken, he will have to serve two years — 
two months more than his term of exile. 

Nadya and I have now got down to the second volume 
of Webb without waiting either for the proofs of the first 
volume (which would be very useful in editing the transla- 
tion of the second volume) or the German translation of 
Volume II. The job will probably take quite a long time. 

I am sending you with this letter a registered packet 
containing the corrections to my article about Bulgakov. 
I ask Anyuta to transfer these corrections to the manuscript 
(cutting out the old and pasting in the new) and to get in 
touch with the editors about its publication. I should like 
to know the fate of the article as soon as possible. 

We are all well. 

Many kisses, my dear, and regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 the original 



284 



100 

TO HIS MOTHER 

October 17, 1899 

This week I have received a lot of interesting things 
from home, Mother dearest, and send you many thanks for 
them all. I was very glad to make the acquaintance of the 
new French journal, which promises to be very interesting; 
the mere fact of its appearance under the editorship of 
Longuet is noteworthy. 186 I am finishing reading the Stut- 
tgart minutes, also with considerable interest. And then, 
the booklet on the professional congress in Moscow (which 
I received on Friday) was also very interesting and 
instructive. 187 

There is a lull in the literary news. I believe I have al- 
ready written about reading of the publication of Volume I 
of Webb and ordering one for myself because they appar- 
ently think it superfluous to send me one. I have heard 
about a new St. Petersburg paper — Severny Kuryer 188 — and 
intend to order it as soon as I see announcements in the 
press. Yuly wrote to me from Turukhansk that a lengthy 
article by M. Engelhardt had been published in Novosti; 
it was called "The Cards Are Being Revealed" and it sim- 
ply tore Ilyin's book on capitalism to pieces. It would be 
interesting to read it if finding and purchasing that partic- 
ular issue in Moscow would not be too much trouble. I 
rarely see Zhizn; the seventh issue was sent to me quite 
unexpectedly direct from St. Petersburg, maybe even direct 
from the editorial room (sic!!??!!). Comrades sometimes 
send me Nauchnoye Obozreniye; people living near here 
whom I am sometimes able to meet receive it. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



285 



There have been no changes here. How have you fixed 
yourselves up in Moscow? Who is going abroad, Anya or 
Manyasha, and when? Did you leave Mitya alone in Podolsk? 

Many kisses for you and regards to everybody. 

Yours. 

V. U. 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 the original 



286 



1900 



101 

KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

January 19 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

At last matters have been settled — we may go to Russia, 
no further term of exile being envisaged. We are sending 
our luggage off on the 28th and we ourselves shall leave 
on the 29th. We shall have company — V. V. and Olga 
Alexandrovna. The Lepeshinskys also intended going, but 
I have very grave doubts of their being ready in time. 
0. A. is in a hurry to get to M. A., who has been sent to Riga; 
V. V. is also in a hurry. We shall probably leave Minusinsk 
on the 30th. The only thing I am afraid of is that there may 
be a delay because of me. We did not realise until recently 
that we ought to find out whether I would have to apply 
for permission to travel at my own expense. V. V. asked 
the police officer and discovered that the application had 
to be made to the Police Department, since the local officer 
cannot issue me with a travel permit himself because he 
has received no instructions about me. We are today sending 
telegrams to the department and to the Knipoviches, but 
further complications are almost certain. 189 Volodya wants 
to stay in Ufa for a couple of days until we know whether I 
shall remain in Ufa or will be sent to some place like Ster- 
litamak or Belebei. We do not talk of anything but the jour- 
ney nowadays. We have packed the books in a box and had 
it weighed — about 15 poods.* We are sending the books 
and some of our things by carrier; I don't think we shall 
have very many things. Because of the frosts we wanted to 
get a sleigh with a hood but we could not find, one in the 



*Pood=36 lbs.— Sd. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



287 



town and to have one made here is a risky business, it 
probably would not last as far as Achinsk. We have plenty 
of warm clothes so I don't suppose we shall freeze, and the 
weather seems to be getting warmer; yesterday Oscar saw 
a cloud somewhere and the temperature this morning was 
only 28° below. The worst of it, is that Mother keeps catch- 
ing colds and is coughing again. Volodya and I go out 
every day, despite the frosts; we have become accustomed 
to fresh air but I don't know how Mother will make the 
journey. Still, I wish the 29th would come soon; once we 
are going we might as well go. The day of our departure 
seems to be so close that today Mother wanted to start 
making pelmeni* to take with us. We have been advised 
to take pelmeni to eat on the way, everything else spoils 
in the frost. Mother intends making mountains of the stuff, 
with no fat or onions. 

We are not doing much reading now. Volodya, inciden- 
tally, is writing a reply to Skvortsov. 190 We shall send 
Webb off today, at long last; he has made us thoroughly 
tired of him, I must say. 

Well, good-bye. Many kisses, for you and for Manyasha 
and Anyuta. It is a pity I shall not be able to come to Mos- 
cow. Mother sends her regards. 



You will probably receive this letter after a telegram 
from me. I hope we shall be meeting soon. 



(I have heard [A. N. wrote] that the censor has slashed (!!) 
Prokopovich's book — and so I cannot answer him. A strange 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Yours, 



V. U. 



incident! 191 ) 



Written January 19, 1900 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 



Printed from 
the original 



* Tiny meat dumplings.— Ed. 



288 



102 

TO HIS MOTHER 

March 15, 1900 

I received your letter a few days ago, Mother dearest. 
I sent an application about Nadya on the 10th and shall 
soon be expecting an answer. 192 If the worst comes to the 
worst and the answer is unfavourable, I really am thinking 
of asking you (if you are quite well enough) to go there and 
see about it personally. That, however, is a matter for the 
future — we'll see when the time comes. 

I have received Zhizn, so do not send me another. 193 
Please ask Anyuta to send Archiv to Nadya (I have a 
second copy here for the time being). I am not doing too 
badly here, I go frequently to the library and do some 
walking. 

Excuse the short letter — I am late for the post. 
Many kisses for you and regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

There is a doctor here who is well spoken of — I want 
to see him about my catarrh. They say there are various 
epidemics about in St. Petersburg now that spring is 
approaching.* 

Sent from Pskov to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



This is a reference to the arrests made there at the time. — Ed. 



289 



103 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Kedrova's House, 

Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia 

April 6, 1900 

Today I received a letter from Manyasha (dated April 3), 
Mother dearest, in which she reproaches me for my silence. 
I really am at fault, I did not even congratulate you and 
Manyasha on April 1. The fact is that at that time I was 
once again "in a whirl" (as Nadya put it in a letter to the 
Siberian comrades) over the arrival of a long-expected 
traveller* (who has by now most likely arrived home). 

Life goes on here as usual, I am quite well and today 
tried doing without my "waters". I take walks — walking 
is not at all bad here at present and, it seems, there are 
plenty of nice places in Pskov (and also in its environs). 
I have bought some postcards with views of Pskov in a 
local shop and am sending three of them — to you, Manyasha 
and Anyuta.** 

Yesterday I received a letter from M. A., who writes 
(on April 4) that he is going back to Siberia (with 0. A.) 
tomorrow or the next day — the army authorities have again 
changed the place where he is to do his service. He promises 
to send his new address from Achinsk. 



*Y. 0. Martov.— Ed. 
** Two of them — to his mother and his sister Maria — have been 
preserved.— Ed. 



290 



V. I. LENIN 



Nadya is most probably in bed; the doctor finds (as she 
wrote in a letter a week ago) that her illness (gynaecolo- 
gical) needs persistent treatment and she must remain in 
bed for anything from two to six weeks. (I have sent her 
some more money — I received 100 rubles from Vodovozova — 
because her treatment will entail considerable expense. 
So far I have enough money, but if I run short I shall write 
to you.) So she would not be able to come to me now, even 
if she had permission (I still have no reply and have almost 
given up expecting one). I am thinking of going to visit 
her in the spring, in about six weeks — or perhaps earlier. 

An acquaintance of mine here* has applied for a passport 
and is thinking of going abroad for a cure after April 20; 
I shall be rather lonely here without him. 

I am taking lessons in German from a local German 
at 50 kopeks a lesson. We translate from Russian and talk 
a little — there is not much progress and I am wondering 
whether I should not give it up; for the time being, however, 
I shall continue. I am not working very much and have still 
not finished the Index to Webb. 

I go to the library and read the newspapers. I see very 
few new books, I have not seen Davydov's.** I do 
not intend to answer P. Struve (I sent a short note 
against him to be inserted into my reply to Skvortsov); 194 
I have seen Kachorovsky and am thinking of answering him. 
Has Manyasha seen Nauchnoye Obozreniye Nos. 3 and 4? 
There is an excellent article on Pisarev there. 195 

And so Mitya has given up his job and gone back to his 
studies? Excellent. Is Manyasha working very hard? Where 
and how are Anyuta and Mark? 

Best wishes for Easter to you, dear, and many kisses. 
Thank Manyasha for her letter. Regards to Mitya. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Printed from 
the original 



*A. N. Potresov.— £cZ. 

* Will Manyasha send it, if she has it? 



Sent from Pskov 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



291 



104 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Kedrova's House, 

Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia 

April 26, 1900 

Today, Mother dearest, I am sending you the pamphlet 
by Mech with the reprint from Nauchnoye Obozreniye* which 
I promised. Forgive me for keeping it so long. How are 
you? What arrangements has Anyuta made, where is she 
now and what has she decided to do for the summer? 

Many kisses for you and regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Sent from Pskov 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



* It is not known what pamphlet and reprint Lenin referred to. — 
Ed. 



292 



105 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Kedrova's House, 

Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia 

April 30, 1900 

I have received your letter and Manya's of the 25th, Mother 
dearest. I shall probably get away from here earlier, in 
something like a fortnight from now, but I cannot say any- 
thing at all definite. 

I think I wrote telling you I had asked permission to 
spend six weeks in Ufa. 196 I hope to receive an answer soon. 

Nadya writes that her health is improving. She has not 
received Archiv from Anyuta. Here is something I should 
like to ask Anyuta to do — can she get back that "Archiv" 
before I arrive and not send it to Nadya, because I now need 
it (I could take it to Nadya myself) and the second copy 
that I expected never reached me. I should very much like 
to have it when I visit you. 

Ask Manyasha to send me Nadya's translation.* I will 
send it to the journal. 

Filippov writes that even from the article against Skvor- 
tsov the censor has thrown out almost a third! That is really 
too bad! 

Many kisses for you and regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Pskov 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



It is not known which translation this refers to. — Ed. 



293 



106 

TO HIS MOTHER 

May 5, 1900 

Your letter of the 2nd with Manyasha's postscript, I 
received only today, Mother dearest. I do not know why 
the letter was delayed (you expected me to receive it on 
the 3rd or not later than the 4th); it is postmarked "Mail 
train 2nd" and "Pskov 4th", so there does not seem to have 
been any real delay; the letter arrived in Pskov on the 4th 
and was delivered this morning. A letter is not likely to 
reach me as quickly from Podolsk as from Moscow. 

There is no need for you to worry about me, Mother dear- 
est. My health is much better, I gave up taking the mineral 
water a long time ago and have never felt any desire or need 
to return to it. Yesterday I received a certificate from the 
local Chief of Police to the effect that he has no objection 
to my making a journey abroad; today I paid the stamp 
duty (ten rubles) and in two hours' time I shall receive my 
passport. And so I shall be moving to warmer parts in sum- 
mer; I cannot leave here immediately because there are 
some matters I must settle with editors and with certain 
publishers of translations and also wind up some financial 
affairs (I hope, by the way, to get a few coppers from Fi- 
lippov; if I get none, either from him or Popova, I will 
write and ask you to send me something). I must, moreover, 
wait here for an answer to my request to the Department 
for permission to live in Ufa for six weeks on account of 
my wife's illness. I submitted the request on April 20 and 
there should be an answer in about a week. I shall definitely 
visit Nadya, but I still do not know whether I shall be able 
to live with her for six weeks or whether (which is the more 
probable) I shall have to make do with a shorter period. 
In any case the receipt of the passport (I have to receive 



294 



V. I. LENIN 



it here in Pskov, my last place of residence) does not restrict 
me because the law says that I may go abroad any time 
within three months on a passport issued in the interior 
gubernias, so that I shall not be late oven if I leave Russia 
on August 5. I am therefore leaving here between the 15th 
and the 20th, as I wrote you before; I shall try to leave 
earlier, of course. Please write and tell me what to do with 
my things; shall I leave them in Moscow (is Mark there and 
what is his address? will he be in Moscow long? does he visit 
you often?) or bring them straight to Podolsk (I don't know 
if that will be convenient; I suppose I shall have to take 
everything with me, including books), and I should like 
Manyasha to write me in detail how to find you in Podolsk. 
I embrace you and send regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I shall be seeing you soon! 

Nadya writes that her health is improving. 

I have just received, my passport from the Chancellery 
of the Governor and have enquired about my request to go 
to Ufa; now it turns out that I have been refused! That is 
something I certainly did not expect and am now quite 
at a loss what to do! 

Sent from Pskov to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



295 



107 



TO HIS MOTHER 



Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Kedrova's House, 

Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia 



May 10, 1900 



I have just received your letter of the 8th, Mother dear- 
est, and am replying at once. I am very glad permission 
has been granted for me to visit you and it goes without 
saying that I shall certainly take advantage of it; unfor- 
tunately I cannot leave here at once; I do not want to come 
back here, so I must stay on for 5-7 days or so to settle some 
financial affairs and certain editorial business. It doesn't 
matter, of course, whether I come a week earlier or later; 
I am, in general, in agreement with the arguments put 
forward by you and Anyuta (by the way — merci for the work 
on urban statistics which I received today) and think of 
doing as you advise, the only thing is I must give up the 
idea of a personal visit to St. Petersburg and shall, there- 
fore, ask you to go, if you can manage it, by Thursday the 
18th, or, if you can't, by Thursday the 25th, depending 
on when we meet. 197 



See you soon. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Pskov 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



296 



108 

TO HIS MOTHER 

May 18, 1900 

Just a few lines, Mother dearest, to let you know that 
my departure has unfortunately been delayed for a time, 
but not for long; I hope to see you on Sunday or on Tues- 
day evening, the 21st or the 23rd. 198 Many kisses and please 
do not worry about my health; I now feel quite well and walk 
a lot as we are having such glorious weather. After two 
or three days of rain everything is green, there is no dust 
yet, the air is wonderful, so you can't help wanting to be 
ins Griine* 

Yours, 

V. U. 

See you soon. 

Sent from Pskov to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



* In the country (Ger.)-— Ed. 



297 



109 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Kedrova's House, 

Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia 

July 2, 1900 

Mother dearest, 

Unfortunately I have to tell you that our meeting has 
to be postponed for a time. I must pay a short visit to a 
comrade in Siberia, 199 so I shall not be passing through 
Podolsk before the 20th or 21st (most likely the 20th, I 
think). Then all I shall have to do is get my things together, 
get visas in my passport and continue on my way. If the 
things have not yet arrived, I would ask Mitya to take the 
most energetic measures, up to and including a personal 
trip. Our people are all well and send their regards. 

I embrace you fondly, Mother dearest, and send regards 
to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Ufa 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



298 



110 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Kedrova's House, 

Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia, 
Russia 

August 31, 1900 

I am surprised, Mother dearest, that I have not received 
a single letter from you; I wrote to you twice from Paris 200 
and am now writing while travelling (I have been on a 
trip down the Rhine). 201 I am well and am having a good 
time; I saw Anyuta a few days ago,* took a trip on a very 
beautiful lake with her and enjoyed the wonderful views 
and the good weather — there has not been much good 
weather here either, mostly rain and thunderstorms. It's 
as bad a summer here for tourists as it is in Russia. 

Many kisses for you and regards to all. I ask Manyasha 
to send me as soon as possible all the books there are for 
me; as regards the boxes — I hope to write soon. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

You may write to me at the same address (or to Anyuta 
to forward to me, although that is slower than if letters 
are sent to Paris). 



Sent from Nuremberg 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



* Lenin's elder sister Anna was also abroad at the time.— Ed. 



299 



111 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Kedrova's House, 

Podolsk, 

Moscow Gubernia, 
Russia 

Paris, 202 September 7, 1900 

I received Manya's letter and postcard, Mother dearest, 
and was glad to have news from home. I returned from 
my Rhine trip several days ago, I am not thinking of stay- 
ing here for long, and shall probably be moving on soon. 
I don't know where yet, but will write when it is certain. 

Manyasha grumbles at the shortness of my letters; I admit 
my guilt, but by way of justification must say that here 
you are in a whirl all the time and there is such a wealth 
of impressions that it is difficult to choose what to dwell 
upon and describe in greater detail. I hope that when I 
leave here, when I am farther away from the turmoil of the 
exhibition with its peculiar exhibition atmosphere, I shall 
be able to concentrate better and write more clearly. Until 
then, please excuse me for the emptiness of my letters. 

Many kisses for you, my dear, and regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Manyasha says nothing about your health; I hope that 
means you are well. 

How are Mitya's affairs going? When is Mark moving, 
and when will you all be in Moscow? What do you know 
about Manyasha's case? 203 



Sent from Munich 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



300 



112 

TO HIS MOTHER 

September 19 (N.S.), 1900 

Yesterday (no, not yesterday — the 16th) I received your 
letter of August 23, Mother dearest, and was very glad to 
get it. I have also received Manyasha's first letter and 
her postcard of August 24 saying that another letter with 
a reminder had come from the carrier's. 204 I have already 
sent Manyasha an address which she should pass on to them. 
I hope she has received it. 

It is a great pity that Mitya has been refused admission 
to the University. It is a hell of a business, having to lose 
another year! Perhaps it can still be managed with the help 
of one of those guarantors you mention. Manyasha's posi- 
tion also seems to be indefinite, doesn't it? 

I got a letter from Anyuta yesterday and hope to see 
her soon — we do a great deal of walking together. I intend 
taking the waters again soon and being more regular with 
the cure. The weather here is good now; the rainy days 
are over and it looks as if we shall be able to do some good 
walking. I have plenty of shirts and underclothes and 
money, Mother dearest, so there is no need to send anything 
for the time being; I hope I shall not have to write about 
this in the near future, and I shall try to reckon up in 
advance when the necessity arises. 

I also got a letter from Nadya yesterday; she says they 
are fixed up quite well, she has heaps of lessons that keep 
her busy seven hours a day! 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



301 



I embrace you fondly, Mother dearest, and send my 
regards to all. I hope you will soon be able to make final 
arrangements for the winter and will have better accom- 
modation. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

There's one thing I almost forgot to add — on September 17 
(that will be the 4th by our calendar) I received Braun's 
Archiv that I had left behind. It was done very quickly! 
A big merci to Manyasha. 

Sent from Munich to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



302 



113 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 25, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

October 3, 1900 

I have received, Mother dearest, Manyasha's letter of 
September 8 which was delayed when forwarded to me from 
Paris. I was very glad to learn that Mitya's affairs are 
being settled, and that he will probably be allowed to 
enter Yuriev University. 205 It would be fine if he could 
get everything settled soon! What is happening to Ma- 
nyasha's case? She doesn't write about it. How are you? 
Are you comfortable? I am now quite well, I got over my 
influenza long ago and am working more regularly. We are 
having excellent weather here — and you? I have also 
received the books from Manyasha {Bulletin officiel), thanks 
for them. I am expecting the box and money to arrive soon. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and send regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Sent from Munich 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



303 



114 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova,* 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 25, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

November 6, 1900 

Manyasha, 

I have received your letter, Manyasha, many thanks 
for it. 

I received the books a few days ago and was horrified 
when I opened the big box. It contained the medical books of 
an Anna Fedulova (from Barnaul in Siberia) who had studied 
in Lausanne and Geneva from 1893 to 1899. How absurd 
and disgraceful! I know nothing about this person and 
hear her name for the first time. How could her books have 
got here? How could they have been sent to Moscow to the 
wrong address? Why did nobody enquire about them during 
the months they were lying in Moscow? 

Try to find out, if you can, what it is all about. For all 
the books I paid about 40 (forty!) rubles. So for someone 
else's books I must have overpaid about thirty rubles on 
account of the neglect of some utterly irresponsible persons. 

I shall write to Siberia and to Switzerland, asking them 
to try and find the lady. In the meantime I have put the 
books into a warehouse. I must get in touch with the 



* The first part of the letter, written to Lenin's mother, has been 
lost.— Ed. 



304 



V. I. LENIN 



carrier's office that sent the box. Let me have their exact 
address. Perhaps the owner of the books will soon be asking 
for them. Did they issue a receipt for the books? If so, how 
could they have surrendered them (here) without it? Try 
and go to them to get an explanation, or — better — write 
to then, register the letter and send a stamp for a reply. 

(1 think the owner of the books should refund my expenses 
since she is at fault for sending the books to a strange 
address without any notification.) 

I have received a letter from Lirochka, who sends you 
and Mother thousands of the warmest greetings. I do not 
suppose I shall have an opportunity to see her. 

I have, received my books in good order — merci for them. 

I am repeating my address — just in case. 

Herrn Franz Modracek, Smecky, 27. Prag. Oesterreich 
(Austria). 206 

The weather here has been bad, but today is wonderful, 
warm and sunny. We shall see what winter is like here. 

I am still living as usual, I study languages a little, 
exchange German and Russian lessons with a Czech (con- 
versations rather than lessons) and visit the library. 

Please give Mother many kisses from me. Is she now 
quite well? How is Mark? Do not forget to obtain for me 
the address of the China traveller.* 

All the best, 

Yours, 

V. U. 
November 7 

Excuse me for having delayed sending the letter. Yes- 
terday I received your books (merci for them — the selection 
is excellent) and your letter of October 10. Why did it take 
so long? 

Sent from Munich 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



*A. P. Sklyarenko.— Ed. 



305 



115 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

November 29, 1900 

Today, Manyasha, I received your letter of November 6 
and the letter that was enclosed in it. Thanks. 

I did not receive your previous letter, so I don't know 
how to send the medical books. To whom? To the owner 
of the books? Can you not get the money they cost from 
her in advance? 

I am quite well and life goes on as usual. Please give 
Mother many kisses for me and my very best regards to 
Mark. 

Do you get my letters in good time? Check the post- 
marks, please, and let me know. 

Yours, 

V. Ul. 

Sent from Munich 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



306 



116 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

December 6, 1900 

Mother dearest, 

A few days ago I received the letters forwarded to me by 
Manyasha. Merci for them. I do not know whether I shall 
soon get round to sending a reply to Siberia — I have also 
had a letter lying here unanswered for a long time. 

Yesterday I had a letter from Anyuta. She writes that 
she does not yet know how long she will be in Paris. You 
have probably received letters from her, too. 

Are you expecting Mitya home for the holidays? How 
is be getting on with his medicine and German? 

What sort of weather are you having? You probably 
have a fine winter. Here we have slush and autumn rain — 
if the whole "winter" is going to be like this it will be worse 
than frost and snow. It is true that there are occasionally 
some very fine days, when it is dry and clear — but only 
by way of exception. 

Where does Mark intend spending his vacation? In Mos- 
cow, or will he go away somewhere? 

How is Manyasha getting on? Isn't she working too 
much? Is she quite well again now? Perhaps it would do 
her good to run around more, that is, to walk from one part 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 307 



of the town to another. Anyuta writes that Manyasha may 
come here with Nadya. 

Life goes on here as usual. I am wandering aimlessly 
in a strange land and still only "hoping" to put an end 
to the fuss and bother and settle down to work. 

Nadya writes often. She is well, but Y. V. always seems 
to be out of sorts. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and hope you keep well. 
Regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Does Manyasha go skating? There is some sort of a kiinst- 
liche (!) Eisbahn* here; I keep intending to take a look 
at this fake. Even their ice is artificial — poor Prague 
people!** 

Sent from Munich 
First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



* Artificial skating rink (Ger.). — Ed. 
** Prague was mentioned for purposes of secrecy. Lenin was liv- 
ing in Munich at the time. — Ed. 



308 



117 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street 
Moscow, 
Russia 

December 14, 1900 

I have received your letter, Manyasha, in which you 
repeat the address for the books. Tomorrow I am having 
the box mended — it has suffered from long journeys and 
I cannot risk sending it like that-and will then forward 
it through some carrier's office. I will send the receipt 
by registered letter direct to Fedulova and will write to 
you when it has been sent.* 

I have had a letter from S. I. 207 and, I think, have informed 
you of it. 

Yesterday I got a letter from Anya. She seems to be 
thinking of remaining here (abroad, that is) a little longer, 
but does not know how things are at home and whether you 
are expecting her very eagerly for Christmas. 

Mitya did well to claim the money from the railway. 
Of course it could not be ignored. 

All the best and please give Mother many kisses for me. 



* I don't think it will cost anything — I will send it carriage for- 
ward, which must be possible because we received it like that in 
Moscow. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



309 



Regards to Mark and Mitya. Excuse me for the brevity 
of this letter — it is late already. I will add something 
tomorrow if I have time. If not, I shall send it as it is. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I have just learned that the box has been mended. I shall, 
therefore, send it off today (or tomorrow at the latest) and 
inform you of its despatch only in the unlikely event of 
there being some delay. I will send the receipt by registered 
post to the same address. I remember that I sent you the 
things that interested you on the ninth. Have you received 
them? 

Very best regards to all, to Mother in particular. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Munich 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



310 



118 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

December 26, 1900 

Mother dearest, 

You will probably receive this letter shortly before the 
holidays. All best wishes and may you have a good time; 
perhaps Mitya will come and you will all get together — at least 
everyone who is in Russia. Anya and I also thought of get- 
ting together, but we could not manage it. Here it is already 
Weihnachten* — Christbdume** everywhere and the streets 
have been unusually lively over the last few days. I went 
to Vienna a few days ago and enjoyed the journey after 
several weeks of immobility. 208 But a winter without snow 
is unpleasant. Actually there is no winter at all, it is like 
a rotten autumn; everything wet and dripping. It is a good 
thing it is not cold and I can manage quite well without 
a winter overcoat, but somehow it's not very nice without 
snow. I am fed up with the slush and recall with pleasure 
the real Russian winter, the sleigh rides and the clean 
frosty air. I am spending my first winter abroad, the first 
winter that is nothing at all like a winter, and I cannot 
say that I have been very pleased, although at times there 



♦Christmas (Ger.).— Ed. 

* Christmas trees (Ger.)-— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



311 



are fine days like those we have at home in late autumn, 
when the weather is good. 

There has been no change in my way of life; it is rather 
lonely and, unfortunately, rather purposeless. I keep hoping 
to arrange my studies more systematically but I don't 
seem to manage it. In spring things will certainly go better 
and I shall get "on to the rails". Since my Shushenskoye 
immobility I have done a lot of wandering through Russia 
and abroad and am now longing for some peaceful writing 
again; it is only the unaccustomed foreign atmosphere that 
prevents me really getting down to it. 

Are you keeping well, Mother dearest? Are you not lone- 
ly without Anyuta? How is Manya's case coming along? 
By the way, I forgot to tell her that I have received Push- 
kin and am very grateful, and that I also got her letter of 
December 6. I have not answered because of my journey, 
and since then I have been very busy. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and send best regards 
to all. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Munich 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



312 



1901 



119 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

January 1, 1901 

Mother dearest, 

I wish you a Happy New Year and everything of the 
best, especially the best of health! To all of you — I hope 
Mitya is also with you — I send greetings and good wishes. 
A big merci to Manyasha for sending the maps in the folder 
I recently received. Her friend* informed me she has received 
the receipt for the books. 

In the new year Manyasha will surely be allowed to 
travel again! 

Nochmals beste Gliick-Wunsche.** 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Munich 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



* It is not known who is meant.— Ed. 
** Again, all good wishes (Ger.).— Ed. 



313 



120 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

January 16, 1901 

Mother dearest, 

I have received your letter of December 26th with Ma- 
nyasha's postscript and was very glad to hear that Mitya 
was with you and that you had a good time at Christmas. 
It is a pity it is so terribly cold; when I tell the Germans 
(or the Czechs) about a temperature of 28° below zero Reau- 
mur they simply gasp and wonder how the Russians man- 
age to stay alive. Here 8° or 10° below zero R is considered 
cold, furchtbare Kdlte* and almost everybody manages with 
only an autumn coat (admittedly most of them wear woollen 
jerseys as well). The houses here are not at all adapted to 
severe cold, the walls are thin, the windows are not caulked 
up tight and very often there are not even Winterfenster.** 
You have no need to worry about me; I eat well at a board- 
ing-house where I have been staying since autumn. I feel 
quite well, probably because I run around a lot more than 
I sit still. Nadya's arrival is not far away now — her term 
will be up in two and a half months,*** and then I shall 
make all the proper arrangements. 

* Terrible cold (Ger.).-Ed. 
** Storm windows (Ger.)- — Ed. 
*** Krupskaya's term of exile ended on March 11, 1901.— Ed. 



314 



V. I. LENIN 



I send hearty greetings to Mitya and Mark, and many 
thanks to Manyasha for the books she sent, and especially 
for the unusually beautiful and interesting photographs 
from our cousin in Vienna; I should like to receive such 
gifts more often. 209 

Many kisses, my dear, and I hope you will keep well. 



Yours, 



V. Ul. 



Sent from Munich 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



315 



121 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

January 27, 1901 

Mother dearest, 

A few days ago I received a letter and a postcard from 
Manyasha and also a photo of Mitya, and Protopopov's 
book. Thanks for everything. I was very glad to get Mitya's 
photo — I think it is a good one. I have already begun to 
long for photographs and will certainly ask Nadya to bring 
my album, and if you have any new photographs, please 
send them. 

I don't need any warm clothing now. Winter here seems 
to be over — I mean real winter with snow and temperatures 
below zero. It was warm and rainy right up to the end of 
December. Then it snowed and the temperature began to 
drop to 10°-15° below zero R (mornings) and the Germans 
complained of the "terrible" cold. In their houses it really 
is terribly cold, even when there are only three degrees of 
frost outside; the houses are badly built. A thaw set in 
about a week ago, all the snow disappeared in one night, 
and the weather is now like March in Russia or April in 
Siberia. It is possible — even probable — that there will 
be some more snow, but only for a very short time. The 
coldest period is over; last month I had to spend five rubles 



316 



V. I. LENIN 



on Holz und Kohle* instead of one or two rubles, as in pre- 
vious months. 

I am quite well and there are no changes. I correspond 
with Anyuta and hope to see her soon. 

Many kisses for you, my dear, and best regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

P.S. Less than two months remain to the end of Nadya's 
term of exile; she will be coming soon and will, of course, 
be seeing you. And in summer I hope that we shall be 
together. 

Sent from Munich 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



Wood and coal (Ger.).— Ed. 



317 



122 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

February 9, 1901 

Mother dearest, 

How are you? What news is there, what does Mitya write 
from Yuriev — he is probably working hard now the exami- 
nations are drawing near. 

I recently received some old manuscripts from Manyasha 
and the Vienna gifts. 210 A big merci for them. 

The weather here is again turning wintry, i.e., there 
has been some snow. It is not cold, however, and the snow 
melts during the day. 

I was at the opera a few days ago and heard La Juive 
with the greatest pleasure; I heard it once in Kazan (when 
Zakrzhevsky sang) — that must be thirteen years ago, and 
some of the tunes have remained in my memory. The music 
and singing were good. I have also been to theatres (German) 
on a few occasions and sometimes understood something, 
the general idea, at any rate. Do you go to the Moscow 
theatres? 

Anyuta wrote recently that her work will detain her 
for a while yet. 

Are you thinking of applying for permission for Nadya 
to visit you, my dear, just for a few days? She would prob- 
ably like that very much, but the metropolitan cities are 



318 



V. I. LENIN 



usually forbidden — after Ufa, 211 she writes, they are the 
only prohibited places. 

I should like Manyasha to drop me a line saying when 
she subscribes to magazines for me, so that I know when 
to ask for them at the post office. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and send regards to all. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Munich 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



319 



123 

TO HIS MOTHER 

February 20, 1901 

Mother dearest, 

It is quite a time since I had a letter from you. The only 
news I have had was from Manyasha, sent on the 6th, and 
for that many thanks. How are you? Not freezing too badly? 
Are you keeping well? 

It is cold here again, and there has been so much snow — 
more than for the last 13 years — so people say. There have 
been cases of trains being held up by snowdrifts. But it 
seems to be winter's last effort. I am used to it by now 
and have adapted myself to the local winter — nevertheless 
if I have to spend the next winter in these parts I shall 
write for a quilted coat. Without it you either have to wear 
a woollen jersey or put on two sets of underclothes (as I 
do). At first it was not very comfortable but I got used 
to it long ago. And in any case the cold here is not like 
the Russian cold. If it's 10° below zero that's a "terrible 
frost". 

The carnival ended here a few days ago. This is the first 
time I have seen the last day of a carnival in a foreign 
country — processions of people in fancy dress, general 
buffoonery, showers of confetti (tiny scraps of coloured 
paper) thrown in your face, paper streamers and so on. People 
here do know how to make merry publicly, in the streets! 

I am quite well, probably because I run about rather 
a lot, and do not sit still for long. In general life is much 
the same. 



320 



V. I. LENIN 



Nadya's term of exile will soon be over (March 24 by the 
calendar here, March 11 by yours). In a day or two I shall 
send an application for a passport for her. I should like 
Manyasha to send a box of "my" pen-nibs with her. Believe 
it or not, I have not been able to find them here. Foolish 
people, these Czechs and Germans — no English nibs, only 
"our own" make, which is awful rubbish. 

What does Mitya write? When will the exams be over? 

What does Mark intend to do this summer? 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and wish you good 
health. Regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Do you go to the theatre? What is this new play of Che- 
khov's, Three Sisters? Have you seen it and do you like it? 
I read a review in the papers. They act well at the Moscow 
Art Theatre — I still remember with pleasure my visit to 
that theatre last year with poor old Columbus. Is he well? 
I keep intending to write to him but am always too busy. 

Sent from Munich to Moscow 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 




DMITRY ULYANOV 
1903 



321 



124 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

February 27, 1901 

I have received Manyasha's letter of February 2, 1901, 
Mother dearest, and also the journal Promyshlenny Mir, 212 
for which merci. 

It does not seem worth while now sending the articles 
that have been returned from Nauchnoye Obozreniye, 213 
better simply send them with Nadya. 

How does one write to A. V. in Nikolsk? I wrote to him 
once in Harbin but have no idea whether my letter reached 
him or not. Please let me have his exact address (and, if 
you happen to write to him, give him mine), I should from 
time to time like to know something about him, at least. 

Anya, it appears, has delayed her departure somewhat. 
She has probably written to you herself. 

Excuse the brief letter. I have no time at the moment. 
In a few days I shall write more. 



Best regards to all. 



Sent from Munich 



Many kisses for you, 

Yours, 

V. U. 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



322 



125 



TO HIS MOTHER 



March 2, 1901 



Mother dearest, 

This is to tell you of a change in my address. I have 
moved together with my landlord: 

Herrn Franz Modracek, Vrsovice bei Prag, No. 384. 
Oesterreich.* 

I am going to Vienna now. 214 It seems that there is no 
Russian consul here (!) and I must have my signature wit- 
nessed on my application for Nadya's passport. I hope to 
be able to write something to you from Vienna. 

I am sorry I have not studied Czech. It is interesting 
that it is very much like Polish and contains many old 
Russian words. I recently went away for a time and when 
I returned to Prague its Slav character struck me very forc- 
ibly — names ending in -cik, -cek, etc., words like Ize, lekarna, 
and so on and so forth. The weather is now warm and spring- 
like and I shall probably have a nice trip to Vienna. 

Are you all well at home? How are Mitya's affairs? I 
embrace you fondly, my dear, and send regards to all. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Prague to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



* F. Modracek through whom Lenin maintained a correspondence 
with Russia, moved to a new address. — Ed. 



323 



126 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

Vienna, March 4, 1901 

I have come here, Mother dearest, on a hunt for 
"papers" for Nadya. There was no Russian consul in Prague 
and my application for a passport for Nadya had to be wit- 
nessed. Vienna is a huge, lively and beautiful city. After 
the "province" where I live it is pleasant to see the metro- 
polis. There is something to look at here, so it is worth while 
stopping off (should any of you be travelling this way). 
For this purpose I have sent Nadya a pocket Fiihrer durch 
Wien. I hope she will soon be seeing you — there should 
be no hitch with the passport now. I ask Manyasha, when 
she happens to be in the centre of the town, to buy Hend- 
scheVs Telegraph (two marks) for Nadya (it is not worth 
the trouble of sending one from here). 

Among other things, I have seen the Museum der bilden- 
den Kiinste* here, and even saw a Viennese operetta. I did 
not like it very much, I was also at a meeting where a 
Volksuniversitdtskurse** was in progress. I got in at the 
wrong time and went away quickly. 

Regards to everyone; many kisses for you, my dear. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Museum of Fine Arts (Ger.).— Ed. 
People's University Course (Ger.). — Ed. 



324 V. I. LENIN 



It is probable that a letter from Anyuta, or perhaps 
yours or Manyasha's, is waiting for me at home. 

Just in case of accidents I am repeating my new address: 
Herrn Franz Modrack. Vrsvice bei Prag. Oesterreich. 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



325 



127 

TO HIS MOTHER 

May 19, 1901 

Mother dearest, 

I have just received your letter with Mark's letter 
enclosed and immediately have sent them both on to Anyuta, 
who has left for Berlin. She wants to do some work in the 
libraries there. I hope she will find it much more convenient 
in Berlin than here — the Prague* libraries are not up to 
much. 

I am very sorry you have been unable to get a decent 
apartment, and that your summer place is not good either. 
The summer does not look promising for those who spend it 
in the country if one may judge by the beginning and by 
the weather here — cloudy and rainy. It is all right for us, 
of course, because we stay in town all summer, but it will 
be rotten for you. Perhaps Mitya will be able to find you 
something better. I also hope very much that Mark and 
Manyasha will soon manage to be with you. 215 Judging 
by Mark's letter, he has to some extent adapted himself 
to the new conditions and found himself an occupation, 
so as not to be bored and not to impair his health too 
greatly. I am writing to him and Manyasha and ask you 
to send them the letters. 



* Prague is mentioned for secrecy; the reference is actually to 
Munich.— Ed. 



326 



V. I. LENIN 



Many kisses for you, my dear; from the bottom of my 
heart I wish you good health and vigour and, especially, 
that you will soon be together with Manyasha and Mark. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Regards to Mitya. He must be very busy? I Suppose. 

Sent from Munich to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



327 



128 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 216 

May 19, 1901 

I have decided to write you a few lines, dear Manyasha, 
or you will be thinking I have turned into a real pig. I have 
been forgetting my obligations surprisingly often since I 
have been here. It is true that now Nadya and Y. V. have 
arrived we are much more comfortable; we have our own 
apartment and I am beginning to work more regularly, but 
there is still more than enough bother. 

How are you? I hope you have got yourself into a more 
correct regime for that is so important in solitary confinement. 
I have just written a letter to Mark in which I described in 
exceptional detail how best to establish a "regime"; as 
regards mental work, I particularly recommended transla- 
tions, especially both ways — first do a written translation 
from the foreign language into Russian, then translate 
it back from Russian into the foreign language. My own 
experience has taught me that this is the most rational 
way of learning a language. On the physical side I have 
strongly recommended him, and I repeat it to you, to do 
gymnastics every day and rub himself down with a wet 
towel. In solitary confinement this is absolutely essential. 

I saw from one of your letters that Mother sent on to me 
that you have found some ways of employing your time. 
I hope this will enable you to forget, even if only occasion- 
ally, your surroundings, and that the passage of time (which 
usually passes quickly in prison unless conditions are par- 
ticularly bad) will be even less noticeable. I also advise 
you to arrange your work on the books you have in such 
a way as to vary it; I remember quite well that a change 



328 



V. I. LENIN 



of reading or work — from translation to reading, from writ- 
ing to gymnastics, from serious reading to fiction — helps 
a great deal. Sometimes a change of mood for the worse — 
one's mood changes so easily in prison — is due simply to 
fatigue from monotonous impressions or monotonous work, 
and a change of occupation is often enough to bring one 
back to normal and calm one's nerves. I remember that 
after dinner, for recreation in the evening, I read fiction 
regelmassig* and never enjoyed it anywhere as much as 
I did in prison. The main thing is never to forget the ob- 
ligatory daily gymnastics. Force yourself to go through 
several dozen (no allowances!) movements of all kinds! 
This is very important. Well, good-bye for now. Many 
kisses; I wish you good health and vigour. 



Yours, 



Vlad. Ulyanov 



Sent from Munich to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



* 



Regularly (Ger.).— Ed. 



329 



129 

TO HIS MOTHER 

June 7, 1901 

Mother dearest, 

I have received your letter of May 10 and newspapers 
from Mitya. Many thanks for the letter and the papers. 
I would ask Mitya in future to send any interesting issues 
of Russian newspapers that he can get hold of; there is no 
library here and I seldom see anything but Russkiye Vedo- 
mosti.... 

Anyuta is now in Berlin and has already written to me 
that she has received the royalties that were sent her, and 
that in general she receives your letters more quickly than 
before. 

I am very glad that you like your summer place and can 
spend a lot of time in the open air. From what Anyuta said 
I had imagined your new place to be much too flimsy and 
cold. What is it like there when it rains? 

It is sad there is no change in the affairs of Mark 
and Manyasha. Just before Anyuta left I wrote letters 
to them containing a lot of stuff about how to spend 
one's time in prison. I don't know whether the letters got 
there and actually reached them. 

We have fixed our apartment up very nicely here. Rents 
are cheaper here than in such (relatively) big towns in Rus- 
sia; we furnished the place with second-hand things we 
bought cheap, and Yelizaveta Vasilyevna and Nadya man- 
age the housekeeping themselves without any particular 
trouble — housekeeping here is much easier. The place is 
a good one, too — on the outskirts; there is water near us 



330 



V. I. LENIN 



and a park with lots of greenery. There are good connections 
with the centre, thanks to the electric trams. 

A few days ago I received 250 rubles from my publisher 
and the financial side of things is now not bad. In general, 
I am fixed up here comfortably in all respects and have 
only one wish — for our two to be released as soon as possible, 
so that you will not have to remain almost alone. 

Y. V. and Nadya are well and send their best regards to 
you and all our people. Nadya intends to write soon. 

Many kisses for you, my dear, and I wish you very good 
health. 



Yours, 



V. Ul. 



Sent from Munich to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



331 



130 

TO HIS MOTHER 

July 1, 1901 

Mother dearest, 

It is quite a long time since I had news of you. Are you 
well? I recently received from Anya a letter of Mark's with 
a postscript to me that you had sent her. I was very glad 
to hear from him (there has been no reply to my letter from 
Manyasha), but I was sorry to learn of the rather wretched 
arrangements in their cells. Their imprisonment has come 
at a bad time — summer. By the way, the summer here is 
not hot and there is a lot of rain. What is your summer 
like? 

I have received the 75 rubles that Mitya sent, which 
probably came from the sale of my gun. Merci for the 
money. Did he receive Nadya's letter in which she asked 
him to send me three copies of my book on capitalism? 

Have you any acquaintances in Podolsk? Do you see 
the gentleman we went boating with last year? 217 You 
probably go to Moscow once a week, or perhaps more than 
once, don't you? Have any of the Siberian friends called 
on you when passing through? 218 

I embrace you, Mother dearest, and wish you good health. 
Very best regards from all to Mitya, Mark and Manyasha. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Munich to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



332 



131 

TO HIS MOTHER 

July 17, 1901 

Mother dearest, 

A few days ago I received a letter from you which had 
been forwarded to me by Anyuta. I was exceedingly glad 
to learn that there is a hope of our people being released 
shortly. Perhaps the authorities will realise that there is 
no "case" to be made of it. Even if they do make out a 
"case", they should let them out soon, because now, in 
incomparably more important cases, people are released 
on remand "until the investigation has been completed". 
It is a good thing that Manyasha feels well and vigorous, 
as I see from the letter Anyuta sent on to me. 

Anyuta wrote me a few days ago that she is thinking 
of going to stay in the country; it would not be a bad thing, 
although I must say that towns abroad are better adapted 
to the summer — the streets are watered more often, etc. — 
and it is easier to spend the summer here in town than it 
is in Russia. We, for instance, are able to swim every day 
in a very good swimming pool at a relatively low cost, 
there are places for walks and one does not have to go far 
to get out of town. The traffic in the streets here is far less 
than in an equally large Russian city; this is because the 
electric trams and bicycles are completely ousting cabs. 
The commercial traffic in the suburb where we live is ex- 
ceedingly small. For this reason we are quite content with 
our present place of residence and do not intend to go to a 
village or summer resort. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and hope you keep well. 
Best regards to Mitya and especially to Mark and Manyasha. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Munich to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



333 



132 

TO HIS MOTHER 

August 3, 1901 

Mother dearest, 

I have received your letter of June 13. A big merci for 
it. It is very strange that they won't allow even Mitya 
a visit. There is one consolation — the case is coming to 
an end and soon our people will be released and sent into 
exile. Perhaps it can be arranged not too far from Moscow — 
I am talking about Manyasha, since Mark, as you say, has 
decided to go to his brother. 219 Since Mark's case will prob- 
ably end without a conviction there perhaps remains a 
hope of his being able to complete the course 220 — if not 
in the normal period, at least with the loss of only a year; 
he may be able to get special permission, since he has 
graduated in mathematics. 

When is Mitya going away, and for how long? When 
will he be through with his examinations? What does he 
think of doing? Is he still as keen to become a public 
health officer? 

Life here goes on as usual. I had thought of taking a 
short trip with Nadya but the weather is too changeable. 
We are again having rainy days now. This summer has been 
just the kind to spend in town, rather than in the country. 

I am expecting a letter soon from Anyuta with her new 
address. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and hope you keep well. 
Best regards to Mitya, Mark and Manyasha. 

Yours, 

V. Ul. 



Sent from Munich to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



334 



133 

TO HIS MOTHER 

September 1, 1901 

Mother dearest, 

We recently received your letter to Nadya with a letter 
from Manyasha enclosed. It was very sad to learn that our 
people's affairs are in such a sorry state! I just don't know 
what to advise, my dear. Please don't worry too much — the 
prosecutor's office, is probably making so much trouble 
by way of a last attempt to work up a "case" out of nothing, 
and when these attempts fail they will have to grant a re- 
lease. It might help to go to St. Petersburg, if your health 
permits, and complain of something so unheard of as no 
interrogation for six months. That constitutes such a defi- 
nite and obvious illegal act that it is the best thing to 
submit a complaint about it. In any ease, Peters- 
burg would send an inquiry to Moscow and cause the lat- 
ter to abandon a little of its provincial high-handedness 
(that was what happened when Mitya was arrested). That 
is the argument in favour of a trip to St. Petersburg. There 
is, of course, also an argument against it — the outcome is 
doubtful and it will cause you a great deal of an- 
xiety. You are in the best position to decide whether it is 
worth while undertaking anything of the sort, and you have 
probably discussed it with acquaintances. You should also 
complain of the refusal to allow Mitya to see Manyasha, 221 
because that is something very much out of the ordinary. 

As far as concerns Anyuta, I shall not, of course, write 
to her about what you have told me, so as not to upset her 
too much. I hope I shall soon — perhaps in a few weeks — be 
seeing her and will try to reassure her a little. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



335 



When you have some spare time, my dear, please write 
and tell me how you are keeping, whether you are quite 
well and what you are thinking of doing in the autumn. 
Are you moving to Moscow or will you remain in Podolsk 
for the time being? When is M. V. leaving? 222 When you 
see Manyasha and Mark again, give them best regards from 
all of its. Now summer has passed — summer is the worst 
time to be in prison — and after the interrogation they 
will probably realise a little more clearly how trivial the 
whole affair is. 

I embrace you again and again, my dear, and wish you 
good health and vigour. You remember, when I was locked 
up, you imagined the case to be more serious and dangerous 
than it was, and, of course, Manyasha's and Mark's case 
bears no comparison with mine! They are probably being 
held a long time, partly because so many people have been 
arrested and the case has not yet been properly sorted out — 
anything so absurd would, of course, be impossible in St. 
Petersburg. 

I again kiss you, 

Yours, 

V. Ul. 

MOT rT70P r 

Life here goes on as usual; Yelizaveta Vasilyevna is rather 
poorly, there is influenza about again. Nadya seems to be 
quite at home by now and is used to this way of life. 

Sent from Munich to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



336 



134 

TO HIS MOTHER 

September 21, 1901 

Mother dearest, 

I have received your letter of August 22. Merci for it 
and also for the money (35 rubles), which we at last received 
after long delays that had been caused accidentally by a 
friend. Our finances are not in too bad a state. My publisher 
has sent me something and I hope to manage on that for 
quite a time, especially as the cost of living here is not 
high if you run your own house. There is no need to send 
anything, merci. 

We also received your letter to Nadya a short while ago 
and I replied to it.* Did you get my reply? 

I have had the news from Anyuta that the investigation 
of the case involving our people is finished and the case 
has been handed over to the prosecutor. That is a good 
thing; they will now probably be less worried and the time 
they will be kept locked up will be shorter. Perhaps your 
request to have them released on bail will be granted. Sure- 
ly they will not keep them in prison now that the investi- 
gation is over — that is hardly likely, 

As regards our acquaintances in St. Petersburg things 
are pretty bad. There does not seem to be anybody left 
there, with the possible exception of one old friend** whom 
you know and whose wife visited you in Moscow when 
Yelizaveta Vasilyevna was at your place. But he is not 



* See previous letter. — Ed. 
**This refers to I. N. Chebotaryov, a close acquaintance of the 
Ulyanov family. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



337 



much use. Nadya has an old friend, Apollinariya Ivanovna 
Knipovich, Peterburgskaya Storona, Bolshoi Prospekt, 
No. 42, Apt. No. 16 — although I do not know whether you 
can hope to get her to go bail. I will, however, write to 
her and if you are in St. Petersburg you can call on her. 

We are still living as before. The weather here is a little 
better now, after a long period of rain, and we are making 
use of it for long walks in the beautiful country round about; 
since we did not manage to go away anywhere for the 
summer we have to take what chances we have! Yelizaveta 
Vasilyevna is now recovering and feels much better. She 
sends you and everybody her best regards, so does Nadya. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and wish you good 
health — and also that our people will soon be released. Write 
and let me know when you have made arrangements for the 
winter. Is it not cold in that summer cottage by now? 



Yours, 



V. Ulyanov 



Sent from Munich to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



338 



1902 



135 

TO HIS MOTHER 

February 26, 1902 

I am sending you Nadya's letter,* Mother dearest. I 
have received your letter and Manya's of January 31. Thank 
Mitya for taking on the job of forwarding the books. 

Anyuta also wrote to me about Mark's plan. Well, Har- 
bin, I think, is not so very far away now and it will soon 
be nearer — when the line is opened. Anyway, Mark will 
probably not have to stay there very long. And if he cannot 
find something to do anywhere else — well, doing nothing 
is the worst possible thing. Give him very best regards 
from us all and tell him that we hope he will soon return 
from his distant wanderings. 

Y. V. is now quite well. She sends you her best wishes 
and the same to Manyasha, Mitya and Mark. She intends 
going to Russia soon; I do not know whether she will or 
not, but she is talking seriously about it. 

I thank Manyasha again for the books: I have received 
them all. Gorky, Volume 5, we have (quite by chance). 
Let her convey our very best wishes to the inhabitant of 
"the neighbouring farmstead"**; I am very glad that an 
old friend has turned up, the one with whom we spent many 
excellent evenings. I hope to write him a long letter soon, 

I wrote in the last letter that I like your group*** very 
much. 

Many kisses, my dear. Hoping you are well. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Munich to Samara 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 

* The letter has been lost.— Ed. 
**This refers to A. A. Preobrazhensky.— Ed. 
*** Apparently a group photograph.— Ed. 



339 



136 

TO HIS MOTHER 

March 24, 1902 

Mother dearest, 

It is quite a while since I last received any news of you. 
How are you? We have recently been having perfect spring 
weather — people go out in summer coats or even without 
them. There has been no winter at all this year, I should 
say, though I expect winter is still with you even now in 
Russia. In Samara, I suppose, the snow is now melting 
and the time of impassable mud or puddles hidden 
under the snow is beginning. 223 

What have you in mind for the summer? It would be a 
good thing if you could get away from town, at least as 
far as the Zhiguli Hills if you cannot go any further (as I 
hope you will be able to). How are you keeping now, my 
dear? In spring, I suppose, all sorts of colds and other ill- 
nesses are going around your way too. 

What does the future hold in store for Mark? Anyuta 
writes that instead of Manchuria he is now counting 
on getting a job somewhere on the Volga. Did he get the 
job, and where does he intend to live? 

I have not had any letters from Mitya either and do not 
know whether he is in Moscow, or in the south, or how 
matters stand with his job. 

What about Manyasha? Is she still working for the Zem- 
stvo council? She, too, will have to get away from Samara 
in summer — I still cannot forget how foul it is in the 
heat. 

We are also thinking of where to go in summer, although 
the towns here in summer are quite different from those of 
Russia. 

I sometimes see Russian magazines — far from all of them 
and not regularly either. How do you people like Veresayev's 



340 



V. I. LENIN 



new story in Mir Bozhyl At first I expected a lot, but I am 
not very pleased with the continuation. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and send best regards 
to Manyasha and all acquaintances. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Sent from Munich to Samara 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



341 



137 

TO HIS MOTHER 

April 2, 1902 

Mother dearest, 

I received Manyasha's letter only a little while ago. 
Thank her very much. A few days ago I wrote you that I 
have had no news of you for a long time. I even started 
sending Anyuta letters asking about you. 

As regards books — please tell Manyasha not to send 
them until I let you have a new address. 224 I am grateful 
to her for sorting out the books; the only German books 
I should like to receive are those that are not needed (and 
not even likely to be needed) in Russia by you or by 
acquaintances. That is because I can easily get German 
books here, there is no shortage of them. But there is a 
shortage of Russian books, so please, could all possible 
Russian books be picked out and even all the statistics and 
put in a separate box, for I am beginning to miss these 
things and am thinking of having them all sent. I am 
particularly grateful to Manyasha for putting in some Rus- 
sian classics. 

How are you keeping now, my dear? Are you still think- 
ing of a trip abroad in summer? It would be excellent, 
if it would not tire you too much. 

Best regards to Mark. Has he at last received permission 
to leave? 

What about the "doctor"* in Manchuria? I really should 



*A. P. Sklyarenko.— Ed. 



342 



V. I. LENIN 



very much like to correspond with him. Hasn't his address 
been discovered yet? 

Has Manyasha conveyed my best regards to the "old 
acquaintance" whom I used to visit at the farmstead?* 
I was very glad to have news of him. 

Manyasha should also have a holiday in summer — some- 
where in the Zhiguli Hills, eh? 

I embrace you fondly, my dear; regards to all. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Munich to Samara 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



See Letter No. 135.— Ed. 



343 



138 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

B.R.Y.* 
Postlagernd, 
Postamt 100, 
Luisenstr., 6, 
Berlin 

April 10, 1902 

I am being run right off my feet! We are leaving** on 
the 12th. For the time being, in case of anything urgent, 
write to this address. 

Mr. Alexejeff, 
14, Frederick Street, 
Gray's Inn Road, 
London, W. C. 
(for Lenin — inside). 

The address of the local doctor is in any case valid; he 
will always forward letters. 

Thank Auntia*** for the letter, which I received today 
(and for the books). 

All the best. 

Lenin 

Sent from Munich 

First published in 1925 
in Lenin Miscellany III 



Printed from 
the original 



* The initials under which Lenin's sister received letters poste 
restante. — Ed. 

** If there is any change I will write. 
*** Auntie— A. M. Kalmykova.— .Ed. 



344 



139 

TO HIS MOTHER 

May 8, 1902 

Mother dearest, 

A few days ago I received a postcard with a view of the 
Volga and with congratulations from Manyasha. Many 
thanks for it. I do not know whether you have been receiving 
my letters regularly lately. I have had nothing from you 
except that postcard for quite a while. 

Do you correspond with Y. V. who is now in St. Petersburg 
and does not seem to like it very much and is thinking 
of coming back? 

I am hoping to see you soon, my dear. 225 I hope the 
journey will not tire you too greatly. You absolutely must 
choose day trains and spend the nights in hotels. Hotels 
abroad are not expensive and you can spend a comfortable 
night in one. It is quite impossible to travel for several 
days without a rest because of the speed of the trains here 
and of the short stops. 

I am anxiously awaiting news of your departure. Perhaps 
you will send a telegram from Russia, or from somewhere 
abroad, when you board the train that will actually bring 
you here. That would be much more convenient. 

I wanted to ask you to bring some of the clothes I left 
behind, but now I think it is not worth while; the things 
I left behind must have come in handy for Mitya and it is 
not worth the trouble of buying new things in Russia and 
bringing them here. If there is anything left that is of no 
use to anyone else, you could bring it (not much, of course, 
so as not to overburden you). 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



345 



I advise you to take express trains in Germany and Aus- 
tria (the extra fare in the third class is small but the time 
gained is tremendous), and buy HendscheV s Telegraph and 
draw up a timetable before you leave home. Manyasha, for 
instance, is probably familiar with that directory. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear; best regards to all. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from London to Samara 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



346 



140 

TO HIS MOTHER 

June 7, 1902 

Mother dearest, 

I have received a letter from Manyasha and am very 
grateful to her. With regard to an address for the despatch 
of books, I will try and send it soon. It is a great pity that 
you still have to be bothered with this burden! Well, we 
shall put an end to all that soon and you will be rid of 
all the books. 

We are all expecting you, my dear, and I am correspond- 
ing with Anyuta regarding her plans — how and where to 
make arrangements for you to stay. The weather seems to 
be continuing fine, here and where Anyuta lives.* Yeli- 
zaveta Vasilyevna writes that she will probably be leaving 
soon; she does not seem to be very well pleased with her 
trip (I, incidentally, tried all the time to talk her out of it, 
showing her that there was no need for her to go and that 
she would soon be missing us). 

I do not write about my health because I am quite well. 
Nadya, too. 

What about Mark and his job? Did he take the position 
in Tomsk and when is he going there? 

Manya's tale of her boat trip made me very envious 

How I should like to be on the Volga in summer! What 
a fine time you and Anyuta and I had on the boat in the 
spring of 1900. 226 If I cannot get to the Volga, the Volga 



At that time Lenin's sister was living near Dresden. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



347 



people must come here. There are some nice places here, too, 
although of a different kind. 

Au revoir, my dear. 

Your V. embraces you fondly. 

P. S. I received the Gorky and Skitalets books and read 
them with very great interest. I have read them myself 
and passed them on to others. 

Sent from London to Samara 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



348 



141 

TO HIS MOTHER 

September 14, 1902 

Mother dearest, 

We were all extremely glad to receive your telegram 
and later your postcard. Did you continue your journey 
comfortably? Wasn't it too tiring? Please drop me a couple 
of lines about this when you have rested and have settled 
down a bit. 

Anyuta's photographs (the ones she sent, I mean) arrived 
in good time and in good condition. 227 

There have been no changes here. We are all well. The 
weather here is surprisingly fine for autumn — it must be 
compensation for a bad summer. Nadya and I have often 
been out locally in search of "real countryside" and have 
found it. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and send my very best 
regards to Manyasha and Anya. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from London to Samara 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



349 



142 

TO HIS MOTHER 

September 27, 1902 

Mother dearest, 

It is quite a while since I heard from you. I still do not 
know what sort of journey you had to Samara and how 
you are fixed up there. I doubt whether Manyasha is still 
living at the old address but I am writing there since I 
have no other and expect that the letter will he forwarded to 
her. Where is Anyuta? What news have you had from Mitya 
and Mark? What are you thinking of doing for the winter? 

Are you well, my dear? Was the journey not too tiring? 

Life goes on as usual; the only thing is that we have re- 
cently been a little busier. I have now got into a more 
regular way of life, but try to spend more time in the 
library. 

The weather is extraordinarily fine — our reward for a 
dreadful summer. Nadya and I have travelled and walked 
round a great deal of the surrounding country and have 
found some very nice places. If you are having the same 
kind of weather you should take advantage of it somewhere 
in the country, because I expect there is little pleasure to be 
had from living in Samara itself, even at this time of the year. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and hope you keep well. 
Best regards to all from Nadya, Y. V. and me. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Sent from London to Samara 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



350 



143 

TO HIS MOTHER 

November 9, 1902 

Mother dearest, 

I received your letter quite a long time ago but have 
somehow been unable to get down to answering it; and 
anyway I have been expecting an answer to my previous 
letter. Mitya's release 228 — in my last letter I wrote that I 
was sure of it — actually took place much quicker than 
I expected. I am particularly glad for Anyuta's sake, be- 
cause she has not had to spend a long time hanging about 
various government offices (often an extremely unpleasant 
business, even more unpleasant than being in prison!) and 
has at last been able to go to Mark. She had been wandering 
from place to place without a home of her own, so to speak, 
for much too long. 

What news is there now from her? Is Mark satisfied with 
his job? Does Mitya earn anything, and is he thinking 
of visiting you? I hope you are keeping well, my dear. 

As for us, we are going on as usual and do nothing excit- 
ing. The weather is warm, similar to our August weather; 
even in a summer coat it is hot (of course people are von 
unten warm angezogen,* in the jerseys they wear abroad). 
I have got fairly well used to the local way of life and am 
acquiring a practical command of the language. Y. V. is 
now well and does not get ill very often. Nadya gets a little 
tired, but in general is reasonably well. 



Warmly dressed underneath (Ger.)- — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



351 



Not long ago I received some new Russian books such 
as Zheleznov's (Politicheskaya ekonomiya) but have had no 
time to read them. I was not very pleased with them when 
I glanced through them. I read mostly Moscow newspapers — 
still the same old thing. I see the local papers in reading- 
rooms. 

How are you keeping, in general, this winter? 
I embrace you fondly, my dear, and send very best re- 
gards to all. 



Yours, 



V. Ulyanov 



Sent from London to Samara 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



352 



144 

TO HIS MOTHER 

December 17, 1902 

Mother dearest, 

A few days ago we received Manyasha's letter to Nadya 
with your postscript and I was very glad to hear from you 
because there had been no news for a long time. There 
was also a short letter from Anyuta; she seems to be well 
content with her new place. Manyasha writes that you will 
soon be seeing Mitya and his wife.* Give him very best 
regards from me and all of us. Perhaps Anyuta will visit 
you, too, and you will all he together for a short while 
during the holidays. That would be fine. 

Our life here goes on just the same as usual. It was cold 
for a few weeks (cold here means "not thawing") but there 
was no snow and we all caught colds. But we are all right 
now. The weather is again wet — at this rate I shall soon 
get unused to our winter! 

I see from Manyasha's letter that she liked Zheleznov's 
book. I have not read it, of course; I merely turned over 
the pages, and so cannot undertake to judge. When I have 
read it, I will write about it. What I wrote concerned only 
the first, superficial impression. 

Manyasha also writes that she has taken up languages, 
even English. I thought of sending her a textbook on pro- 
nunciation, a very good one, in German. I have been doing 
some study lately and am very pleased with the book; 



* Lenin's brother and his wife visited Samara in the winter of 
1902.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



353 



I can't praise it enough. The book is, Henry Sweet, Ele- 
mentarbuch des gesprochenen Englisch, Oxford, 1901, and it 
costs something like a ruble twenty-live kopeks. If Manya- 
sha would like me to, I can send it; I do not need it any 
more. Since she has Toussaint, however, I don't know 
whether it is worth while, because Toussaint is excellent. 
I used not to believe in this system but now I am sure it 
is the only serious, efficient system. If you take a few les- 
sons from a native foreigner after working through the first 
part of Toussaint you can certainly acquire a thorough knowl- 
edge of the language. There are Toussaint dictionaries now 
as well, in which the pronunciation is indicated; I strongly 
advise Manyasha to buy them because our Alexandrov is 
wrong in many cases. (For instance, I strongly advise her to 
buy Muret's pocket dictionary that uses the Toussaint meth- 
od, Taschenworterbuch der englischen und deutschen Spra- 
che, Teil I, Englisch-deutsch, Preis 2 Mark. Berlin, 1902. 
Langenscheidtsche Verlagsbucbhandlung.) 

Well, I have used up a lot of paper talking about books.... 
I want to order Problemy idealizma — this seems to be a 
"militant" review by the nonsense-mongering gentlemen. 229 

Y. V. and Nadya send their regards. I hope you will soon 
be receiving visitors and have some relief from your loneli- 
ness. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear. 



Yours, 



V. Ulyanov 



Sent from London to Samara 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



354 



145 

TO HIS MOTHER 

December 26, 1902 

Mother dearest, 

Please send the enclosed letter to Anyuta; I have not 
got her address, I must have lost it (I have not yet written 
her a single letter) and perhaps she is not in Tomsk now, 
but with you. I believe you were hoping you would all be 
together for the holidays, Mitya as well. Write and tell 
me whether it turned out that way, and whether you made 
the acquaintance of Mitya's wife. 

We still have absolutely nothing new to tell you. The 
cold is over and we now have what we would call autumn 
weather; by way of exception it is dry, and this is very 
pleasant. The holidays here will probably be rather boring — 
few meetings, the reading-rooms closed and the theatres 
all overcrowded and difficult to get into. However, I am 
hoping to see some new acquaintances during this period. 

I have recently been reading the German newspapers 
more than usual; there have been some interesting happen- 
ings in Germany and sometimes I wanted to get the story 
straight from the source. Things seem to be quieting down 
there, too. 230 

How are you getting on? Are the worst frosts over? Have 
you any new acquaintances? 

Hoping you will have a good time this holiday and will 
all keep well. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Sent from London to Samara 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



355 



1903 
146 

TO HIS MOTHER 

February 4, 1903 

Mother dearest, 

It is a very long time since I received as much as a single 
letter from you or any of our people. One of your letters 
must have gone astray, because I cannot believe that no- 
body has written to me all this time. I don't know whether 
Mitya came to visit you, whether he stayed for long, what 
his plans are, and where he is now. Have you had any news of 
Anyuta, did she move to Port Arthur 231 and when? Are you 
well? Is the weather in Russia really still as cold as ever? 

The weather here is fine. It has been an exceptionally 
good mild winter, with very little rain or fog (so far). 
Y. V., it is true, still gets ill rather often; she is ill now 
but not very badly, so we are making do with home treat- 
ment and Russian remedies. It would probably be good 
for her to move somewhere further south. Nadya and I are 
both well and are jogging along as usual. We recently 
went to our first concert this winter and were very pleased 
with it — especially with Chaikovsky's latest symphony 
(Symphonic pathetique). Are there any good concerts in 
Samara? We went once to a German theatre but what we 
should like would be to visit the Russian Art Theatre and 
see The Lower Depths. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and wish you everything 
of the best, especially health. Regards to all; perhaps you 
will forward the letter to Anyuta. Otherwise, when shall 
I learn her address? 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Have I got your address right? 

Sent from London to Samara 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



356 



147 

TO HIS MOTHER 

February 22, 1903 

Mother dearest, 

I have received your letter, for which a big merci. It 
was very interesting to hear about Anyuta. By the way, 
please send her this letter as I do not know her address. 
It is true she recently sent me a brief note for which I am 
very grateful, but she forgot to say anything about her 
address and, in general, she was so hazy about everything 
that I am completely bewildered. I learned about the "Chi- 
nese" philistines* only from you. In a way, that is closer 
to Europe, or to the New World! Rather interesting, I 
think, very much so, in fact! 

I am very, very sorry about the old friend.** 

Would it not be quicker to correspond with the Chinese 
lady through Japan or through some British port? True 
enough, it is farther by sea, but the Europeans are many 
times more punctual! 

Life here goes on as usual. Nothing particularly good 
has happened and nothing bad either, and in general I 
feel much less ueberarbeitet*** than before. I expect to 
take a trip to Germany in a few days. 232 The weather is asto- 
nishingly fine, it is hot in a light coat; sunshine and a 
warm, warm breeze.... Just right for walking. 



* Lenin's sister Anna and her husband Mark Yelizarov. — Ed. 
*A. P. Sklyarenko.— Ed. 

* Overworked (Ger.).— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



357 



How are you getting on? Where are Mitya and his wife? 
How is Manyasha? 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and wish you good 
health. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Best regards to all, especially to Anya and Mark! 

Sent from London to Samara 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



358 



148 

TO HIS MOTHER 

March 29, 1903 

Mother dearest, 

I received your letter a few days ago — a big merci for it. 
So Anyuta has been delayed in the Far East longer than she 
expected. I thought she would be with you by now. Still, 
I suppose a long journey like that requires some prepara- 
tion. Mitya, too, it seems, has not yet decided on where he 
is going to live. Is poor Manyasha very lonesome? 

I am glad it is warmer now in Samara, because very cold 
winters are extremely tiring. Are you now feeling bet- 
ter, my dear? 

It is warm here. We recently took Y. V. on a long outing too 
— we took sandwiches with us instead of lunch and spent 
the whole of one Sunday ins Griine (quite unintentionally 
we are taking to foreign ways and arrange our outings 
on Sundays of all days, though that is the worst time be- 
cause everywhere is crowded). We had a long walk, the 
air went to our heads as if we were children and afterwards 
I had to lie down and rest, as I did after a shooting trip 
in Siberia. In general, we do not miss a chance to go on 
outings. We are the only people among the comrades here 
who are exploring every bit of the surrounding country. 
We discover various "rural" paths, we know all the places 
nearby and intend to go further afield. I have been feeling 
very well lately, I work regularly and do not worry about 
the commotion around me. Nadya and Y. V. are also well. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear. Please write from time to 
time (or ask Manyasha to) about yourselves and your plans. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Sent from London to Samara 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



359 



1904 



148 

TO HIS MOTHER 

January 8, 1904 

Mother dearest, 

I forgot to reply to Manyasha about the 150 rubles she 
was enquiring about. Let them remain with you, for the 
time being at any rate. I would, however, ask you to buy 
a few books with some of the money. I have already writ- 
ten about a Russian-French Dictionary. To this I should 
like to add Sechenov's Elementy mysli (a recently pub- 
lished book). 

A few days ago I had a wonderful outing to Saleve with 
Nadya and a friend.* Down below in Geneva it was all mist 
and gloom, but up on the mountain (about 4,000 feet above 
sea level) there was glorious sunshine, snow, tobogganing — 
altogether a good Russian winter's day. And at the foot 
of the mountain — la mer du brouillard, a veritable sea 
of mist and clouds, concealing everything except the moun- 
tains jutting up through it, and only the highest at that. 
Even little Saleve (nearly 3,000 feet) was wrapped in mist. 

So we are beginning to get to know Switzerland and 
its scenery. In the spring we intend to make a long walking 
tour. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear. Are you keeping well? 
How are you? 



Sent from Geneva to Kiev 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



F. V. Lengnik.— .Ed. 



360 



150 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Laboratornaya, 12, Apt. 14, 
Kiev 



Mother dearest, 

I am glad that you are feeling a little more at ease — 
the main thing is for our detainees to keep well. 233 In 
view of the large number of arrests they may simply 
have been caught in the dragnet.... 

Send me Mark Timofeyevich's address, I shall have some 
literary business for him. He is in St. Petersburg. Did 
you receive Nadya's letter, she wrote to you recently. 
My address: Geneva, Chemin prive du Foyer, 10. 

Yours, 

V. 



Written January 20, 1904 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



N. K. KRUPSKAYA 
1903 



361 



151 

KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

July 2 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

We received Manyasha's letter the day before yesterday 
and yours yesterday. How glad I was! If only they will soon 
release Anya! I embrace you fondly, my dears. It is such 
a pity that you are both suffering from ill health. You 
absolutely must take a rest — the main thing is to get your 
lungs filled with fresh air; after all, Kiev is a city. The 
only thing is that in the north the summer is bad; Mother 
is living near St. Petersburg at the country house of some 
friends and complains of the terrible cold and the rain. 
I believe that there is everything conducive to rest at 
M. T.'s country place. 

We are now on holiday, too. We have let our house and 
I am very glad we have, because keeping it clean and 
housekeeping in general took the whole day, there was 
sometimes such a hubbub at our place; the need to think 
about housekeeping all the time was a nuisance. If you go 
out for a walk, you are left without milk, if you are not up 
by seven o'clock you have the pleasure of going to town 
for meat, and so on. And in winter it was so cold. We 
shall now find something more convenient. In general I 
am dreaming of autumn, when I shall be able to sit down 
and work seriously. I am thinking of various ways of avoid- 
ing the constant turmoil; it is terribly tiring. We are now 
in Lausanne. It is already a week since we got away from 
Geneva and are now resting in the full sense of the word. 
We have left our work and our worries in Geneva and here 



362 



V. I. LENIN 



we sleep 10 hours a day, and go swimming and walking — 
Volodya does not even read the newspapers properly; we 
took a minimum of books with us, and even those we are send- 
ing back to Geneva tomorrow, unread, while we ourselves 
shall don our rucksacks at four in the morning and set out 
for a two weeks' walking tour in the mountains. 234 We 
shall go to Interlaken and from there to Lucerne. We are 
reading Baedeker and planning our journey carefully. In 
a week we have "recovered" quite considerably and have 
even begun to look healthy again. It has been a difficult 
winter and our nerves have been under such a strain that 
we cannot be blamed for taking a month's holiday, although 
I am already feeling guilty about it. The weather is a 
bit doubtful, there is no rain, but the air is rather misty. 
For the time being that is all I have to write about us. 
Volodya and I have made an agreement not to talk about 
our work — work, he says, is not a bear and will not escape 
to the woods — not even to mention it, and, as far as possible, 
not to think about it. 

I shall be writing to Manyasha, probably this evening, 
and in the meantime I embrace all of you fondly, my dears, 
and send you many kisses. 



Mother dearest, 

I will add just a few words. Very best regards to Manyasha 
and congratulations on her release. This summer you 
absolutely must rest. Please go and stay in the country 
somewhere. We are taking walks and having a good holiday. 
I embrace you. 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Yours, 



V. Ulyanov 



Written July 2, 1904 



Sent from Lausanne to Kiev 



First published in 1929 



in the journal Proletarskaya 



Printed from 
the original 



Revolyutsiya No. 11 



363 



152 

TO HIS MOTHER* 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Laboratornaya Street, 12, Apt. 14, 
Kiev, 
Russia 

Greetings from the tramps, dear Mother and Manyasha. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Written July 7 or 8, 1904 
Sent from Frutigen (Switzerland) 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



* This was written on a picture postcard with a view of the Kan- 
dersteg near Frutigen, through which Lenin and Krupskaya passed 
during their mountain tour. — Ed. 



364 



153 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA* 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Laboratornaya Street, 12, Apt. 14, 
Kiev, 
Russia 

July 16, 1904 

Greetings from our Mon Repos. In a day or two we shall 
be off once again. Is Mother well? It is a long time since 
we had any news. Please write. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 



Sent from Iseltwald (Switzerland) 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



* This was written on a picture postcard with a view of Iseltwald 
am Brienzersee. — Ed. 



365 



154 

TO HIS MOTHER 

August 28, 1904 

Mother dearest, 

I have not written to you for a long time because I was 
not certain of your address. Today we received letters 
from Y. V. and Manyasha. Thank her for the trouble she 
has taken over the translations. Nadya will write about 
this in detail. I have now received Hobson's book on 
imperialism and have begun translating it 235 — only a little 
at a time because I am still enjoying the summer way of 
life — walking, swimming and lazing around. Altogether, 
I have had an excellent rest this summer! 

What about you? Is the cottage at Sablino a good one? 
Are you having a good rest? What is the outlook for the 
future? Are you keeping well? How are Anyuta and Manya- 
sha after their imprisonment? Drop me a line about this 
because Manyasha only speaks about translations. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and send regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Have I got the address right? If you change it, let me 
know in good time. My address: Rue de la Colline, 3, Geneve, 
but on the envelope you absolutely must write: V. I. Ulya- 
nov, Personal. 

Sent from Geneva to Sablino 
(near St. Petersburg) 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



366 



1907 



155 

LENIN AND KRUPSKAYA TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

June 27, 1907 

Mother dearest, 

For a long time I have not written you anything. Anyuta 
has probably told you of our plans for a holiday. I came 
back terribly tired. I have now completely recovered. Here 
you can have a wonderful rest, swimming, walking, no 
people and no work. 236 No people and no work — that is the 
best thing for me. I expect to be here another fortnight 
or so and then to return to work. Nadya and her mother 
are well and are having a good holiday. 

How are you all fixed up there? Are you well? Have 
you seen Anyuta? Where is she? With you now, or with 
Mark? When you can, drop me a line or ask Mitya to. 

I embrace you fondly, 

Yours, 

V. Ul. 

Regards from me to Mitya and his wife. 



Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Volodya does not usually send regards and so I send 
regards to you from Mother and myself. We also send regards 
to all our people. I can confirm the fact that we are having 
a good rest; we have all put on so much weight it's not 
decent to show ourselves in public... Here there is a pine 
forest, sea, magnificent weather, in short, everything is 
excellent. It is also a good thing that there is no housekeep- 
ing to do. And what sort of a rest are you having? How 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



367 



is your malaria? Have you got rid of it completely? Do 
you go mushrooming? How are you, in general, and what 
are you doing? Here we are cut off from the whole world; 
although there is a post six times a week nobody writes 
anything. Once again I embrace you fondly. 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Sent from Stjernsund to 
Mikhnevo, Serpukhov Uyezd, 
Moscow Gubernia 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



368 



156 

LENIN AND KRUPSKAYA TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

Dear Manyasha, 

Thanks for the letter. I must apologise for not answering 
at once. I have got so "embedded" in summer holidays 
and in loafing (I am having a rest such as I have not had 
for several years) that I am still postponing all business 
matters, great and small. 

I am against boycotting the Third Duma; I have been 
writing a little piece on this subject which will probably 
soon be out. 237 In my opinion that slogan must not be 
revived unless there is a situation of heightened political 
activity, unless there is a struggle against early consti- 
tutional illusions. Any fresh burst of enthusiasm (there 
may be one on account of the July strike of Moscow tex- 
tile workers — up to 400,000 are expected to strike) must 
be expanded, preparations must be made, it must be made 
general, but it would be out of place to declare a boycott. 
We must not renounce the slogan altogether; if the situation 
arises we shall, in a moment of political upsurge, propose 
a boycott. To declare a boycott at the moment would be 
either premature bravado or the uncritical repetition of 
slogans that have a glorious revolutionary past. Such, in 
a few words, is my argument; it is developed in detail in 
the press.* 



* It should be out in about a fortnight. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



369 



Write and tell me how you are fixed up and whether you 
are satisfied. Best regards to Mark and all acquaintances. 
We are having a wonderful rest and are loafing. 

Many kisses, 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Darling Manyasha, 

I am adding a few words. There is nothing to 
write about since we are, at the moment, "outside public 
interests" and are leading a holiday life — bathing in the 
sea, cycling (the roads are bad, by the way, so you can't 
go far). Volodya plays chess, fetches water, at one time we 
had a craze for the English game of "Donkey", and so on. 
The only thing is that Lidya has a lot of bother with the 
housekeeping Everybody here is putting on weight splen- 
didly. We could read a lot but none of the books here are 
very suitable and anyway we don't feel like reading. 

Many kisses, 

Yours, 

N. 

Our people (Lidya and Mother) send regards, of course. 

Written at the end of June 1907 
Sent from Stjernsund to Kinel 
Station (Samara Gubernia) 

First published in 1931 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



370 



157 

TO HIS MOTHER 

October 15, 1907 

Mother dearest, 

It is a long time since I wrote to you. I believe the last 
letter was the one I sent from my summer Mon Repos. 
We have now settled down to family life for the winter 
in the old place. 238 We hope the winter will not be as cold as 
the last. But we shall arrange things better now and "bat- 
ten down the hatches". I am very pleased with the premises 
and with the way things have been fixed up. Manyasha 
has been staying with us and is still here, but she intends 
leaving today because winter is setting in; the first snow 
fell today and it has turned cold. 

How are you getting along there? Will it be all right 
in the country when the real cold sets in? Please convey my 
best regards to Mitya. It was a pity I could not visit him 
in the autumn, 239 we could have had some magnificent 
shooting, the weather was splendid all the time. When is 
he getting his holiday, for how long, and where is he going? 

I have had a couple of letters from Anyuta. She seems 
to be pleased with her trip.* The route is an interesting 
one and it will probably be very fine down south now. 

Here we are living in a small company of good friends.** 
We have books and work. We take walks along the sea- 



* Lenin's sister Anna was abroad at the time. — Ed. 
** At that time A. A. Bogdanov, I. F. Dubrovinsky, N. A. Rozh- 
kov and G. D. Leiteisen lived at Kuokkala. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



371 



shore. I think Manyasha felt very well here; she worked a 
lot, translating. 

Nearly all of us recently paid tribute to autumn — with 
a dose of influenza for a couple of days. Now we are all 
well or convalescent. Yelizaveta Vasilyevna also feels quite 
well — only she sometimes gets too worried over the house- 
keeping. 

I embrace and kiss you, my dear. I hope you will keep 
well. 



Yours, 



V. Ulyanov 



Sent from Kuokkala to Mikhnevo, 



Serpukhov Uyezd, 
Moscow Gubernia 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



372 



1908 



158 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Her Excellency Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Pavlovskaya Street, 6, Apt, 16, 
Peterburgskaya Storona, 
St. Petersburg, 
Russia 

January 14, 1908 

Dear Manyasha, 

I am sending you the copy of Obrazovaniye 240 that I 
brought with me by mistake. I don't think I owe you any 
more books, do I? If I do, please let me know. 

We have been hanging about in this damned Geneva for 

several days now 241 It is an awful hole, but there is 

nothing we can do. We shall get used to it. How are you? 
Are you freezing? Is Mother well? Please kiss her for me 
and give my regards to Anyuta, and to Mitya, too, if he 
has not yet left. 

Yesterday I wrote to Lev Borisovich about an article* 
and asked him to obtain for me the minutes of the Third 
Duma (the officially published verbatim reports and also 
the announcements, questions and bills brought before the 
Duma). These can only be obtained through acquaintances. 
Please make an effort to see that someone agrees to get them 
for me, and send them all, missing nothing. Please send 
me also all the trade union journals that are still being 
published in Russia (in St. Petersburg, and Moscow as well) 
— buy them immediately. From the sum I am to receive from 
the publisher on January 4, please get 50 rubles from 



This letter has been lost. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 373 



Yelizaveta Vasilyevna and send me everything new that 
the Mensheviks publish (if they do) and so on. I have 
ordered Tovarishch (Nash Vek) 242 for myself from January 1 
and will also keep track of new publications. If L. B. is 
too lazy or too busy to write, please find out his answer 
(to my questions) and let me know. By the way, I need an 
answer about Granat (History of Russia); has a contract 
for my article 243 been concluded with him or has it fallen 
through? Let L. B. reconnoitre and inform you. 

All the very best, 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Tournez s'il vous plait.* 

Have you sent my papers and Nadya's? If not, please 
send them as soon as possible by registered post. I need my 
papers in order to get my permis d'etablissement.** 

My address: VI. Oulianoff. 17. Rue des deux Ponts. 17. 
(Chez Kiipfer) Geneve. 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



Please turn over (Fr.). — Ed. 
Residence permit (Fr.)- — Ed. 



374 



159 

LENIN AND KRUPSKAYA TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

January 22, 1908 

Mother dearest, 

Today I received a letter from you and Manya and 
hasten to reply. I was very glad to receive news from you 
direct — I have not received any of Manyasha's earlier let- 
ters. We had to resort to forwarding letters until we arrived 
in Geneva and it was a nuisance. 

We were greatly worried at the news of Anyuta's bad 
attack of influenza. Your apartment must be a bad one 
(Nadya says it is damp), if there are such complications. 
Are you all well now? How is Mitya? Has he gone away 
again in connection with his work? 

We are now settling down here and our arrangements, 
of course, will not be worse than before. The only unpleas- 
ant thing was the actual moving, which was a change 
for the worse. That, however, was inevitable. About Capri — 
as soon as I arrived I found a letter from Gorky, who very 
insistently invites me there. Nadya and I have made up 
our minds to accept that invitation and take a trip to Italy 
(in Capri now the narcissi are in bloom, so the Gorkys 
write), but not yet. All our affairs must be settled first and 
then we can travel. 

I wrote to Manyasha yesterday or the day before with 
further requests for books. Am I giving her too many orders? 

I embrace you, my dear, and hope you are quite well. 
Regards to all from Nadya and myself. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



375 



Dear everybody, 

What a rotten time you have had with this damned 
influenza! Perhaps it's because the flat is damp? I am 

glad you are getting better Many kisses for all of you; 

I hope you will soon recover and get your strength back 
completely. 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Sent from Geneva to St. Petersburg 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



376 



160 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Her Excellency Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Pavlovskaya Street, 6, Apt. 16, 
Peterburgskaya Storona, 
St. Petersburg, 
Russia 

February 7, 1908 

Dear Manyasha, 

I have received your letter of January 20, a letter from 
the young writer on the same subject, and today I received 
Rech. 244 I am very, very grateful for the newspaper, the 
article is really extremely interesting! 

With regard to Webb — I have written to the young 
writer and have sent him something in the nature of power 
of attorney. In any case I repeat (1) I do not know how 
many copies of the first edition there were; (2) Struve was 
the manager of the editorial office at that time and he edited 
the first volume; (3) the second volume was translated by 
Y. Smirnov (Gurevich). I then received 20 rubles for a print- 
er's signature for the translation of the first volume and 
10 rubles a signature for editing the second. Let the young 
writer haggle — if need be, let, him go down to a half of that, 
provided the contract is concluded for a definite number 
of copies. 

Yesterday I also received a letter from a colleague about 
Granat. Things are working out quite well for me there. 

As regards our marriage lines and the palm oil wanted 
in Krasnoyarsk, I propose that you should not take too 
much trouble or give any large quantity of palm oil. It 
looks as if we shall manage without it. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



377 



In a month, if not sooner, we intend to set up our own 
apartment here. 

With regard to the symposium in memory of Marx, it 
does not seem likely that I shall take part in it, either; 
such things cannot be written in a hurry. 245 

Our people are taking a surprisingly long time to get 
well! It's too bad. The influenza this year must be partic- 
ularly malignant, or else you are having very bad weather. 
Write and tell me how Mother is. 

I have not yet fully settled down here — for instance, 
I have not yet joined my "club", where it is convenient 
to read periodicals and easy to obtain new books. 246 I 
shall try (as soon as I have joined — probably in a day or 
two) to find whatever I can for you to translate. Do you 
receive Neue Zeit? In the science supplement to No. 1 there 
is an article by Kautsky "Nationalist und Internationa- 
list". I have not yet seen it. Is it not suitable for transla- 
tion? I have read Kautsky's Sozialismus und Kolonialpoli- 
tik (a new pamphlet of 80 pages). I think it would be per- 
mitted. Talk to Zerno* 241 about it; it would be a good thing 
to translate it. I am also surprised that no announcement 
is to be seen of a translation of Parvus's Kolonialpolitik und 
Zusammenbruch. Has no one any initiative? Ask Zerno. 
I could get in touch with the author here, abroad. 

All the best, kiss Mother for me. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

P.S. I have not received Bonch's Selected Works. 

Of the trade union journals I have received Gudok and 
Tekstilnoye delo. In future please send all such publica- 
tions. 

Sent from Geneva 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



* Please ask them at the same time whether I may send new things 
for you to their address, things that may be suitable for translation. 



378 



161 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

February 14, 1908 

Dear Manyasha, 

I recently wrote to you about some translations. I should 
now like to add that I have read Ergdnzungsheft No. 1 to 
Neue Zeit — an article by Kautsky "Nationalitat und Inter- 
nationalist". I remember you said you receive Neue Zeit, 
so I shall not send it from here (give me an address to which 
I can send foreign books and articles, in case I need it). 
In my opinion this is a thing that can be published legally 
and is really worth translating. Propose it to the publisher 
(36 pages). The best thing of all would be to publish it (it 
is a criticism of Bauer) with the book by Otto Bauer, Die 
Nationalitdtenfrage und die Sozialdemokratie (Anya prob- 
ably has this book since she translated one chapter of it). 

One of my colleagues here wants someone to ask the 
publisher whether he would undertake to publish Huschke's 
Landwirtschaftliche Reinertragsberechnungen, which I quot- 
ed in Part I of my Agrarian Question. 248 If an opportunity 
occurs, ask the publisher and I will promise to write a 
preface. But if the truth be told, it is too highly specialised 
a book.... 

I had a talk with the Director of the Police Department 
yesterday about my Acte de mariage. It seems that it is 
necessary. Ask some lawyer of your acquaintance to think 
of some other way of getting a copy from Krasnoyarsk 
(because probably no great hopes are to be placed in "palm 
oil"). There does exist some (legal) procedure which makes 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



379 



it possible to obtain proof of marriage. Cannot Yelizaveta 
Vasilyevna apply to a justice of the peace or to the relevant 
authority in St. Petersburg and demand from him an 
instruction to issue a certificate to her requiring the Krasno- 
yarsk church authorities to supply her with a copy of the 
marriage lines (either for legal action against her daughter, 
or in connection with the disposal of an inheritance, etc.). 
Is it not possible by some such means to obtain the certifi- 
cate or a copy of it? Ask a lawyer. 

How is everybody? Have Mother and Anyuta fully 
recovered? 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

P.S. Very, very many thanks for the minutes of the Third 
Duma. I ask you most urgently to continue sending them, 
to send more often and to send them together with bills 
and questions. 

Sent from Geneva to St. Petersburg 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



380 



162 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

February 17, 1908 

Dear Manyasha, 

Please send me the following books: 

1. Minuvshiye Gody No. 1 (January, price 85 kopeks) 
containing letters from Marx to Mikhailovsky and from 
Mikhailovsky to Lavrov. 

2. Materialy k istori russkoi kontrrevolyutsii, Vol. 1. 
Price 2 rubles 50 kopeks. 

3. Nashi deputaty* (Third Convocation). 50 kopeks ("Os- 
nova" — bookshop?). 

4. Lokot. Byudzhetnaya i podatnaya politika Rossii. 
1 ruble. 

5. Almazov. Nasha Revolyutsiya (1902-7). 1 ruble 50 ko- 
peks (work) — I do not know whether this last-named 
book is any use as I have no information about it. All the 
same, I must take a look at it! 

6. Ocherk zabastovochnogo dvizheniya rabochikh Bakin- 
skogo neftepromyshlennogo raiona za 1903-6 gg. Baku. 1907. 
Price 1 ruble 50 kopeks. 

I have not received any Duma minutes of sittings later 
than the twentieth. I must have them together with the Bills! 
The newspaper Stolichnaya Pochta, for instance, recently 
reported the publication of a programme of "a group of 
moderate peasants". Please get it for me! It would not be bad 
to get hold of programmes, announcements and leaflets 



* If there is an edition containing portraits the best thing would 
be to buy that. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



381 



of the Octobrists, the Rights, the Cossack group, etc., if 
you have any Duma contacts. All these "bits of paper" prob- 
ably lie about on the floor of the Duma and nobody picks 
them up. 

I wrote to you a few days ago about translations (of 
Kautsky); did you get that letter?* Did you get the manu- 
script of the second part of my Volume Two 249 (sent from 
here on February 5, 1908 N.S, by a roundabout route)? 

I shall write to Mother about money. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

If you have an opportunity, please pass on the enclosed 
sheet to Meshkovsky. I should like to get a direct address 
for correspondence from him and from Lindov. Tell them 
that. What was the outcome of Lindov's "squabble" with 
Bonch 250 and the conflict at the publisher's on the same 
grounds? 

Sent from Geneva to St. Petersburg 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



See Letters Nos. 160 and 161.— Ed. 



382 



163 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

March 10, 1908 

Dear Anyuta, 

I have received your letter of February 21. It really is 
terrible that you should have got hold of a damp apartment 
and are all so ill. And what a misfortune for Manyasha to 
get typhus! Lidiya Mikhailovna writes every day and says 
that her temperature is not very high. I am afraid, however, 
of taking comfort from this news — there are grave forms 
of typhus that are not accompanied by high temperatures. 

How is Mother keeping now? If you have no time to write, 
ask L. Mikh., since she is the one who writes, to add a couple 
of lines. 

Mark was actually wrong to leave such a large sum out 
of his resettlement allowance, because my publisher now 
pays me enough. 251 It goes without saying that you 
absolutely must spend that money to make things easier for 
Manyasha and Mother or to help them get away to a better 
place. Could they not come here? 

I have sent Manyasha a book to translate (a German 
novel). Did she get it (from Leipzig 252 )? I also wrote to her 
about a book by Anatole France (La vie de Jeanne d'Arc) 
and one by Sinclair (Alexinsky suggests they be transla- 
ted). 

All the best and please give Mother many kisses. Nadya 
has gone away on business but asks me to send you her 
regards. 

Yours, 

VI. Ulyanov 

Sent from Geneva to St. Petersburg 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 1 the original 



383 



164 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Dear Manyasha, 

I hope that by now you will be able to read this yourself 
and are almost well again. Your illness has dragged on a 
disgustingly long time! The main thing, however, is not 
to have a relapse. The most dangerous thing after that dis- 
ease is fatigue or nervous excitement. Now would be the time 
to send you to Stjernsund!* When you have completely 
recovered, drop me a line. I am going to Italy 253 for a week 
or so. I shall write when I get back. 

Love and kisses and get well soon. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 



Written between April 19 
and 23, 1908 
Sent from Geneva to St. Petersburg 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



See Letters Nos. 155 and 156.— Ed. 



384 



165 

TO HIS MOTHER 

June 20, 1908 

Mother dearest, 

It seems quite a while since I last wrote to you. I think 
the last time was a postcard from London. 254 I arrived back 
from there with a bout of abdominal catarrh. I am better 
now and have begun to eat properly, and after the diet feel 
hungry all the time. I have begun work again. 

Life here goes on as usual. The weather is extremely change- 
able — one day it is hot, oppressive and stormy and then, 
like today, it is rainy and cold. Summer has not yet come 
into its own. 

How are you getting on in the country? I hope that Manya- 
sha has completely recovered. We are expecting her here. 
Best regards to Mitya. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

P.S. It is a pity that the Moscow publisher-philosopher* 
has refused to publish my book. I should like you, if you 
can, to write to some of your Moscow literary acquaintances 
and ask them whether they can find a publisher. I now have 
no contacts in this field. 

I have been told that Anyuta read the proofs of the last 
part of my agrarian book. I have still not received a single 
copy! It is extremely important, for many reasons, for me 



This refers to P. G. Dauge.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



385 



to obtain two or three copies, even if they are not stitched. 255 
I realise, of course, that to ask for them direct would 
be careless, inconvenient, etc., from all points of view. If 
there is the slightest opportunity of doing so privately, or 
if Anyuta has even one copy, I ask you to send it to me, at 
least for a time. I stand very much in need of it at this 
very moment. 

Regards from all of us! 



Yours, 



V. Ulyanov 



Sent from Geneva to Mikhnevo, 
Serpukhov Uyezd, Moscow Gubernia 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



386 



166 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

July 13, 1908 

Dear Manyasha, 

I have just received your letter with Anyuta's postscript. 
I was very glad to get the news. I was extremely glad to 
learn that there is a possibility of its publication in autumn.* 
Your St. Petersburg correspondent, however, has forgotten 
to answer one of my questions, an important one — is it not 
possible to obtain even one copy of the book in printed form, 
whether it has been made up or not? If the book is to come 
out in the autumn this is not impossible. I am prepared to 
pay five or even ten rubles to get a copy now. The point 
is that it is absolutely essential for me to show this book, 
before autumn, to certain people who cannot read the 
manuscript. If I cannot show the book to these people before 
autumn, I stand to lose a lot in all respects. And so, since 
you have the St. Petersburg address, and the owner of that 
address answers you and is closely in touch with the whole 
business — I ask you very earnestly to write to him and 
enquire, if there is the slightest opportunity, to get me 
just one copy, even if it means giving the right person "palm 
oil" to the extent of five rubles. 

My illness has held up my work on philosophy very 
badly. I am now almost well again and will most certainly 
write the book. I have been doing a lot of work on the 



See Letter No. 162.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



387 



Machists and I think I have sorted out all their inexpressible 
vulgarities (and those of "empirio-monism" as well).* 

I am writing to M. Iv-na in Paris and giving her a recom- 
mendation.** 

Give Mother many kisses for me. Best regards to all. I 
keep forgetting to write to tell Anyuta that I have received 
340 rubles. So far I do not need money. Best regards to 
Mitya, Mark, Anyuta and everybody. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

P.S. When you or anybody else happens to be in Moscow, 
please buy me two books by Chelpanov, (1) Avenarius i 
yego shkola and (2) Immanentnaya filosofiya. They cost a 
ruble each. Published by Voprosy Filosofii i Psikhologii. 
The two hooks are issued as part of a series called either 
Essays and Research, or simply research, or monographs, or 
something of the sort 

Are you having a good rest this summer? The weather 
here is fine. I go cycling and bathing. Nadya and Y. V. 
send best regards to everyone. 



Sent from Geneva to Mikhnevo, 
Serpukhov Uyezd, Moscow Gubernia 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



* Lenin refers to his work on Materialism and Empirio- criticism. — 

Ed. 

** M. I. Veretennikova, Lenin's cousin. The letter and recommen- 
dation have been lost. — Ed. 



388 



167 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

August 9, 1908 

Dear Manyasha, 

I am sending you a picture of the place I have just 
returned from. I went to the mountains for a holiday. The 
weather prevented my staying there longer. Nevertheless I 
had an excellent holiday. I hope that in about six weeks 
my too-long-delayed work will at last be finished. Then 
we shall be able to go walking together. I am hoping very 
much that you will pay us a long visit in autumn. You 
will, won't you? Of course, you will! It would be wonderful 
if Mother could come, too. The weather this summer has 
not been good, more rain and thunderstorms than usual. 
There is a hope that September will turn out fine here. Do 
come! 

Maria Ivanovna was here on her way from Paris. We had 
a bit of a chat. I visited her last Sunday evening. She spent 
a couple of days in Geneva and then went on to Italy. She 
was not long in Paris — a fortnight altogether. In general 
she is doing her tour abroad in too much of a rush! 

Give Mother many, many kisses for me. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

We are all well and all send best regards. 

P.S. Vers l'Eglise is not far from Diablerets. 256 We 
did not go there together. It is two and a half hours from 
Geneva by rail and about four hours on foot. 



Sent from Geneva to Mikhnevo, 
Serpukhov Uyezd, Moscow Gubernia 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



389 



168 

TO HIS MOTHER* 

P.S. Today I read an amusing newspaper article on the 
inhabitants of Mars in connection with a new English book 
by Lowell, Mars and Its Canals. Lowell is an astronomer 
who has worked for a long time in a special observatory 
which, I believe, is the best in the world (in America). 

It is a scientific work. It argues that Mars is inhabitable, 
that the canals are a miracle of engineering, that people 
on that planet must be two and two-thirds the size of our 
people here, and that they, furthermore, have trunks and 
are covered with feathers or animal skins and have four 
or six legs. Hmm... the author** cheated us by describing 
the Martian beauties only in part, according to the prin- 
ciple that "... the deceit that elevates is dearer to us than 
a host of vulgar truths". 257 

A new story by Gorky has been published — The Last. 



Written in the summer of 1908 
Sent from Geneva to Mikhnevo, 
Serpukhov Uyezd, Moscow Gubernia 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



* The letter to which this is the postscript has been lost. — Ed. 
** A. Bogdanov, author of the novel Krasnaya Zvezda (The Red 
Star).— Ed. 



390 



169 

TO HIS MOTHER 

September 30, 1908 

Mother dearest, 

I have not written to you for a long time; I hoped that 
Manyasha would come and tell me about you but her jour- 
ney is constantly being postponed. It would be a good 
thing if she could come in the second half of October (New 
Style) and we could take a trip to Italy together. I am think- 
ing of taking a week's holiday when I have finished my 
work (it is now drawing to a close).* On October 11 I shall 
be in Brussels for three days and shall return here after- 
wards and might think of a trip to Italy. 258 Why should 
not Mitya come here, too? He ought to take a rest after all 
his work with the sick. Of course, you must invite him, 
too — we could go for some splendid walks together. If there 
are money difficulties, you must take the money Anya has 
in the bank. I hope I shall now earn a lot. 

It would be fine if we could take a trip to the Italian 
lakes. They say it is excellent there in the late autumn. 
Anyuta will probably come and stay with you soon, so you 
can send Manyasha and Mitya. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and wish you good 
health. 

What is autumn in the country like? Here it is not bad. 



* The work referred to was Lenin's book Materialism and Empirio- 
criticism. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



391 



The summer has been rotten, but now there are occasionally 
some real summer days. 

All our people here are well and wish me to give you 
their best regards. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 



Sent from Geneva to Mikhnevo, 
Serpukhov Uyezd, Moscow Gubernia 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



392 



170 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

October 27, 1908 

Dear Anyuta, 

I am surprised at your long silence. I suppose the move 
to Moscow caused a lot of bother and you have had no time 
for letters. 

Please give me an address to which I can send the 
manuscript of my book.* It is ready. It amounts to 24 printer's 
signatures (at the rate of 40,000 letters a signature) and 
that is about 400 pages. In a fortnight I shall have finished 
reading it over and will send it off; I should like to have 
a good address to send it to. 

Things seem to be bad as far as a publisher is concerned; 
I was informed today that Granat has bought the Menshe- 
viks' "history" — in other words the Mensheviks have come 
out on top in that field. It is obvious that he will now refuse 
to publish my book. 259 Bear in mind that I am not now 
chasing after royalties, i.e., I am prepared to make con- 
cessions (any you like) and agree to the postponement of 
payment until the book shows a profit — in short there will 
be no risk for the publisher. As regards the censor, I will also 
agree to all concessions because in general everything in 
the book is undoubtedly legal, with the possible exception 
of some expressions that may be unsuitable.** 

I shall await an answer. 

Our people all kiss Mother and you. So do I. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Sent from Geneva to Mikhnevo, 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



* Materialism and Empirio- criticism. — Ed. 
** Ergo — conclude a contract if there is the slightest opportunity, 
on any terms. 



^^C. /fp^y^ ^s^^^ 



The first page of Lenin's letter to his sister Anna, October 27, 1908 



395 



171 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

November 8, 1908 

Dear Anyuta, 

Today I received postcards from you and Mother with 
the new address. Did you get my letter addressed to Pros- 
nya, 44,4? I am afraid to send a big manuscript to your 
private address or any other except that of some publisher. 
If you can find me such an address, I will send the manu- 
script immediately. In the meantime I shall await an answer 
to this letter. Incidentally, if the censor turns out to be 
very strict the word "popovshchina" can everywhere be 
changed to "fideism" with a footnote to explain it {Fideism. 
is a doctrine which substitutes faith for knowledge, or 
which generally attaches significance to faith). 260 This is 
for emergencies — it is to explain the nature of the conces- 
sions I am making. 

All the best, many kisses for Mother. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Sent from Geneva to Moscow 



First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



396 



172 

TO HIS MOTHER 

November 17, 1908 

Mother dearest, 

Manyasha has left today for Lausanne to consult Dr. 
Mermod, a distinguished specialist on ear troubles. He made 
the appointment in writing — you have to wait your turn 
to see famous people here. The general opinion, however, 
is that he is a competent doctor. Four years ago I had a 
minor operation in his clinic and it was done magnificent- 
ly. So I hope he will be able to help Manya, because 
her ear is troubling her quite a lot and prevents her from 
working. She has taken a room on the same staircase as 
ours but a floor higher; a stove has been put in the room 
and it is warm there. She has dinner and supper with us. 
Her only trouble has been with her Latin. It seems that 
Latin is obligatory and the only date for an examination 
was November 19. This left her only ten days. I did try to 
persuade her to risk it, covering all the grammar in a 
"forced march", especially as she knows French very well. 
She proved unable to work intensively, however, on account 
of her ear; the time was, so short that she stood a poor 
chance anyway. And so she dropped the Latin. She consoles 
herself with the idea that we shall probably all be going 
to Paris and she, of course, with us. In Paris, Latin is not 
obligatory. As regards this move of ours — it is almost fully 
decided, but I do not expect we shall be able to make a move 
in less than a month from now. There will be more than 
enough bother with the moving, of course. We hope that 
a big city will put some life into us all; we are tired of 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



397 



staying in this provincial backwater. It is true, of course, 
that Paris is more expensive. But the climate is no worse 
than that of Geneva. Here the climate is rather damp and 
the mists are unpleasant. We are going to find out what to 
do with the bicycles. It is a pity to leave them behind; they 
are excellent things for holidays and pleasure trips, but the 
duty on them there is, I believe, quite high, although I 
hope to be able to manage that, too. Please tell Anyuta 
that I have already sent my philosophical manuscript 
to the acquaintance who lived in the town where we 
met before my departure for Krasnoyarsk in 1900. 261 
I hope that by now he has received it and delivered 
it to you. If he has not, you must go and see him 
since he does not live far from you. I ask you very 
earnestly to drop me a line immediately on receipt of the 
manuscript. I have written to two friends in St. Petersburg 
asking them to help me arrange publication.* I asked them 
to write to Anyuta, if anything turns up, through our 
mutual acquaintance who works at Znaniye.** I hope for 
very little from Znaniye itself; the "boss" there,*** who 
gave Anyuta a half promise, is an old fox and will probably 
go back on it after sniffing at the atmosphere on Capri, where 
Gorky lives. We shall have to look elsewhere. I have already 
written that I am prepared to make every concession.**** 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and wish you good 
health. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Sent from Geneva to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 1 the original 



It is not known who is meant. — Ed. 
V. D. Bonch-Bruyevich. — Ed. 

K. P. Pyatnitsky, manager of Znaniye Publishers. — Ed. 
See Letter No. 171.— Ed. 



398 



173 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

November 26, 1908 

Dear Anyuta, 

I had just sent off a "distress" letter to you, when yours 
of November 9 arrived to tell me you had received the 
work intact. I agree that I have been rather nervous both 
about sending it off and while I have been waiting. I am 
simply scared to death of losing a huge piece of work that 
took many months and the delay really does put my nerves 
on edge. You did very well to ask for an answer by telegraph. 
If it is refused — it must be published immediately through 
Bonch. It seems you will not be able to get another publish- 
er. Bonch publishes on credit, through someone else, 
somehow, and it is not very likely that I shall receive 
anything, but, anyway, publish it he will. 262 I have already 
written to two colleagues in St. Petersburg and will write 
again. Of course, if anything turns up for you, hand it over, 
and, in general take charge of it yourself, although by all 
accounts there is very little chance. 

If there is no publisher, send it direct to Bonch immedi- 
ately; the only thing is he must not give it to anybody to 
read and must look after it very carefully! Write to him 
about it. 

I am sending two corrections, or rather one correction 
and one addition. On page 60 (at the end of the "Introduc- 
tion"), following the words "Valentinov confuses them" 
(lines 9-10), cross out everything as far as "we" (the last 
line but one) and substitute this: 

"Valentinov confuses them, and while doing so very 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



399 



amusingly tries to console us: 'We would not consider the 
"kinship" of Mach to ... a philosophical crime'"* (etc., p. 61). 
Please put that into the text. 

The addition I am sending on a separate sheet which 
can easily be pasted in. This is a footnote to the last word of 
Section 5 (Chapter Five). 263 I have no copy of this chapter 
at home and so I cannot tell you the last word, but it doesn't 
matter. 

All the best, 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

P.S. I am sending your letter to Manyasha in Paris. We 
have not yet had a letter from her from Paris. 

P.S. Please repeat your address; Manyasha took it with 
her and I am writing from memory. 

Sent from Geneva to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



This is how the lower half of p. 60 should read. 



400 



174 

TO HIS MOTHER 

December 10, 1908 

Mother dearest, 

Today we have at last settled up for the flat. Some of our 
things we are sending immediately by slow train. We are 
leaving on Saturday or on Monday at the latest. An apart- 
ment has been found for us — Avenue d'Orleans, 69 or 67, 
I will give you the exact address when I write from 
Paris. 264 You will now have to write to us through Manyasha. 
The apartment that has been taken is on the ground floor, 
three rooms, one for Manyasha. 

I have just received a letter from Anyuta and have sent 
her a telegram: acceptez immediatement seconde condition.* 
I am very glad that you have managed things without Znaniye 
and I think you must hurry up and sign a contract on the 
second condition. The important thing now is not to lose 
time, to make sure that we have a publisher bound by a 
formal contract and then speed up publication. If it is pos- 
sible the contract should contain a point on immediate 
publication. (If you can, haggle for a larger number of free 
copies for the author, but do not make an issue of it.) By 
the way — I advise Anya when she signs the contract to be 
careful, and not to give her own name if she can avoid it, 
so as not to be responsible under the press laws (and not 
go to prison in the event of trouble; she should get advice 
on this from people who know about such things). Can a 
contract not be drawn up in my name, so as to leave Anyuta 
out of it altogether, i.e., not even mention her? 265 



Accept the second condition immediately (Fr.)- — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



401 



I have sent you two letters to the wrong address. They 
have probably not been delivered to you since you do not 
say a word about them. Perhaps it would be advisable 
to apply to the post office, attach the envelope from 
this letter to your application and point out that the writ- 
ing is the same, that the letters are from the same city and 
addressed to M. A. Ulyanova or A. I. Yelizarova, and that the 
only mistake is in the name of the street. I wrote Khamov- 
niki, Sokolnichy Street instead of Obolensky Street. Have 
you received those letters? If you have not, I will repeat 
the addition I sent in one of them.* 

I am sending a few more minor changes to Chapter Five. 
Please send me the proofs as they come off the press (all 
to be addressed to Mile M. Oulianoff, Boulevard St. -Marcel 
27, Paris), so that I can take a look at them. If the worst 
comes to the worst I would, entre nous, agree to the first 
condition, but the second is so advantageous and the 
opportunity of publishing it immediately, and in Moscow 
at that, is so attractive that we must seize that opportunity 
with both hands. As far as the author's name is concerned, 
I do not insist — I don't care what name it is, let the publi- 
sher choose one himself. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and send very best 
regards to Anyuta. So do we all. 



Yours, 



V. Ulyanov 



Sent from Geneva to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



See Letter No. 173 and Note No. 263.— Ed. 



402 



175 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Paris, December 19, 1908, 

Dear Anyuta, 

Today I received your letter redirected from Geneva 
and a postcard through Manyasha. And so everything is 
signed and sealed. Excellent. I wrote to you about correc- 
tions in the letter that was lost. I shall repeat them. / agree 
to toning it down in respect of Bazarov and Bogdanov; 
in respect of Yushkevich and Valentinov, it should not 
be toned down. With regard to "fideism", etc., I agree only 
if forced to, i.e., if the publisher's demands are in the form 
of an ultimatum. As far as the proofs are concerned, it is 
not my plan to have them read here and keep people wait- 
ing for them to come from here. That is hardly possible. 
All I ask is that you send me immediately impressions made 
from the galleys (i.e., the first uncorrected proofs in addi- 
tion to the printed signatures as they come off the press) 
so that I can, if really necessary , send a telegram or inform 
them of misprints, etc. Cauwelaert's name really should 
be spelt with an "o" in Russian, although he is probably 
a Fleming and the devil alone knows how the Flemings 
pronounce it, "co" or "cau". 

From Geneva I sent you a letter to the right address con- 
taining corrections and additions. Did you get it? 

We are now moving from the hotel to our new apartment 
—Mr. VI. Oulianoff, 24. Rue Beaunier, 24.* Paris (XlV-me). 
We have found a very nice apartment, very elegant and 



* au deuxieme au-dessus de I'entresol, i.e., it would be the 
third floor, porte a droite (door on the right. — Ed.). 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



403 



expensive: 840 francs + tax (about 60 francs) and + con- 
cierge (also about the same per annum). For Moscow it would 
be cheap (4 rooms + kitchen + storerooms, water and gas), 
but here it is considered expensive. However, it will be 
roomy and, we hope, good. Yesterday we bought furniture 
for Manyasha; ours is being sent from Geneva. The apart- 
ment is almost on the outskirts of Paris, in the south, near 
Montsouris Park. It is as quiet as a provincial town. It is 
very far from here to the centre but soon there will be a 
metro — an underground electric railway — a couple of steps 
from here; there are also other means of communication. 
So far we are satisfied with Paris. 
All best wishes. Regards from all. Kiss Mother for me. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Leave Purishkevich as it is.* I agree to tone down other 
abuse, the same applies to vulgar expressions. "Mentally 
projected God" will have to be changed to "mentally pro- 
jected for himself — well, to use a mild expression — reli- 
gious conceptions" or something of the sort.** 

Sent to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



* Collected Works, Vol. 14, p. 199.— Ed. 
**Ibid., p. 78. -Ed. 



404 



176 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Rue Beaunier, 24, 
Paris (XlV-me) 

December 24, 1908 

Dear Anyuta, 

Today I received your letter about the proofs and hasten 
to scribble a few words, though I believe my last letter 
cleared up all misunderstandings. I never assumed and 
still do not assume that proofs would be sent here to be 
corrected — i.e., with your having to wait for the corrected 
proofs to be returned from here. I ask you to send me the 
proofs just in case, i.e., either so that I can point out the 
misprints and arrange for the most important corrections, 
or so that I can stop the printing by telegraph in an emerg- 
ency, etc., or, lastly, so that I can have at least one printed 
copy by me in case of certain highly improbable happen- 
ings. 

That is why I ask you to get two copies of the first (or 
of the second, or, better still, of the first and the second) 
proofs printed; one copy you will read while the other comes 
straight to me without anybody holding it up for anything. 
I think such a thing is quite possible for the publisher; 
I shall not cause the slightest delay unless it is absolutely 
necessary. If pulling off two copies involves any expense 
(which is hardly likely and there is no need for us to raise 
the question), I will bear it myself. 

If you send the first proofs regularly, the delay will never 
amount to a week because in any case it takes several 
days to correct it completely and to print what has 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



405 



been read (correction of the first proof; correction of the 
second proof; imposition; printing). The publisher is exag- 
gerating when he talks about a week's delay. 

By the way — I will give you a telegraphic form to be 
used in case of need right away. I shall write "arretez 12 
or 65, etc.", arretez meaning "delay the printing", or "wait 
for author's corrections", and the two figures meaning, the 
first figure the chapter, and the second the section (12 = 
Chapter One, Section 2; 65 = Chapter Six, Section 5, etc.). 
I repeat that I shall do this only in extreme cases. 

Instead of printing the chapter headings in heavy type 
it is better, if possible, to set them in small type or in ital- 
ics. This, however, is not important. 

Has one of my letters with addenda and minor changes 
gone astray? I see from your letter you received corrections 
and addenda* regarding E. Becher, but before this there 
was another letter containing corrections. 

I am very, very glad that the matter is moving fast. 
That is the main thing. 

All the best. Kiss Mother. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

We all send regards. We have begun to settle down in 
Paris. 



Sent to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 1 the original 



Collected Works, Vol. 14, p. 290.— Ed. 



406 



1909 



111 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

February 6, 1909 

Dear Anyuta, 

Yesterday I sent you a letter in which I said I had com- 
pletely given up all hope of seeing the proofs and this morn- 
ing the first of them arrived! I am sending you a list of 
misprints (in general there are not many) in case you need 
it; it would be interesting to know whether it will reach 
you quickly and be in time. I would rather not send the 
proofs themselves. 

KojuieKijHH instead of KOJijieKijHio (page 15, line 8 from 
the bottom of the manuscript; page 5, line 1 from the top 
of the galley). 

IIpe,n;iiojiojKeHHeM instead of npe/i;noji03KeHHa (page 22, lines 
3-4 from the bottom of the manuscript; page 7, lines 3-4 
from the top of the galley). 

TejiecHhie instead of Te jiecHbie (page 28, lines 6-7 from 
the top of the manuscript; page 9, line 3 from the top of the 
galley). 

3mod;hh instead of 3jiioii;hh (page 36, lines 3-4 from the 
bottom of the manuscript; page 10, line 2 from the bottom 
of the galley). 266 

That is all. 

All the best, kiss Mother. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Regards from all. Manyasha and I are just leaving 
for the theatre to see a Russian play. They are doing 
Andreyev's Days of Our Life. 

Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



407 



178 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Dear Anyuta, 

Yesterday we sent you a telegram and got a reply today. 267 
Manyasha has been and still is eager to leave at once, but 
I think she now agrees to wait for a letter. How is Mother 
now? I read Mitya's letter and / ask him to write to us reg- 
ularly now; as a doctor he is better able to see, especially 
after consultations with specialists, what course the disease 
is taking and / ask him especially to inform us more often, 
even if only in a brief letter. Please farm out the proofs — 
it is absolutely heartless to plant them on you at such a 
time. You have the manuscript, so hire some student, etc., 
(or through the "writer"*, etc.) as the last proof-reader, 
give him my address and don't waste your attention on 
the correcting of proofs. You have enough to worry about 

without that Give Mother many, many kisses. Everyone 

sends very best regards. 

Mark does not want to go until his time is up; he says 
times are such that he will not be allowed in the capital 
in any case. 

All the best, 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Written February 16 or 17, 1909 
Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 1 the original 



* I. I. Skvortsov-Stepanov, who rendered substantial assistance 
in getting Materialism and Empirio- criticism published. — Ed. 



408 



179 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Dear Anyuta, 

I am sending the corrections to the proofs I received 
today. I have received: (a) page proofs for pages 97-112; ((3) 
galley proofs 81-97 (pp. 302-364 of the manuscript), not 
made up. 

But between the first and the second there is something 
missing; the made-up pages end at page 274 of the manu- 
script (there are also pp. 274a, 274e) and the galleys begin 
at page 302. This means that about 27 pages of the manu- 
script have been left out\ Does this not mean that a whole 
signature is missing? Could it have fallen out of the parcel? 
Or perhaps they forgot to send it or give it to you from the 
printer's? Please send me the proofs of the missing pages 
(pp. 274-302 of the MS) and, under all circumstances, take 
steps to ensure that they are not left out when the book 
is made up and printed. The missing part is most important 
for me and for my book. 

Here is a description of the omission that is more accurate, 
according to the manuscript. The last words of the last 
made-up page, number 112, are "These active forces must". In 
the manuscript this will be page 274, or 274a or 274b. The gap 
comes after these words. The missing part is from page 
274a to page 302, to the words "Let us continue the quo- 
tation from Bazarov" inclusive, that is, to the third line 
from the top inclusive. That is the exact size of the gap. 268 

There is one other mistake, or rather not a mistake but 
something in the galleys that may lead to a mistake when 
they are made up into pages; seventeen lines from the bot- 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



409 



torn of galley No. 88, beginning from "rejieM" (page 14 
of the 4th German edition), etc. (page 338 of the manu- 
script) must be transferred to the foot of galley No. 89. 

In other words the words "Religious experience" (line 
18 from the bottom of galley No. 88, line 6 from the top of 
page 334 of the manuscript) are followed by "rejieM" (p. 14, 
etc.), i.e., page 338, line 7 from the top. This must be watched 
carefully to make sure that there is no mistake when 
the pages are made up. 

Please give the last proofs (and your correspondence 
with me) to someone who knows languages and pay him. Let 
Mitya take one hundred rubles, go to the "writer" and hire* 
either the writer himself, or somebody he recommends for 
the work, to read the final proofs and get in touch with 
me. This must be done because you now have no time for 
proofs, of course, and will only worry yourself to death. 
Will you please do as I ask immediately. 

Yesterday I wrote to you and Manyasha did, too. Give 
Mother many kisses. "Un peu mieux" is very indefinite... 269 
Write. 

All the best, 

Yours, 

V. U. 



P.S. Please send me the part that already has been printed 
immediately; I will make a list of the misprints. This is very 
important because we shall be able to correct some things 
even after the book has been printed.** 



Written February 17 or 18, 1909 
Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 1 the original 



* It will take two or three hours. 
** There follows, in the original, a list of the misprints. — Ed. 



410 



180 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Dear Anyuta, 

Yesterday I received your letter with a postscript from 
dear Mother. Manyasha and all of us were awfully glad. 
Manyasha was more lively today and went out walking with 
Mark — today is mardi gras, 210 and the French are on the 
rampage. Give Mother many kisses from me and from all of 
us — we all fervently hope that she will now get better with- 
out any setbacks. 

Today I received the proofs of signatures 8 and 9 (pp. 
113-144) already made up into pages and was very pleased 
to see that there are no gaps and no mixed galleys (which 
I wrote about last time before I had seen the proofs of the 
made-up pages; by the way, you send the packages without 
any string, and single pages and even whole signatures 
may easily fall out). 

The proofs of these two signatures are, on the whole, 
quite good, and that gives me great pleasure. I still cannot 
risk withdrawing my request to give the proofs to a profes- 
sional proof-reader (about which I wrote in the last letter), 
because I am afraid you will find it difficult to devote time 
to such boring work during Mother's illness and to con- 
centrate your attention on it. 

I am sending the corrections to the page proofs of signa- 
tures 8 and 9 (pp. 113-144). When they begin to print the 
signatures, please send them to me from the first) so that 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



411 



I can draw up a list of misprints that must be pointed out, 
even if only on a sheet pasted separately into the book. 
All the best, and kiss Mother once more. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov* 

Written February 23, 1909 
Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 1 the original 



There follows, in the original, a list of the misprints. — Ed. 



412 



181 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova, 

Boldyrev's House, Apt. 30, 

Obolensky Street, 5/7, 

Khamovniki, 

Moscow, 

Russia 

March 2, 1909 

Dear Anyuta, 

Your letter and Mitya's have reached me here — many 
thanks for them. I wrote to you from Paris that the last 
proofs were excellent. If Mother is better and you are not 
too tired I shall not, of course, insist that you pass on the 
proofs to someone else. But are you not too worn out? I 
was glad to learn from Mitya's letter that Mother is better! 
At last — she must have had a rough time. Please send 
proofs as before, not only the page proofs, but the galley 
proofs as well (it does not matter if I correct them an 
extra time; the fewer mistakes the better). Please send the 
printed signatures at once to Paris, too. 

I am taking a holiday in Nice. The place is wonderful — 
sunny, warm, dry and a southern sea. I am returning to 
Paris in a few days. 

I embrace Mother fondly and send best regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Nice 



First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



413 



182 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

March 9, 1909 

Dear Anyuta, 

I arrived in Paris yesterday evening (after a splendid 
holiday in Nice) and read your letter of the 16th. 

I am sending corrections to signatures 10 and 11 of the 
made-up pages. Only two are of importance. The title of 
Bogdanov's book is Empirio -monism and not Empirio-crit- 
icism. This misprint must be given special prominence in 
the list of errata if it is too late to correct it* (I do not 
know whether you received my postcard from Nice — I sent 
two from there — in which I mentioned this misprint). The 
other is on page 170, line 9 from the top — in the quotation 
from Plekhanov the word "amy" is unnecessary. 

As regards giving the proofs to someone else — you are 
right, of course, to take all the necessary steps, because 
it would have been extremely difficult to combine such 
painstaking and tedious work with the job of nursing Mother. 
I can only express my amazement that the last proofs could 
be exemplary under such working conditions. 

It is most important to me to get the book out as quickly 
as possible. There has been a very great delay. It will be 
unfortunate if it does not come out by March 15 (O.S.)! 
As far as breach of contract is concerned, I don't know 
whether you can make a claim. I doubt it. And is it worth 
while spoiling relations with the publisher irrevocably? 
It is not. 



* The misprint was corrected in a list of errata at the back of the 
book.— Ed. 



414 



V. I. LENIN 



Is the absence of proofs in recent days due partially to 
your having stopped sending them on account of my trip? 
I hope that, and not a delay in setting and printing, is the 
reason. Please send everything now. 

I see from Mitya's letter that Mother's health is 
improving. At last! Many kisses for Mother and very best 
regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

P.S. Please do not tone down the places against Bogda- 
nov and against Lunacharsky's popovshchina. We have com- 
pletely broken off relations with them. There is no reason 
for toning them down, it is not worth the trouble. 

P.S. Give the "writer" a thousand thanks for consenting 
to help. It seems, after all, he is a real Marxist and not a 
"Marxist for an hour" like some others. Immediately pre- 
sent him with a copy of my book in my name.* 

Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 1 the original 



There follows, in the original, a list of the misprints. — Ed. 



415 



183 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

March 12, 1909 

Dear Anyuta, 

Today I received the clean proofs of signatures 1-9 and 
13 — "clean" because they are on good paper and have 
apparently already been printed, although they have a stamp 
at the top of each signature (put on by the printer) saying 
"proof", which I do not understand. 

Whatever the case may be, whether they are proofs or 
whether they are copies of signatures already printed, I 
must say that the jumbled paragraphs have been completely 
corrected and that, in general, these clean proofs are thor- 
oughly satisfactory. I am now thinking of one thing and 
one thing only and I beg you — speed up the issue of the 
book. Things have now been properly organised, the proofs 
are excellent, but hurry, hurry, at all costs, for there has 
already been a devilishly long, an impossible delay. If, 
therefore, there is anything whatsoever hindering you, you 
must immediately hire an assistant proof-reader (if you 
have not yet done so). 

I am sending a list of misprints that have not been cor- 
rected but which were pointed out in my previous correc- 
tions; this list is only for signatures 6-9 and for signature 
13 (I will send the list relating to the first live signatures 
tomorrow or the day after because I have given the proofs 
to someone and must ask for them back). 

These misprints absolutely must be shown in a list of 
errata at the end or the beginning of the book because there 
are some that distort the meaning. On the whole there are 



416 



V. I. LENIN 



so few misprints that under no circumstances must the book 
be delayed on account of them. 

I have not seen signatures 10, 11 and 12 (pp. 145-192) 
made up into pages; for this reason I shall send the list 
of misprints for those signatures separately. I am heading 
them exactly — list of misprints for such-and-such made-up 
printer's signatures. The book must be published without 
waiting for my last list of misprints but with this present 
list printed under the heading of errata. 



The most important — p. 126, line 16 from the top 



All the best; kiss Mother for me. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

P.S. Please do not tone down anything in the places 
against Bogdanov, Lunacharsky and Co. They must not be 
toned down. You have deleted the passage about Chernov 
being a "more honest" opponent than they, which is a great 
pity. The shade of meaning you have given it is not the 
one I want. There is now no overall consistency in my 
accusations. The crux of the issue is that our Machists are 
dishonest, mean-spirited, cowardly enemies of Marxism 
in philosophy.* 271 



Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 1 the original 



There follows, in the original, a list of the misprints. — Ed. 



417 



184 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

March 21, 1909 

Dear Anyuta, 

As you probably know from the newspapers there is a 
post office strike going on here. 272 Complete irregularity. I 
am not getting the proofs (I have received nothing since 
the page proofs of signature 13). 

In any case I am sending this by registered post and 
ask you to send a registered reply too. 

(1) I am sending a list of misprints in signatures 1-5. 

(2) I am sending a correction to p. 630 of the MS.* 

(3) Please include this in the errata; footnote at the 
beginning of Section 6 of Chapter Three (i.e., the section on 
freedom and necessity) — instead of "not only a smile" read 
"not a smile, but disgust". 

This is an essential correction and if it is not made my 
idea will be distorted; I do not see anything funny in flirt- 
ing with religion, but I see a lot that is disgusting. 

I have already written about not, under any circumstan- 
ces, toning down the passages against Bogdanov and Lu- 
nacharsky in the second half of the book and hope you have 
received the letters. Especially — do not throw out "Purish- 
kevich" and the others in the section on the criticism of 
Kantianism! 



This correction has been lost. — Ed. 



418 



V. I. LENIN 



I have received a postcard from Mark. How is Mother's 
convalescence progressing? Give her many kisses for me. 
We are all well and send regards. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

March 22, 1909 — today there is news of the end of the 
post office strike. Nevertheless I am sending this by 
registered post and ask you to answer also by registered 
post — just in case!* 

Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



There follows, in the original, a list of the misprints. — Ed. 



419 



185 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Dear Anyuta, 

I have just received your registered letter of March 7. 
Many thanks! 

We were very glad to get the news that dear Mother 
is better and has begun to got up. I send her all my 
love. 

How is Mark? Is there any news from him? 

The strike here has finally come to an end. At last! An 
excellent proletarian affair was seriously interfering with 
our literary affairs.... 

/ still have not received your proofs and the made-up 
pages. I have seen the clean proofs of signatures 1-9 
(pp. 1-144) and signature 13 (pp. 193-208) only. I have 
not seen any proofs after Section 6 of Chapter Three (the 
beginning). 

The postman, to be sure, gives us hope — the sacs de 
Russie that were not opened during the strike will be opened 
and delivered today or tomorrow. I am afraid to hope! 

Nevertheless I am very, very glad that there is progress, 
that signatures 19 and 20 have now been made up and the 
end must he near. It has been a great strain on my nerves 
waiting for this long drawn-out book. 

I am sending an addendum. Do not hold up the book 
for it. But if there is time, let them print it in different 
type (in smaller type, for instance) at the very end of the 



420 



V. I. LENIN 



book. I regard it as extremely important to counterpose 
Chernyshevsky to the Machists.* 

I agree, of course, to 50 copies being placed at your 
disposal. 

Best regards, 

Yours, 

V. Ul. 



Written March 23 or 24, 1909 
Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



Collected Works, Vol. 14, pp. 359-61.— Ed. 



421 



186 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

March 26, 1909 

Dear Anyuta, 

Today I received the page proofs of signatures 15-18 
and am sending you a list of misprints that must be given 
on a separate sheet at the end or at the beginning of the 
book. 

I have received only signatures 1-9 and 13 of the "clean" 
proofs, i.e., probably those that have been printed (although 
they bear what seems to be a strange stamp, "Proof"). 
Please send me the remainder of the "clean" proofs, i.e., 
those already printed. 

Write and tell me when you expect the book to be out. 
Many kisses for Mother. 

Yours, 

V. U.* 

Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 1 the original 



There follows, in the original, a list of the misprints. — Ed. 



422 



187 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

April 5, 1909 

Dear Anyuta, 

Yesterday I received the made-up pages of signatures 
14-20 (pp. 209-320) which I already have (the only page 
proofs I have not now received is signature 10, i.e., pp. 177- 
192) and today I got galleys 226-234 (pp. 784-809 of the 
MS). 

I am sending the misprints in signature 14 (pp. 209-224) 
— the misprints in the other signatures have already been 
sent — and corrections to the galleys. Actually there is one 
important correction here; in galley 234 (end of the first 
paragraph in Section 7 "on a Russian 'idealist physicist'") 
—page 809 of the manuscript — the words "materialist and 
thinker, Professor V. I. Vernadsky" have been set. This 
completely distorts the meaning. It should read "natural 
scientist and thinker", etc. 273 

If it is too late to correct it, there absolutely must be a 
notice of this misprint on a separate sheet since it distorts 
the meaning. 

In answer to your question "where to put pages 802a 
and 802b and where are they? They are not in the manu- 
script" — those pages were sent separately (from Geneva) 
and they must be placed as a footnote to the word "object" 
on line 7 in the paragraph (in Section 6) that begins with 
the words "Rey became muddled because" (this is galley 
232 and page 802 of the manuscript).* 



* The footnote was included {Collected Works, Vol. 14, p. 297). 
—Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



423 



In any case (i.e., in case these specially sent addenda* 
did not reach you) I am sending them again. You must 
not, of course, delay the book on account of them. It seems 
that the book is "delaying itself" sickeningly at the pub- 
lisher's ... ad infinitum. Obviously it will not come out 
before Easter!... 

Very best regards. I send Mother kisses and hope you 
will both soon be in the Crimea. 



* I have a copy of that addendum (footnote to p. 802) written 
on a single page with another addendum (end of Section 7, p. 812 of 
the MS). They have probably both been lost and I am repeating them 
both. The printing of the book must not be delayed for either of them. 
** There follows, in the original, a list of the misprints. — Ed. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



424 



188 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

April 6, 1909 

Dear Anyuta, 

Yesterday I sent you a letter containing the misprints 
in signature 14 and two addenda. I hope you have received 
them. 

This morning I received clean proofs of signatures 10, 11 
and 12 and the page proofs of signature 21. 

I am sending the misprints that must be printed in the 
book in a special list of errata. 

It is a great pity that I have to send the misprints in small 
doses (see P.S.); I am afraid that some of the separate pages 
containing lists of misprints may get lost. Perhaps you 
will paste them together as you receive them and give 
them to the printer all at once? 

As far as money is concerned — please send it on to me 
all at once (I am now in need of money); it is best done 
through the bank, specifically, through the Credit Lyon- 
nais. To prevent the people here from charging too much 
for the exchange it is best to buy francs in Moscow and send 
the exact sum to the Credit Lyonnais in Paris, Agence Z, 
Avenue d'Orleans, 19, addressed to Mr. W. Oulianoff, cur- 
rent account No. 6420. 

This is the most convenient way. It is no use trusting 
to a messenger; by the method I have described you have 
only to keep the receipt, there is no need to send any 
cheques. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



425 



I hope, from the bottom of my heart, that Mother will 
soon manage to get out of Moscow. Mother absolutely must 
rest and take a holiday in the Crimea. Many, many kisses 
for her, regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

P.S. I have now sent lists of misprints for all the 21 sig- 
natures — 1-18 signatures of the clean proofs and 19-21 of 
the page proofs. Please check up whether you have all these 
lists of misprints and let us know. I will repeat them if 
any have been lost.* 

Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



There follows, in the original, a list of the misprints. — Ed. 



426 



189 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

April 8, 1909 

Dear Anyuta, 

Today I received the page proofs of signature 22 pp. 337- 
352). There are very few misprints in it. I am sending a 
list of them.* 

In connection with the publication of the book I have 
two important requests to make of you. 

(1) The experience of the previous month shows that 
the publisher and printer are capable of delaying the 
remaining four of five signatures for a long, long time, but 
it is hellishly important to me for the book to appear sooner. 
I have not only literary but also serious political commit- 
ments that are linked up with the publication of the book. 274 
I therefore beg you to engage an assistant for yourself (or 
for the "writer", if you hand it over to him) to pay special 
visits to the printers and keep urging them along. It is not 
difficult, of course, to find a student for about fifteen rubles 
a week — there will be crowds of candidates for such a post. 
Offer him a bonus** of some twenty rubles if the book 
comes out by April 10,*** He will visit the printer, take the 



* The list has been lost.— Ed. 
** Obviously you cannot handle the Russian blockhead without 
a bribe. Give the make-up man 10 rubles if the book comes out by 
April 10 — you must bring pressure to bear on the printer in addition 
to the publisher. 

*** Lenin gave this date in the Old Style; the letter itself is 
dated in the New Style.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



427 



proofs from there, bring them back corrected without delay, 
will follow up the work day by day, etc. I do not grudge 
100 rubles for this. You must do this or tell the "writer" 
to do it, for it will be the end of me if the book is delayed 
until the second half of April. 

(2) I have now sent you the misprints in all the 22 sig- 
natures. Let them set a list of those misprints immediately 
and send me a proof; there will be time enough and it is 
very important to me because the book must be well pro- 
duced. 



All the best, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Many kisses for Mother! 



Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



428 



190 

TO HIS MOTHER 

May 21, 1909 

Mother dearest, 

A big merci for your letter of April 25. We were all greatly 
pleased to learn that you are staying in the Crimea and 
at last having a fairly decent holiday. This is how matters 
stand with Manyasha. She has put her name down for the 
examinations 275 and is now zealously swotting. We have 
to wait for the results — in a few weeks it will be known 
whether she will finish her examinations successfully. I 
have no doubt that she will, for she works very conscien- 
tiously. She is now quite well. Now and again we drag her 
out for walks — not long ago we took her to the forest at 
Clamart, a few versts from Paris, where the air is wonder- 
ful. 

The best thing, of course, would be for her to stay here 
for another winter and for all of us to live together. We shall 
have to try to arrange that as soon as the examinations 
are over. We are going for a holiday in the summer (some- 
where near the end of June or the beginning of July, I think) 
— we shall take her along with us — and then in the autumn 
she will wait for you here and in Paris we shall all be beau- 
tifully provided for. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and hope you have a 
good holiday. We here are all well and send regards. 



Yours, 

V. U. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



429 



P.S. Best regards to Anyuta. I have received the book. 276 
It has been beautifully published — but everyone grum- 
bles at the price (2 rubles 60 kopeks), but that, apparently, 
is the publisher's fault. 



Sent from Paris to Alupka (Crimea) 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



430 



191 

LENIN AND KRUPSKAYA TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA 

May 26, 1909 

Dear Anyuta, 

I received your letter a few days after I had sent a letter 
to Mother in Alupka. 

I have received the book and find that it has been nicely 
published. There were no fewer misprints at the end than 
at the beginning and the proof-reader's ignorance of foreign 
languages is obvious (the English "A New Name for Old 
Ways of Thinking"* has been so distorted that it is ridic- 
ulous), 277 but that is an inevitable and insignificant short- 
coming. On the whole I am satisfied with it. Everyone 
complains of the price — and rightly so. In future we shall 
have a point in the contract about the price as well as the 
number of copies. I was hard pressed by the publisher and 
would, in any case, have agreed to any terms, as long as 
the book was published, 

The publisher has not yet sent any money and I am 
beginning to be afraid that he will swindle us. 278 I have 
written to Peres. Will you also please write to the publish- 
er — three or four weeks have passed and he promised 
to pay in a week. (You absolutely must get a promissory 
note for the remaining sum.) Please send me the five hun- 
dred rubles that are in the bank (Credit Lyonnais, Agence Z, 
Avenue d'Orleans, 19. Mr. Oulianoff. Current account No. 
6420) since I cannot rely on the publisher. 



Stepanov apparently did not look at it at all.... 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



431 



Things are bad here — Spaltung,* or rather, there will 
be one; I hope that in a month or six weeks I shall be able 
to give you exact information. So far I can do no more than 
guess. 279 

Manyasha is swotting hard. She is quite well and will 
probably pass her examinations. What will happen then I 
do not know. I think she wants to go home. 

We have not yet decided when we shall go to the seaside 
or where we shall go. 280 But this summer we shall go for 
certain. 

Many kisses for Mother and all the best to you. 



Dear Anya, 

You asked in your last letter why I do not write. All this 
winter I have been in a state of utter melancholy, the time 
has been frittered away, I could not work properly and so I 
was in no fit state to write. If Manyasha had not written 
about Volodya and Volodya about her I should have given 
you all the details about them both as I did before, but 
apart from that there is nothing to write, we are just jogging 
along. Every time they wrote I told them to give you my 
regards but I don't suppose they did. I shall try and write 
soon, but in the meantime I send many kisses to you and to 
dear Maria Alexandrovna from myself and from Mother. 



Yours, 



V. Ulyanov 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Sent from Paris to Alupka (Crimea) 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



* 



Split (Ger.).— Ed. 



432 



192 

TO HIS BROTHER 

Dear Mitya, 

Manyasha has already written to you about her illness. 
I also want your advice. The doctor has diagnosed that she 
has inflammation of the gut projecting from the caecum (that's 
appendicitis, isn't it?). I asked a very good local surgeon 
and he confirmed it. He advises an operation. Everyone 
says it is not dangerous and effects a radical cure. 

The surgeon (Dr. Dubouchez) is praised by everybody. 
He recently performed an operation (the same one) on the 
wife of a friend — it was excellent, a teaspoonful of blood, 
in eight days she began to get about. The hospital is a good 
one. 

The attacks are not very bad now. There is no high tem- 
perature. The pains are not great. Please answer me imme- 
diately — I am in favour of an operation but am afraid to 
take the risk without your advice. Answer immediately. 

There is no doubt that they perform good operations 
here. The doctor does not advise her to travel before the 
operation. 

I shall not write to Mother because I am afraid of frighten- 
ing her for no good reason. There is no danger, Manyasha 
does not even stay in bed all the time. Nor shall I write 
to Anyuta because Mother may read it. 

Please write to Mark and through him to Anyuta (if you 
can do it without scaring Mother). It will probably be 
better not to write to the Crimea at all because they will 
get frightened. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



433 



And so I await an answer; here they advise us to get 
the operation done quickly. Do you also? 

All the best, 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Address: Mr. Wl. Oulianoff. 24. Rue Beaunier. 24. 
Paris (XIV). France. 

Written in late June- 
early July, 1909 
Sent to Mikhnevo, 
Serpukhov Uyezd, Moscow Gubernia 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



434 



193 

TO HIS MOTHER 

July 19, 1909 

Dear Mother, 

Today I received your picture postcard of the Crimea 
(the postcard was enclosed in an envelope with a corner 
cut off; this greatly surprised us — did you do it or the local 
post office?). 

You ask about money for Manyasha. I answered your 
last letter, but not immediately (we were moving to a new 
apartment at the time), so that your postcard and my letter 
crossed in the post. 

I offered Manyasha some money since I have some. She 
refused absolutely to take it; she said she did not need it 
and showed me the 70 francs she had. 

We are going to Brittany for our holiday, probably next 
Saturday. Y. V. has already gone there. Manyasha is recov- 
ering rapidly; now I can tell you everything that happened 
— she had appendicitis, that is, inflammation of the gut 
projecting from the caecum. If the disease is caught in time 
it is not at all dangerous and can be completely cured 
by an operation. After consulting Mitya and the best 
doctors here, we decided on an immediate operation. We 
put Manyasha into a surgical hospital for a week (it was 
a very good hospital). The operation was very successful; 
Manyasha came out of hospital in a week and has been 
at home for three days. She now walks and eats everything. 
She is convalescing rapidly. She felt better as soon as the 
appendix was removed. She will be able to travel by rail at 
the end of the week and we are thinking of leaving for Brit- 
tany together. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



435 



And there is nothing to worry about, It is a good thing 
that Manyasha had her operation here because the surgeons 
here are excellent. Chronic appendicitis would still be 
troubling her and would trouble her for a long time if she 
had not had the operation. Now she is quite well. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and wish you good 
health. Do not be angry with me for not having written 
about Manyasha immediately. 



P.S. Regards from all. 

My address: Mr. Wl. Oulianoff. 4. Rue Marie Rose. 4. 
Paris. XIV. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Paris to Alupka (Crimea) 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



436 



194 

TO HIS MOTHER 

August 24, 1909 

Mother dearest, 

I received your letter yesterday and am answering by 
return of post. There is no need at all for you to worry about 
Manyasha. She is convalescing splendidly. She can't, of 
course, walk about much yet; she still has some pain in 
her leg (the right one). We asked the doctors in Paris 
and here in the country whether that was a bad sign. 
They all say "no". They say she is convalescing well, if 
somewhat slowly. They advise Manyasha to wear a bandage 
so that the scar is not shaken so much when she walks. 
Yesterday she walked five or six versts, slept excellently 
afterwards and feels quite well. Generally speaking, she 
looks incomparably better, she has a good appetite, sleeps 
well and looks perfectly healthy. In short — I am being 
quite frank — everything is going well although rather slow- 
ly, probably because of the great fatigue she experienced 
in winter. We are having a good holiday here. We have 
been here three weeks and expect to be here another two, 
or perhaps three. I cannot yet say whether Manyasha will 
be able to travel to Russia in a month's time. She has 
recovered very considerably during her three weeks' holi- 
day. I advise her to drink as much milk as she can and 
to eat curds and whey. She prepares the curds and whey 
herself, but in my opinion she is not feeding herself up 
enough; I am always quarreling with her on those grounds. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



437 



Our rooms here are good, and the board is good and not 
expensive (10 francs a day for the four of us). Nadya and 
I often go cycling. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and wish you good health. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

We all send our regards. 

P.S. What news is there from Mark? Has he completely 
recovered from his operation? Give him regards from all 
of us. 

Sent from Bombon (France) 
to Sinelnikovo, 
Yekaterinoslav Gubernia 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 1 the original 



438 



195 

TO HIS MOTHER 

October 25, 1909 

Mother dearest, 

A few days ago I received a letter from you and Anyuta 
and also the money sent from the publisher. Merci. Today 
I got a note from Manyasha, who writes that she wants 
to take a cure. I also got the book (Kriticheskoye Obozreniye) 
she sent. 

Manyasha writes that you are still living in furnished 
rooms. That must be extremely inconvenient. It will be a 
good thing if you can soon move into the flat you found 
with the aid of your acquaintances. 

Mitya will probably visit you in Moscow when he hears 
of Manyasha's arrival. I should like him to drop me a line 
telling me how he finds Manyasha and which doctor (or 
doctors) he wishes to consult about her. 

There are no changes here. We are all well and send our 
regards. After wonderful weather, during the first half of 
October, real autumn has begun. I embrace you fondly, 
my dear, and send my best regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published 
in the Fourth Edition 
of the Collected Works 



Printed from 
the original 



439 



196 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Her Excellency Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Davydov's House, Apt. 4, 

Bozheninsky Street, 

Devichye Polye, 

Moscow, 

Russia 

November 4, 1909 

Mother dearest, 

A few days ago I received Manyasha's letter with the 
new address. How are things in the new apartment? Is it 
warm there? Our apartment with central heating has turned 
out to be too warm — although it may be because of the warm 
weather we are having here. Manyasha did right to go to a 
competent doctor — she must now follow his advice exactly. 

I have received Rossiya. 2S1 Many thanks. I have also 
had word from the historian — he must be a very narrow 
person. It is a pity that he intends writing nonsense! It 
seems as if we shall have to give him up for lost. 282 

I am leaving for Brussels tomorrow 283 and shall stay 
there a few days. I have written an answer to Anyuta in 
Saratov on the assumption that she is already there. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and send very best regards 
to Manyasha and Mitya. So does everybody. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Paris 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



440 



197 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Davydov's House, Apt. 4, 
Bozheninsky Street, 
Devichye Polye, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

Dear Manyasha, 

Today I received an issue of Utro Rossii with the vulgar 
nonsense about Gorky. 284 For some days now a number 
of newspapers in Paris (L' Eclair) and in Berlin (Berliner 
Tageblatt) 285 have been engaged in similar lies. Some days 
ago there was a good refutation of this mass of lies in Vor- 
wdrts, where it was very correctly demonstrated and very 
wittily explained that this is all one big nonsensical inven- 
tion. Some fool heard rumours he did not understand and 
got everything wrong — scraps he had picked up about ot- 
zovism, the school, philosophy and so on. Utro Rossii must 
be a shady little rag to have cooked up an "interview" 
just for the sake of sensation. Today Rech is also engaged 
in the fabrication of similar scandal. The Cadets are happy 
to have something to lie and talk scandal about. 

How are you? How is Mother? I have had no news from 
you for quite a while. Write and let me know how you 
are getting on, what you are doing, and how Mitya is. There 
have been no changes here. Winter is beginning — I go to 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



441 



the library. The apartment is warm. Y. V. is feeling rather 
poorly. Nadya is zealously studying French. 
All the best, kiss Mother many, many times. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

P.S. Did you get the reply to the historian? With regard 
to my books at Sablino 286 — if the opportunity occurs, it 
would be fine to ask one of our St. Petersburg friends to 
send them to me here, if not all of them, then at least what 
there is of Marx and Engels and the best of the classics. 

Written December 3 or 4, 1909 
Sent from Paris 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



442 



198 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Davydov's House, Apt. 4, 

Bozheninsky Street, 

Devichye Polye, 

Moscow, 

Russia 

Mother dearest, 

I have received your letter and Manya's. A big merci 
for them. Today I received a second letter from Manyasha 
with the pleasant news that there is no need for me to write 
to our acquaintance a second time. I am worried that your 
apartment is so cold; what will it be like in winter if the 

temperature is only 12° now? You must not catch cold 

Is there nothing you can do? Perhaps you should put in 
a small stove. That is often done here (we do not need it 
because we have steam heating and it is very warm), and 
we did it in Siberia. So far there has been no great cold, 
here, at any rate, but the winter is still to come. 

I am very, very grateful to Manyasha for the news. If 
she should have an opportunity I should very much like 
her to obtain for me the new Moscow agricultural statistics 
(1907-09) and to find out (even from a shop) how much Iz- 
vestiya zemleustroitelnykh komissii costs; I cannot get this 
publication through acquaintances and I need it. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and hope you are keeping 
well. Best regards to Manyasha from me and from all of 
us here. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Written December 7 or 8, 1909 
Sent from Paris 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



443 



199 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Davydov's House, Apt. 4, 
Bozheninsky Street, 
Devichye Polye, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

Dear Manyasha, 

I recently learned, quite by accident, that there is to 
be a congress of statisticians in Moscow at Christmas — 
or rather one of the sections of the congress of doctors and 
naturalists will be congress of statisticians. 287 I have 
already heard the names of a couple of acquaintances who 
will be there (one from Moscow, the other from the prov- 
inces), and no doubt there will be more than two acquaint- 
ances there. It is extremely important to take advantage 
of this to get me the Zemstvo statistical publications. I 
urge you to try to find at least one statistician of your 
acquaintance at the congress and give him my address and 
my request to send me Zemstvo statistical publications: 
(1) on peasant and landowner farms — especially current 
statistics and house-to-house censuses; (2) handicraftsmen 
and industry; (3) on the law of November 9, 1906 288 and 
on the acquisition of commune lands by peasants. I think 
you may give my address direct. If they say that they can- 
not send them abroad, please give your address and I will 
send you the money, so that you can send the statistics 
on to me. They are absolutely essential to me. If it will 
be of any use I can write a brief appeal to the statisticians 
(I am sending one for you to use at your own discretion), 289 
so that statisticians of your acquaintance can distribute 



444 



V. I. LENIN 



it (or show it) to those from other towns, adding their own 
request (or trying to get consent) to send the publications. 

Drop me a line if you find someone who can do it. If 
you do not, I shall write to you again. 

The publication I wrote about last time is not called 
Izvestiya zemleustroitelnykh komissii (although I have heard 
that such a publication exists too) but Izvestiya Zemskogo 
Otdela (Ministry of the Interior). Is there any civil servant 
of your acquaintance who can acquire this work? 

All the best to you, kiss Mother. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Written December 10 or 11, 1909 
Sent from Paris 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



445 



1910 



200 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Her Excellency Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 

Davydov's House, Apt. 4, 

Bozheninsky Street, 

Devichye Polye, 

Moscow, 

Russia 

January 2, 1910 

Dear Manyasha, 

Today I received Mother's letter (to Nadya and me) 
with your postscript. I am very, very glad that you have 
made quite good arrangements and that Mother is pleased 
that there is no housekeeping for her to do. Let us hope 
that the end of winter will not disappoint us. Up to now 
the winter here has been more like spring than winter. 
Today, for instance, has been a real spring day, sunny, 
dry and warm, and Nadya and I took advantage of it for a 
wonderful morning excursion to the Bois do Boulogne. In 
general we have made good use of the holidays — we have 
been to museums, the theatre and the Musee Grevin, 290 
which gave us much pleasure. This evening I intend to go 
to an estaminet to listen to a "goguette revolutionnaire"* 
by "songsters" (an unhappy translation of chansonniers). 
I am sorry I did not make use of my jawing with Frenchmen 
in summer to study French pronunciation systematically — 
now that I have got some books on phonetics I can see how 
weak I am. 



*A revolutionary entertainment (Fr.)- — Ed. 



446 



V. I. LENIN 



Please read the enclosed letter and pass it on to Fyodor 
Odessky — he did not give me any other address. You ought 
to read the letter to know what I want. I have received 
the Moscow City Statistics, for which I am grateful. Please 
send me the three issues of Moscow City Statistics on the 
elections to the First, Second and Third Dumas. I have 
also received a letter about statistics from Ryazan — it 
is splendid that I shall probably be getting help from many 
people. 

All the best, do not run around so much, rest more and 
keep well. Regards to Mitya. I embrace and kiss Mother. 
Happy New Year! 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Paris 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



447 



201 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Dear Manyasha, 

I have received your postcard — merci for the news. As 
far as the bicycle is concerned I thought I should soon 
receive the money, but matters have dragged on. I have a 
suit pending and hope to win it. I was riding from Juvi- 
sy 291 when a motorcar ran into me and smashed my bicycle 
(I managed to jump off). People helped me take the number 
and acted as witnesses. I have found out who the owner 
of the car is (a viscount, the devil take him!) and now I 
have taken him to court (through a lawyer). I should not 
be riding now, anyway, it is too cold (although it's a good 
winter, wonderful for walks). 

I am enclosing the exact names of two books on land 
allotment that I need very badly. Have you managed to 
find anyone who can get them? 

All the very best. Kiss Mother for me. Does she find 
it very cold in the new flat? 

Yours, 

V. U. 

(1) Obzor deyatelnosti Glavnogo upravleniya zemleustroi- 
stva i zemledeliya za 1907 i 1908. St. Petersburg, 1909. 

(2) Obzor deyatelnosti uyezdnykh zemleustroitelnykh ko- 
missii (1907-8 gg). 

I am not sure whether these are two different books 

or one and the same. 292 
If there are two, the second is the more important 

for me. 

(3) Yezhegodnik Glavnogo upravleniya zemleustroistva 
i zemledeliya. St. Petersburg, 1908. 

Written in early January 1910 
Sent from Paris to Moscow 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



448 



202 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Davydov's House, Apt, 4, 
Bozheninsky Street, 
Devichye Polye, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

January 12, 1910 

Dear Manyasha, 

I have just received your letter and hasten to scribble an 
answer because I am afraid I shall be busy for the next few 
days. 293 I will try to get some information about the man 
in German Switzerland. If this is needed in a hurry let me 
know exactly when I must find him by, so that the organis- 
ers can begin looking for him themselves (in the event of 
my not finding him). 

I have received the statistics. A big mercil 

Give Anyuta very best regards from me. Mark, too. 

I embrace Mother fondly and hope she is well. 

How are you? What is the winter like? It is warm here. 
I have begun to pay more attention to the theatre; I have 
seen Bourget's new play La barricade. Reactionary but 
interesting. 

All the best, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Paris 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



449 



203 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Davydov's House, Apt. 4, 
Bozheninsky Street, 
Devichye Polye, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

Dear Manyasha, 

I received your letter a few days ago and have been 
intending all the time to answer it. I have recently been very 
busy with urgent work and have not had a single hour 
to spare. I have also received the historian's letter and 
will answer it (if you have an opportunity tell him that), 
but cannot do so at the moment (immediately). 

I have had a letter from Mitya and was extremely sur- 
prised at the news of his accident. 294 He says he is getting 
better and will soon start learning to walk. Please write 
and tell me how he is convalescing. Has he lost his job 
or is it still open and will it remain open until he has fully 
recovered? When he has recovered will he be able to cover 
his territory as before? 

You do not write anything about Anyuta and I have not 
received anything from her for a long time. Does she like 
the new town?* 

How is Mother keeping now? Has she recovered from her 
influenza? 

We have had — and they still continue — floods in Paris 
such as have not been known for a long time. You have 



* Anyuta was in Saratov at the time. — Ed. 



450 



V. I. LENIN 



probably read about it in the newspapers. I managed to get 
as far as, the Seine on two occasions (horse buses are run- 
ning reduced services, the metro and the trains are at a 
standstill). The resultant "Venice in Paris" is a truly strange 
sight. Many people are out of work. There will probably 
be all sorts of accidents, houses collapsing, etc. when the 
water subsides. 

We are living quietly, no changes. Nadya runs around 
to all the schools that teach French and is zealously pushing 
ahead. My bicycle case ended in my favour.* I have received 
the Moscow City Statistics — a big merci. 

Give Mother many kisses for me, Best regards from all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Excuse me for writing so scrappily. My attention is 
being distracted. 



Written January 30 or 31, 1910 
Sent from Paris 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



See Letter No. 201.— Ed. 



451 



204 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Davydov's House, Apt. 4, 
Bozheninsky Street, 
Devichye Polye, 
Moscow 



Dear Anyuta, 

We have been having "stormy" times lately, but they 
have ended with an attempt at peace with the Mensheviks — 
yes, yes, strange as it may seem; we have closed down the 
factional newspaper and are trying harder to promote unity* 
We shall see whether it can be done.... I have only just 
managed to get rid of a lot of urgent business arising out 
of these changes. 

Paris is a rotten hole in many respects.... I am still unable 
to adapt myself fully to it (after living here for a year!) 
but I nevertheless feel that only extraordinary circumstances 
could drive me back to Geneva! 



Written February 1, 1910 
Sent from Paris 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from a copy 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 (made by the police) 



* This is a reference to the January (1910) Plenum of the C.C., 
R.S.D.L.P.— Ed. 



452 



205 

TO HIS BROTHER 

February 13, 1910 

Dear Mitya, 

It is quite a while since I received your letter (and later 
Niva with the problem 295 ) and, I am ashamed to say, I 
have kept putting off answering. How goes the convales- 
cence? I hope that doctors are cautious and do not allow 
themselves to start work until they have fully recovered. I 
have often thought of the danger of accidents when I have 
been riding my bicycle through the centre of Paris, where 
the traffic is simply hellish. But to fall out like you did, 
in the country and in the middle of winter! It must have 
been a pretty wild horse and you were probably driving 
hell for leather, eh? 

Drop me a line to let me know whether you have recov- 
ered. Anyuta wrote that there is a hope of the leg mending 
(completely or not? Will you be able to ride a bicycle?) 
but not the shoulder. Is that true? I cannot quite believe 
that it is absolutely impossible to mend a broken shoulder- 
blade. You must start a proper course of treatment and 
keep it up until you are completely cured. 

With regard to Manyasha — I think it would be good for 
her to have a longer rest in summer. Mother says the same, 

but is afraid she will not be able to drag her out She 

should, however. 

Life here goes on as usual. We live a quiet life. The weath- 
er is fine and I intend to start cycling again since I have 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



453 



won the case and should soon get my money from the owner 
of the car. 

All the best. Get better soon and properly. We all send 
regards. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Sent from Paris to Mikhnevo, 
Serpukhov Uyezd, Moscow Gubernia 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



454 



206 

TO HIS MOTHER 

February 13, 1910 

Mother dearest, 

A few days ago I received letters from you and Anyuta. 
A big, big merci for them. I have now completed the affairs 
that obliged me to answer Manyasha too briefly and hurriedly 
(I shall soon be writing to her). 

I received the chessmen 296 a long time ago — I simply 
forgot to mention them. I have so few opportunities to 
play here that I have probably forgotten everything. 

I was very pleased to learn that you are satisfied with 
your flat and with the landlady, and that you are better 
and have begun to go out. It would be good if you could 
get out of Moscow earlier in spring and go to somewhere 
on the Volga or to the country. It is sure to be unpleasant 
in Moscow in spring. 

We are having wonderful weather. The water in the Seine 
is still high but the floods are rapidly subsiding; they have 
caused tremendous damage (our part of the city was not 
touched at all). 

I had a short letter from Mitya with the news that he 
is recovering. I am angry with myself for not having found 
time to answer him. It seems, indeed, that the Paris streets 
with their devilish traffic are not the only places where it 
is dangerous to ride.... 

I sometimes see Avgusta Pavlovna here. Her relatives 
are in Moscow — do you ever see them? She is very nice. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and hope you keep well. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Best regards from all. 

Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from a copy 
(made by the police) 



455 



207 

TO HIS BROTHER 

February 17, 1910 

Dear Mitya, 

I have received your problem* and got quite "worked 
up" about chess — I had forgotten literally everything. It 
must be a year since I played and, in general, during the 
past few years I have only played a few lightning or very 
rapid games. I solved your problem easily — R(Q 8) — Q6. But 
I saw a problem in Rech today that I could not solve at 
once and which I liked very much (the issue of February 1 
No. 31. (1269), study No. 195). This is the position. 

White: K(KKt3), Kt(KKtl), B(K7), P(KR5), P(Q3) 

Black: K(K6), P(KR2), P(Q4), P(QR7) (i.e., the last 
pawn is within one move of becoming a queen). White to 
play and win. Beautiful bit of work! 

How goes the convalescence? Are the leg and the shoulder 
both better? Will you soon start walking and driving again? 

All the best, 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Sent from Paris to Mikhnevo, 
Serpukhov Uyezd, Moscow Gubernia 

First published in 1931 Printed from 

in Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 



See Letter No. 205.— Ed. 



456 



208 

TO HIS MOTHER 

April 10, 1910 

Mother dearest, 

I hope you will receive this letter by April 11 congrat- 
ulate you on the occasion of your name day, and Manyasha 
as well. A really big hug for you both. 

I received your letter with the new address a day or 
two ago, and shortly before that I received a letter from 
Mitya. I did not know that your old apartment was so far 
from the centre. An hour's tram journey is awful! I have 
to travel half an hour by tram from here to the library* 
and I find even that too tiring. To travel every day an 
hour each way-that is quite impossible. It is a good thing 
that you have found an apartment near the Zemstvo offic- 
es.** But is the air breathable in such places? Isn't it too 
dusty and stuffy? Many thanks for the letter to the histor- 
ian; he has been answered. 

It would be simply wonderful for us to get together in 
August, provided the journey will not tire you too much. 
From Moscow to St. Petersburg you must book a sleeper, 
and from there to Abo as well. The steamer Bure from Abo 
to Stockholm is well equipped; it is in the open sea only 
two or three hours and in fine weather it is like sailing 
down a river. You can buy return tickets from St. Peters- 
burg. If the railway journey does not tire you too greatly 



* This was the Bibliotheque nationale, where Lenin usually 
worked in Paris. — Ed. 

** Lenin's sister Maria was at that time working at the Moscow 
Gubernia Zemstvo. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



457 



you will be able to spend a marvellous week in Stock- 
holm! 

We still have not decided whether to take a place in the 
country for the summer. We are wavering — is it better to 
live en pension as we did last year to give Nadya and Y. V. 
a complete rest, or to take a cottage where we should have 
to do our own cooking, which Y. V. finds very tiring? 

It is spring here. I have already got Nadya's bicycle 
out. We are just longing to be out walking or cycling. 
Love and kisses. Keep well. Very best regards to Manyasha. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



458 



209 

LENIN AND KRUPSKAYA TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA 

May 2, 1910 

Dear Anyuta, 

Yesterday I received your letter with the new address. 
Merci for the congratulations. There is no change at all 
here. Nadya is feeling rather poorly — her nerves are still 
not quite in order, although by and large we are all well. 
I have been cycling for some time and I often go for rides 
in the country round Paris, especially as we live quite 
near the fortifications, i.e., near the city boundary. We 
have not yet decided anything about our summer holidays; 
the summer here is a late one and it is possible we shall 
again go to Bombon, where there is a cheap boarding- 
house and complete quiet, although Nadya does not seem 
inclined to go there again. Perhaps this time we will try 
the socialist colony at the seaside.* Y. V. was there last 
year and liked it. 

Give my best regards to the neighbour at Alakayevka** 
if you manage to see him. It is a pity that he is such a con- 
vinced enemy of correspondence because it would be pleas- 
ant to have some news, if only rarely, from "the heart 
of Russia" about what is going on in the new village. There 
is little information on this subject and it would be very 
pleasant just to have a chat with some knowledgeable person. 

Regards to the North Manchurian*** also. How is he get- 
ting fixed up now, and will he rid himself of the "weakness" 
of the Russians ... and not only of writers?... 

*See Letter No. 213.— Ed. 
**A. A. Preobrazhensky.— Ed. 
***A. P. Sklyarenko.— Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



459 



With regard to my grudge against the doctor* (whom 
you asked me to do something to help) you were quite wrong, 
or perhaps I accidentally said something tactless. I have 
never had and still do not have the slightest grudge against 
him. He makes a good impression. We never got to know 
each other closely. Now he has moved out of town, where 
the children will be better off. He is in very poor circum- 
stances; he has only just managed to find some temporary 
work for the tiniest imaginable emolument. I very seldom 
see him. The emigres here are very poor. 

My work is going extremely badly. I hope to get over 
this period of intense squabbling 297 and will then return 
to my work. 

All the best. Regards to Mark. Best wishes from all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

> ^ 

Dear Anya, 

I received your letter about our acquaintance a long 
time ago and answered it immediately in a letter to Manya- 
sha. I have certain reasons for thinking that my letter was 
lost, although Manyasha answered one of the questions 
raised in it. I asked her to write and say whether she had 
received that letter but she hasn't written. The acquaintance 
to whom you asked me to show the letter is not here now and, 
furthermore, what I wrote to you was not said to him but 
to another person. I will write in detail in a few days. Many 
kisses. Regards to M. T. Mother sends regards. 

N. K. 

Sent from Paris to Saratov 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



M. F. Vladimirsky.— Ed. 



460 



210 

TO HIS MOTHER 298 

Dmitry Ilyich Ulyanov, 
Mikhnevo Station, 
Ryazan-Urals Railway, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

June 18, 1910 

Mother dearest, 

Greetings to you, Anyuta and Mitya from our Sunday 
excursion. Nadya and I are cycling. Meudon Forest is a 
good place and close by, 45 minutes from Paris, 299 I have 
received and answered Anyuta's letter. A big hug from 
myself and Nadya. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Meudon (France) 

First published in 1931 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



461 



211 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

M. I. U. c/o Savelyev, 
Private Cottage, 
Inonniemi, Terijoki Station, 
Finland Railway, 
Finland, Russia 

June 18, 1910 

Dear Manyasha, 

Greetings from me and Nadya. We are on an outing 
in Meudon Forest. Marvellous! I received your letter (the 
big one) in the evening of the day I sent you my letter. 
And so everything has been received. We shall write and 
send you the latest books. 

Salut et fraternite.* 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Sent from Meudon (France) 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



A form of greeting used during the French Revolution. — Ed. 



462 



212 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Dr. Dmitry Ilyich Ulyanov, 
Mikhnevo Station, 
Ryazan-Urals Railway, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

July 1, 1910 

Mother dearest, 

Best regards from Naples. I arrived here by steamer 
from Marseilles — cheap and pleasant. It was like travel- 
ling on the Volga. I am going to Capri from here for a brief 
visit.* 

Love and kisses. Regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Naples (Italy) 

First published in 1931 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



* Lenin went to Capri (Italy) to visit Maxim Gorky.— Ed. 



463 



213 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

M. I. U. c/o V. A. Savelyev, 
Private Cottage, 
Inonniemi, Terijoki Station, 
Finland Railway, 
Finland, Russia 

July 28, 1910 

Dear Manyasha, 

I am writing this in Pornic*. I have been living here 
almost a week with Y. V. and Nadya. We are having an 
excellent holiday. We go bathing, etc. How are you getting 
on? Is Mother keeping well? How does the question of 
Copenhagen and Stockholm Stand?** Write to Pornic (Loire 
Inferieure). Rue Mon Desir. K. Los Roses. Mr. Oulianoff. 

Regards to all, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I wrote to Mother in Mikhnevo a week ago from Paris. 
Did she get the letter? 



Sent from Pornic (France) 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



* See N. K. Krupskaya, Reminiscences of Lenin, F.L.P.H., Mos- 
cow, 1959, pp. 209-10 for details of their stay at Pornic. —Ed. 

** This refers to the projected trip by Lenin's mother and his 
sister Maria to meet him in Stockholm. — Ed. 



464 



214 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Her Excellency Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Yekaterina Lesonen's Cottage, 
Leppeneno, Terijoki Station, 
Finland Railway, 
Finland via Stockholm 

September 4, 1910 

Mother dearest, 

Hearty greetings to you and Anyuta from Copenhagen. 
The Congress ended yesterday. 300 I have made full arrange- 
ments with Manyasha; on September 4 (Old Style), i.e., 
September 17 (New Style), I shall be waiting for you on 
the wharf in Stockholm.* A comrade in Stockholm will 
rent for me two rooms for the week September 17-24. Manya- 
sha has my present address. Write to me in Stockholm 
Hr. Ulianof, Poste Restante. I embrace you fondly. 

Hoping to see you soon. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

I shall be here until September 15, 1910. 

Sent from Copenhagen 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



* After attending the 8th Congress of the Second International in 
Copenhagen, Lenin went to Stockholm to meet his mother and his 
younger sister Maria. — Ed. 



465 



1911 



215 

TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW 

January 3, 1911 

Dear M. T., 

Many thanks for your letter. One feels so cut off here 
that your stories of impressions and observations of the 
Volga (how I miss the Volga!) are manna from heaven. 
Your observations are of the greatest interest because they 
tell me about the various people you meet in the way of 
business and on journeys and because you made them 
without any preconceived aim. I was also very pleased to 
get your letter in the summer and I am very much at fault 
for not having found time to answer it, but that was 
because of moving from the seaside to Paris and from Paris 
to Copenhagen and Stockholm. 

As regards my trip to Italy — it seems that it will not 
come off now (or in the near future). Finances (Anya asked 
me about them, by the way) do not permit it. I have not 
found a publisher. 301 I sent an article to Sovremenny Mir, 302 
but apparently there are difficulties there, too; several 
weeks have passed and there has been no answer. Long 
journeys will have to be put off until better times. It is, 
of course, only a stone's throw from here to Italy and you 
simply must pay a visit to Paris if you intend going to Italy. 
I suppose it is not for nothing that people say that if you 
have once been to Paris you will be drawn to it again. 

Manyasha would certainly do better to take a longer 
rest in Saratov and not hurry off anywhere, it would be 
better in all respects. 

Life here goes on as usual. Very little that is pleasant. 
The recent period has been so "squabblesome" that I must 
ask you to forgive me for unpunctuality in correspondence; 



466 



V. I. LENIN 



I have not answered Anyuta, who told me of the unsuccess- 
ful talks with Lvovich, 303 and I have not written to Mother 
for a long time. Now at least you have almost the entire 
family gathered together, so please make my excuses, give 
my best regards to Anya and Manyasha and kiss Mother 
many times. 

All the best, 

Yours, 

V. U. 

In Stockholm Mother told me about your fight with your 
boss. Since funds have gone up you must have won! Congrat- 
ulations! Get rid of everything unpleasant! 

Happy New Year! A Happy New Year to everyonel 
Yesterday I received Zvezda No. 1 from Russia and today 
Mysl No. I. 304 That is something to cheer me up! I hope 
you have seen it! It really is a pleasure! 

Sent from Paris to Saratov 



First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



467 



216 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Pankratyevskaya Street, 7, Apt. 5 
Saratov, 
Russia 

January 19, 1911 

Mother dearest, 

We have just received your letter. Nadya thanks you 
very much for it and sends her regards. As for me, I am 
hurrying to correct the misunderstanding which, it seems, 
I was the unwitting cause of. Please do not send me any 
money. I am not now in need. I wrote that neither my book 
nor my article had been accepted — that was in one of my 
recent letters. But in the last letter I wrote that they say 
that my article will be accepted. I have written to Gorky* 
about the book and hope for a favourable reply. In any 
case my situation is not now any worse; at the moment 
I am not in need, I beg you, my dear, not to send anything 
and not to try to save anything from your pension. If things 
get bad I will write quite frankly, but at the moment they 
are not. It is not easy to find a publisher, but I shall keep 
on seeking — furthermore, I continue to receive the "sala- 
ry" 305 I told you about in Stockholm. So please do not 
worry. 

Nadya has written twice to Manyasha and will write 
today for the third time.** Does Manyasha get the letters 



* Collected Works, Vol. 34, p. 439. —Ed. 
** For purposes of secrecy Krupskaya wrote the letters in invis- 
ible ink.— Ed. 



468 



V. I. LENIN 



I am very glad that Mitya sends good news about his trans- 
fer.* Best regards to Mark and Anyuta from all of us here. 

We are all quite well. No changes to report. Yesterday 
I delivered a lecture here on Tolstoi — I shall perhaps deliv- 
er the lecture in several Swiss towns.** 

The weather here is not bad. Dry and cold (our apart- 
ment is very warm) and it is pleasant out walking. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and hope you keep well. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

P.S. Tanya's mother in Moscow has been taken ill.*** 

Sent from Paris 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



* Lenin's brother Dmitry was to be transferred to Feodosia as 
public health officer. — Ed. 

** Lenin did not go to Switzerland to lecture on Tolstoi.— Ed. 
***This refers to the arrest of S. N. Smidovich, a close friend of 
the Ulyanov family. — Ed. 



469 



217 

TO HIS MOTHER 

April 8, 1911 

Mother dearest, 

You will probably receive this letter on the Russian 
April 1. On the occasion of your name day I congratulate 
you and Manyasha. I hope you will soon be well — com- 
pletely recovered. Today I saw the doctor* — the father of 
Anyuta's "godson" — and he says that after an attack of 
lumbago you have to take great care of yourself to prevent 
a relapse. By the way — his wife and children intend coming 
to Russia, but for the summer they want to go to the 
country. 

I received your letter describing life in Saratov and 
expressing some ideas about Manyasha, my dear. Do not 
worry in advance, perhaps things may turn out quite differ- 
ently from what you imagine by the time summer is over. 

Where are you thinking of spending the summer? In 
Saratov itself? Is it a good place for the summer? 

For a week we have had real winter weather here, snow 
and frost. Now there has been a new turn to spring. Y. V. 
caught cold in the frosty weather and is in bed. In general 
everything goes on as usual, we are leading a quiet life. 
Unfortunately there is little news from Manyasha. How 
does she feel? Best regards to her and to everybody. 
I embrace you fondly, my dear, and hope you keep well. 

Yours, 

V. Ul. 

Sent from Paris to Saratov 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



M. F. Vladimirsky.— Ed. 



470 



218 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Kupp's House, 

Gogolevskaya Street, 

Berdyansk, 

Tavrida Gubernia, 

Russia 

Mother dearest, 

Nadya and I send greetings to you and everyone. We 
have come here for a whole day. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Written August 20, 1911 
Sent from Fontainebleau (France) 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



471 



219 



TO HIS SISTER MARIA 



M. I. c/o Vasily Alexandrovich Savelyev, 
Private Cottage, 
Inonniemi, Terijoki Station, 
Finland Railway, 
Finland via Stockholm 

Dear Manyasha, 

Nadya and I send you hikers' greeting — we have come 
here for a whole day. 



Salut chalereuxl 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Written August 20, 1911 
Sent from Fontainebleau (France) 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



* 



Hearty greetings! (Fr.)- — Ed. 



472 



220 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Ugodnikovskaya Street, 26, 
Yelizarov's Apartment, 
Saratov, 
Russia 



Mother dearest, 

I am writing from Lucerne. I came to Switzerland quite 
unexpectedly (on account of the meeting of the International 
Socialist Bureau in Zurich). 306 I am travelling round lec- 
turing. 307 Yesterday I went out climbing on the Pilatus — 
nearly 7,000 feet. The weather is wonderful so far and I 
am having an excellent holiday. I embrace you fondly 
and send very best regards to everyone. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Written September 28, 1911 
Sent from Lucerne (Switzerland) 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



473 



1912 



221 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Her Excellency Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Ugodnikovskaya Street, 26, 

Saratov, 

Russia 

Mother dearest, 

A few days ago we received another present from you, 
fish, caviare and smoked sturgeon fillets. A big merci. 
We are greatly enjoying these dainties and thinking of the 
Volga as we eat them. You really have been plying us with 
dainties from home this year! 

How are you getting on? To judge by the newspapers 
it is cold and snowing where you are. It is spring here. 
A week ago I got my bicycle out again and went to the Bois 
des Verrieres (that is where Manyasha went) and brought 
back some bursting willow buds. I went there again today 
with Nadya — the cherries are already in bloom. We are 
having spring weather but it's not reliable, there is a lot 
of rain. 

Where are you off to in summer? Y. V. thinks of going 
to Russia but I do not expect she will. We are thinking 
of sending her to friends of ours in Arcachon in the south 
of France. 

Are you all well? I embrace you fondly, my dear. Best 
regards to Anyuta, Manyasha and Mark and also to Mitya. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Nadya and Y. V. send best regards. 

Written March 8 or 9, 1912 
Sent from Paris 



First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



474 



222 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova, 
Ugodnikovskaya Street, 26, 
Saratov 



I have been sitting at home lately working on a transla- 
tion* and have seen little of what is going on in Paris. 
Among our people here, by the way, there is more bickering 
and abuse of each other than there has been for a long time — 
there probably never has been so much before. All the groups 
and sub-groups have joined forces against the last confer- 
ence and those who organised it so that matters even went 
as far as fisticuffs at meetings here. 308 

In short, there is so little here that is interesting or even 
pleasant that it's not worth writing. 



Written March 24, 1912 
Sent from Paris 

First published in 1930 Printed from 

in the journal Proletarskaya a typewritten copy 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 (made by the police) 



It is not known which translation Lenin refers to. — Ed. 



475 



223 

TO HIS MOTHER 

April 7, 1912 

Mother dearest, 

You will probably receive this letter about April 1 (Old 
Style). I congratulate you and Manyasha on the occasion 
of your name day; I embrace you fondly and wish you. 
everything of the best. 

What is spring on the Volga like this year? Are you all 
keeping well? I have got into the habit of looking every 
day in Rech to see what the weather, in Saratov is like and 
I see that it is still cold. 

It seems that we are having an early spring here this 
year. Some days ago I again went cycling in the woods — 
the fruit trees in the orchards are all covered in white, "as 
though bathed in milk", and such a wonderful perfume — a 
really delightful spring! It is a pity I cycled alone; Nadya 
has caught cold, has lost her voice and has to stay at home. 

In summer we intend going to Fontenay, near Paris, 
and are thinking of moving there altogether. 309 Paris is 
expensive, rents have gone up. Besides, it will probably 
be healthier and quieter in the suburbs. I want to go and 
look for something soon. 

We expected a long letter from Manyasha, but did not 
get one. I am sending her a prospectus, all that I could 
find. How are Mark and Anya keeping? What news is there 
from Mitya? 

Again many kisses and best regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Paris to Saratov 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



476 



224 

TO HIS MOTHER 

May 27, 1912 

Mother dearest, 

I returned to Paris yesterday from a short business trip 310 
and found your letter with the bad news about Anya and 
Manyasha. 311 I am sure they will not be able to hold 
them long because the absurdity of such an arrest is obvi- 
ous. Things have come to such a pass that they say straight 
out to Anyuta "Not for long!" In the provinces today 
they probably pick up people for no reason at all, "just 
in case". 

Have you any acquaintances, my dear? Does anybody 
visit you? Sudden loneliness is the worst thing that can 
happen at such times. Do you get letters and news from 
Mitya and Mark? 

Have you any acquaintances in St. Petersburg? It would 
be a good idea to write to them, if there are any, and tell 
them about what has happened, perhaps they can get some 
information. Sometimes the provincial administration is 
overzealous, especially now, after May Day. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and hope you keep well 
and active. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

P.S. We have not yet decided what to do for the summer. 
It isn't hot yet. 

Sent from Paris to Saratov 



First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



477 



225 

TO HIS MOTHER 

June 2, 1912 

Mother dearest, 

A few days ago I wrote to you about the arrest of Manya- 
sha and Anyuta. There is something else I want to talk 
to you about. I am afraid you must feel very lonely now. 
I asked in my last letter whether any acquaintances 
visit you but I could not have received an answer to that 
letter yet. 

I read in a St. Petersburg newspaper today about the 
large number of arrests and house searches that have been 
made in connection with the case of the railwaymen 312 
in Saratov. They seem to be picking up people left and 
right.... I don't know whether you have yet managed to 
get any news of Manya and Anyuta. You will probably 
be seeing Anyuta soon, because when they arrested 
her they said it would not be for long. If the arrests 
are on a very big scale, however, it may take some 
time simply to sort out all the people who have been 
arrested. 

Please drop me a line, my dear, to let me know if you 
are well, how you are feeling, and if there is any news and 
whether you have any acquaintances in Saratov. Perhaps 
you will feel a little less miserable if we write to one 
another more often. 

There are no changes here. Yesterday we undertook an 
excursion to the Pare de St. Cloud, but we had bad luck — 



478 



V. I. LENIN 



it rained. The weather in general is not hot and we have 
not yet decided anything about summer. 

Nadya and Yel. Vas. send you many kisses and wish 
you good health and good spirits. So do I and embrace 
you, my dear. 



Yours, 



V. Ulyanov 



Sent from Paris to Saratov 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



479 



226 

TO HIS MOTHER 

July 1, 1912 

Mother dearest, 

I received your letter about the trip up the Volga and 
the Kama and your new address. I must give you a new 
address, too. This summer we have moved a long way 
from Paris — to Krakow. Almost in Russia! Even the Jews 
are like Russians and the Russian frontier is 8 versts away 
(the journey by train from Granice to here takes two hours, 
from Warsaw 9 hours), the women go barefoot and wear 
brightly-coloured clothes, exactly as in Russia. My address 
here is: 

Herrn Wl. Ulijanow, 
Zwierzyniec, L. 218, 
Krakau, Oesterreich. 
I wish you and Anyuta a good holiday and a pleasant 
journey up the Volga. The hot weather is beginning and it 
must be good to be on the river. 

With regard to Manyasha — it is to be hoped that after 
what they told you they will not be able to hold her very 
long. 

Regards to Mark! 

Please send me Mitya's address, my dear. 

Getting settled here is taking up a lot of our time. For 
the summer we are living out of town, near a summer resort 
called "Salwator". We cannot yet speak Polish. Many dif- 
ficulties and much bother. 

Y. V. is ill. Looks like pneumonia. 



480 



V. I. LENIN 



I embrace you fondly, my dear; give Anya my very best 
regards. 

Y. V. and N. K. send regards and embrace you. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Sent to Saratov 
First published 

in the Fourth Edition Printed from 

of the Collected Works the original 



Lenin's mother and sister Maria 
1913 



481 



227 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Dear Manyasha, 

Many thanks for the photographs* and the letter. At 
long last! How are you feeling now? 

I am not surprised that you have chosen the north, 313 
I would probably have done the same myself. I hope that 
they will not send you too far away — there are some nasty 
places there. Please write as soon as you arrive. 

We have been having a lot of trouble during the past 
few days and so I could not answer you immediately. 

This place is full of rumours of war, as, by the way, 
you can see from the papers. If there is a war I shall probably 
have to move to Vienna (or to that town where I last saw 
you).** But I do not believe there will be a war. 

I kiss you fondly, my dear. So do Y. V. and Nadya. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

P.S. Write and tell me whether you will be receiving 
Neue Zeit. 



Written at the end of November 1912 
Sent from Krakow to Saratov 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



* Lenin received photographs of his mother and his two sisters. — 

Ed. 

** Lenin here refers to his meeting with his mother and sister in 
Stockholm in September 1910.— Ed. 



482 



228 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Dear Anyuta, 

I was very glad to hear from you. Your hand must have 
been very painful for a long time — your writing is still 
weak. 

Here we feel much better than we did in Paris — our 
nerves are at rest and there is more literary work and less 
squabbling. I hope it will be easier for us to meet, too — 
as long as there is no war; I do not greatly believe there 
will be one. 

I receive very occasional news from Gorky, who is now 
less unfriendly in his attitude towards us than he was. 

How are Mark and Mitya? 

Give Mother many, many kisses from me. 

Here we are having wonderful autumn weather, and we 
go out a lot. 

Material conditions are so far bearable but not very 
reliable.... If anything happens I will write to you. 
All the best and excuse the hurry. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

P.S. Y. V. and Nadya ask me to send their regards and 
kisses. Both are well. 

Written in the autumn of 1912 
Sent from Krakow to Saratov 



First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



483 



229 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Mother dearest, 

Please excuse me for the delay in answering your last 
letter; I have already received a second. Nadya will write 
you in detail about our way of life.* 

We still have no news of Manyasha. Send her Nadya's 
letter and mine if they are of interest to her. 

I do not think you need worry about her; Vologda is bet- 
ter than Astrakhan as far as climate is concerned (infectious 
diseases are worse and more dangerous in Astrakhan); she 
will make friends with people. After all, the town is not far 
from Petersburg and Moscow. The St. Petersburg papers 
probably arrive only a day late. 

It is difficult to arrange for any translation work; some 
contact must be established with publishers in Moscow or 
St. Petersburg. Nadya suggests what I think is a good idea — 
write to the Sabashnikovs.** Perhaps Anyuta will also 
write to Krumbiigel (if it is possible), etc. I, alas, have no 
contacts with publishers. 

How is it that Mark is so often ill? That's no good! He 
should take a rest in summer, for instance, in the moun- 
tains — four hours' journey from here there is Zakopane, 
they say it is a wonderful place in the mountains. 

We are not thinking of moving; unless the war chases 
us away, but I do not greatly believe in the war. We shall 
wait and see. 



* The letter has been lost.— Ed. 
** The Sabashnikov Bros., publishers.— Ed. 



484 



V. I. LENIN 



Best regards to Mitya and Anyuta. How is her finger? 
It is time it was cured! 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and hope you keep well. 

Yours, 

V. Ul. 

Written December 21 or 22, 1912 
Sent from Krakow to Saratov 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



485 



230 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Her Excellency Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 

Poste Restante, 

Vologda, 

Russia 

Dear Manyasha, 

At last a brief note from you, very brief, it is true, has 
reached me. Write and tell me how you have settled down, 
whether you have made any friends, and whether there is 
any possibility of your finding work. Have the local author- 
ities kept their promise not to prevent your looking for 
a job?* 

I recently received a letter from Mother who tells me that 
Mark came back from St. Petersburg ill. Why is he so poorly 
these days? What was he like when you left — was he, on 
the whole, well? 

I suppose you are now suffering from "prison anaemia", 
or rather from a worsening of your former anaemia. You 
ought to do something about it — go skating, for instance. 
That is something you must do, so do not neglect it! There 
is slush where I am now, but last year, when I found my- 
self in a "cold" place, I immediately found a skating 
rink and had a go to see whether I had forgotten how to 
skate. 

There are now great difficulties in the way of getting 
translations from French and German because of the copy- 



* Lenin's sister was banished to Vologda. — Ed. 



486 



V. I. LENIN 



right convention. In this place, unfortunately, I am cut off 
from all contact with publishers. You should write to St. 
Petersburg or Moscow, if you have any acquaintances there, 
and try to find out from the publishers how they stand; 
translation is the best form of employment and quite a 
large number of translated books are published. Write 
and tell me what the prospects are. 

Y. V. and Nadya are very anxious to send regards. 



All the best, 



Yours, 



V. Ul. 



Written December 24 or 25, 1912 
Sent from Krakow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarakaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



487 



231 



TO HIS SISTER MARIA 



Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
c/o Gorokhova, 
Muromtsev's House, 
Kazanskaya Square, 
Vologda, 
Russia 



I have received the letter with your address, dear Manya- 
sha, and hasten to reply. Did you get the letter I sent you 
Poste Restante? 

We could probably arrange to send you the journal Gleich- 
heit, 314 which is published fortnightly. It is merely a matter 
of whether the censor will allow it. Try to find out — or 
should we just send it? 

When do you receive the St. Petersburg newspapers? 
A day late or later? 

A thousand good wishes and regards to all friends. 



December 28, 1912 



Ever yours, 



VI. U. 



Sent from Krakow 



First published in Russian 
and in French in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from the 
Russian translation or the 
French original 



488 



1913 



232 

TO HIS MOTHER 

(December 21) January 3, 1913 

Mother dearest, 

Today I received letters from you and Anyuta. A big 
merci. 

The compliments of the season to all of you! May you 
all have a good time and keep well and cheerful. 

Today I also got a picture postcard from Manyasha with 
a view of the River Vologda. Not a bad little town, judging 

by the postcard She writes that she has settled in there 

quite well. 

If Mitya is with you give him my best regards. And 
the same to Mark. I hope he is better by now. 

Anyuta is still writing badly! What a nuisance that 
finger is! 

We are all well. We intend to celebrate the Russian 
festivals more than the local ones. 

I embrace you fondly and wish you all the best. 

Yours, 

VI. U. 

Sent from Krakow to Saratov 



First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



489 



233 

TO HIS MOTHER AND HIS SISTER ANNA 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Tsarevskaya, 36, 

Saratov,* 

Russia 

Mother dearest, 

I received two parcels today. What a mountain of sweets 
you sent us! A big merci from us all. Nadya is quite cross 
with me because I wrote "about the fish", and about sweets, 
and because I have caused you so much trouble. I did not 
expect that everything would be in such gigantic quanti- 
ties The duty on fish is not very high but for sweets it 

is quite a lot. And so we are now going to celebrate "New 
Year" again! 

How are you two managing without Mark? The newspa- 
pers say that political exiles may get an amnesty. Let us 
wait until February 21....** 

We are having wonderful winter weather without snow. 
I have bought some skates and skate with great enthusiasm — 
it brings back Simbirsk and Siberia. I have never before 
skated abroad. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and send best regards 
to Anyuta. So do Y. V. and Nadya. 

Yours, 

VI. U. 



* The address is taken from a copy found in a dossier of the Police 
Department. — Ed. 

** Lenin refers to the amnesty granted on the occasion of the 
tercentenary of the House of Romanov. — Ed. 



490 



V. I. LENIN 



P.S. The number of our house has been changed, it is 
now Ulica Lubomirskiego, 49. 

Dear Anyuta, 

I had just written to Mother about the parcels when 
the letter from you both arrived. I am glad that Mark is 
pleased with his travelling — I hope he will be better off 
in Siberia. If you go to see Mitya* I hope you will call on 
us — it is almost on your way, the deviation is a very small 
one. If you did not have to pay a high stamp duty on 
passports it would be quite cheap; only those who live near 
the frontier can come here without passports, with "half 
passes" that cost 30 kopeks. 

We live modestly, no changes We are drawing up 

plans for the publication of pamphlets at Pravda.... 315 
I do not know whether we shall be able to manage it, but 
there is a demand for it. 

Manyasha writes occasionally. She still has not found 
any work. 

What we are most badly off for here is Russian books! 
And there's nothing we can do about it. 



All the best, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Written February 24, 1913 
Sent from Krakow to Saratov 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



* Lenin's brother Dmitry was at that time employed as public 
health officer in Feodosia, Crimea. — Ed. 



491 



234 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Dear Anyuta, 

It is quite a while since I had news of you. Is Mother 
keeping well? Have you received the letter I sent immedia- 
tely on receiving the "goodies"? 

It seems that the amnesty did not affect the exiles in 
Vologda at all.... m 

Is there any news from Mitya or Mark in their new places? 

Do you know the address of Krumbiigel — he published 
my book on philosophy? Is it possible to get hold of him 
(if you tell me how to find him I can probably get an 
acquaintance in Moscow to do it) and find out whether there 
are any unsold copies of the book left? We could now prob- 
ably find another means of disposing of them and could 
come to an agreement on the subject with the publisher. 

All the best, kiss Mother for me. 

Yours, 

VI. U. 

P. S. Our address is now Lubomirskiego No. 49 (and 
not 47). 

Written March 18, 1913 
Sent from Krakow to Saratov 



First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



492 



235 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Dear Manyasha, 

Congratulations on the occasion of your and Mother's 
name day. I hope you will soon be spending the summer 
months with more company and in more healthy surround- 
ings. 

Many thanks for the letter. I was very glad to get the 
news and will try to write again in a day or two. Forgive 
me for breaking off so soon, but I am in a great hurry. 

Regards to friends. All the best. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Written during the first half 

of April, 1913 
Sent from Krakow to Vologda 

First published 

in the Fourth Edition Printed from 

of the Collected Works the original 



493 



236 

KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

May 3 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

We have received your postcards and I am very glad 
to know that you are having a good rest. Here, too, it is 
real summer. Today we sent our things off to the country. 
Our new address is 

Villa Terezy Skupieh, 

Poronin, 

Galizien, 



Austria. 

We shall be leaving in three days. The packing was an 
awful nuisance but as we are going to Poronin for five 
months we had to buy everything. I am quite invalided and 
tire very quickly. I have been going for electric treatment 
for a whole month, the swelling in my neck has not gone 
down but my eyes have become more normal and the pal- 
pitation is less. Treatment is free here in the nerve clinic 
and the doctors are very attentive. There is another advan- 
tage. While you are waiting your turn, you hear Polish spo- 
ken and speak yourself. I certainly want to learn Polish. 
In summer I shall have spare time and will read Polish 
books. We shall probably have a help in for four or five 
hours a day in summer and I shall have less to bother about. 
Mother did not go to Russia. Partly because of my illness 
and partly because there was no one to accompany her. But 
mostly because of my illness. In the last few days she has 
grown very tired from all the commotion in the house. 



494 



V. I. LENIN 



Volodya has been away and was not home for his birthday 
or for the holidays. The journey made a good break for 
him. 317 

I do not yet know whether there is anywhere to bathe 
in Poronin. Volodya is very fond of bathing — there will 
be no bath there and he will not be able to take a shower. 

I want to get to the country as soon as possible. We 
live on the outskirts of the town, there are market gardens 
opposite our windows and the day before yesterday a night- 
ingale was singing, but still it is a town, the children 
shout, soldiers are riding to and fro and the carts are noisy. 

Well, I embrace you and Anya fondly and send regards 
to all. Is it possible that Anya's finger still hurts? 

Mother sends regards. 

Yours, 

Nadya 



Mother dearest, 

I am adding a couple of words to Nadya's letter. I must 
apologise for not having written, but I have been away 
for a couple of days and now we are moving. 

Many thanks to Mitya for the letter. 318 I have also 
received a very long and interesting letter from Mark. I will 
reply to it from Poronin. 

Poronin is the station before Zakopane (a spa). There 
are direct coaches to Zakopane — from Warsaw second class 
and from Granice third class. 

I embrace you fondly and send best regards to all. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Written May 3, 1913 
Sent from Krakow to Feodosia 
(Crimea) 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



495 



237 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Yekaterininsko-Dvoryanskaya Street, 40, 
Vologda, 
Russia 

Dear Manyasha, 

I believe I am in debt to you (to Mark Timofeyevich 
I most certainly am). At long last I have settled down 
to write. We moved here a few days ago (partly because 
of Nadya's illness — she has thyroid trouble which worries 
me greatly) to spend the summer in the village of Poronin, 
in the mountains seven kilometres from Zakopane. It is 
near the Tatra Mountains,* 6-8 hours by rail to the south 
of Krakow and communication with Russia and Europe 
is through that town. It is farther from Russia, but that 
can't be helped. 

We have rented a country house (a huge one, far too 
big!) for the whole summer up to October 1 (New Style) and 
after a lot of bother and bustle have moved. I think Nadya is 
worse from the moving. I shall probably have to take her 
to Berne for treatment.... 

This is a marvellous place. The air is wonderful — the 
altitude is about 2,300 feet. Our rather damp situation 
on the plains at Krakow cannot be compared to it. We have 
plenty of newspapers and can work. 



* The Tatras are part of the Carpathians, 8,500 feet high. Pure 
Switzerland! 



496 



V. I. LENIN 



The local people are Polish peasants, "Hurals" (moun- 
taineers), with whom I converse* in incredibly broken 
Polish, a language of which I know five words, and the 
rest in distorted Russian. Nadya speaks a little Polish 
and can read the language. The villages are almost Russian 
in type. Thatched roofs, poverty. The women and children 
go barefoot. The men wear the Hural costume, white cloth 
trousers and coats, half jacket and half cape, of the same 
material. This is not a holiday resort (Zakopane is) and, 
therefore, very quiet. I still hope that Nadya will get better 
in the quiet and the mountain air. We have started leading 
the rural life here — we get up early and go to bed almost 
with the roosters. We walk every day to the post office and 
the station. 

Do you see Pravda and Prosveshcheniye regularly? 319 The 
people here were glad to see the anniversary issue 320 and 
to hear of the metalworkers' victory over the liquidators. 321 

How are you? Will you be able to keep your lessons for 
the summer? Do you get enough books? 

Greetings to Polish friends,** and I hope they help you 
in every way.... 

Y. V. and Nadya send regards and kisses. I too. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Address: Herrn Ulianow, Oesterreich, Poronin (Galizien). 

P.S. You had better send this letter to Mother, unless 
she will be visiting you soon. 

Written May 12 or 13, 1913 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



* (I prefer talking to Jews — in German). 
** Lenin refers to V. V. Vorovsky who was in exile in Vologda. — Ed. 



497 



238 

KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

May 25 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

We received your letter today. I hasten to reply to it. 

I am getting better now. The palpitation has become 
less violent. I am following the doctor's advice and eating 
enough for three, guzzling milk and taking Robin's thyroid 
medicine and, in general, everything is fine. Volodya gets 
very worked up, people worry him a lot about Kocher. I 
am very glad that D. I. has written him a letter telling him 
that there is no need for an operation, etc., because people 
are talking all sorts of nonsense to him — that I may go 
blind, that I should lie motionless for eighteen months and 
so on. I have not got the disease in such an advanced stage 
and I shall recover in the summer. 

Our real holiday is only just beginning. There was a ter- 
rible hurly-burly over the moving, and here at first we 
had to haggle. The people here have been spoiled by holi- 
daymakers — they lie, swindle, etc. At first we were angry 
at this, but now everything is in its place. A girl comes 
to us; she cannot cook, but does all the household chores. 
Today the weather shows signs of changing; so far we have 
had a whole week of rain, but the place does not seem damp. 
This morning Volodya and I walked for about two hours, 
and now he has gone off alone to some indefinite point in 
space. 

Every morning a fluffy black pup comes running to us 
from the neighbour's and Volodya spends a lot of time 
playing with it. This is the real summer cottage routine. 

There is only one family here with whom we are 



498 



V. I. LENIN 



acquainted and they live a long way away, half an hour's 
walk. But that does not prevent us from seeing each other, 
sometimes twice a day. 

I am glad there are no crowds here. I do a minimum 
amount of work. I read mostly Polish novels, and not very 
enthusiastically at that. 

It is very beautiful here. Fortunately you cannot do a 
lot of cycling, because Volodya used to abuse that amuse- 
ment and overtire himself; it is better to walk more. 

Mother sends regards. She is still feeling miserable — 
her sister with whom she was brought up and with whom 
she had maintained close relations all her life, died a fort- 
night ago. Mother even wanted to go to Novocherkassk 
when she heard of her sister's illness, but she had no pass- 
port — it had been sent in for renewal. 

Many kisses for Anya, and regards to all. Volodya will 
probably write himself. I embrace you fondly, my dear. 

Yours, 

Nadya 



Mother dearest, 

I embrace you fondly and send regards to all. Many thanks 
to Mitya for the letters. I am trying to persuade Nadya to 
go to Berne. She does not want to. She is now slightly 
better. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Written May 25, 1913 
Sent from Poronin to Feodosia 
(Crimea) 

First published 

in the Fourth Edition Printed from 

of the Collected Works the original 



499 



239 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Her Excellency Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Yekaterininsko-Dvoryanskaya Street, 40, 
Vologda, 
Russia 



Sent by Wl. Ulianow in Poronin (Galizien) 

June 18 

Dear Manyasha, 

On June 21 or 22 Nadya and I are going to Berne, where 
she will (probably) have an operation. The address there 
is: Herrn Schklowsky. 9. Falkenweg. 9. Bern. Switzerland. 
For W.I.U. 

We shall probably be there from one to three weeks. 

I am sending you a view of the Tatras, where we recently 
went on an excursion. Y. V. and Nadya send very best 
regards. Nadya is feeling well. 

Best regards to Mother if she is at your place. Send this 
on to her if she is not. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Written June 18, 1913 
First published 

in the Fourth Edition Printed from 

of the Collected Works the original 



500 



240 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Her Excellency Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova (for M. A.), 

Yekaterininsko-Dvoryanskaya Street, 40, 

Vologda, 

Russia 

June 24, 1913 

Mother dearest, 

I received your letter just before I left. Nadya and I have 
reached Vienna and today we are continuing our journey. 
I will write to you from Berne. I embrace you fondly, 
Anyuta and Manyasha, too. We are travelling comfortably 
and have taken a look at Vienna. The weather is fine. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Please convey my apologies to M. T. for not answering 
his interesting letter. Tell him not to be angry! 

Sent from Vienna 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



501 



241 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova (for M. A. Ulyanova), 
Yekaterininsko-Dvoryanskaya Street, 40, 
Vologda, 
Russia 

Mother dearest, 

Nadya and I have been in Berne for several days. Kocher 
has not yet received us. He is a difficult person. He's a 
celebrity and likes to be begged. Some competent local 
doctors praise him to the skies and promise complete success. 
We shall wait. In the meantime write to me c/o Herrn 
Schklowsky. (For W. I.) 9. Falkenweg. Bern. Switzerland. 

We shall probably have to spend a few weeks here. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and send very best 
regards to Anyuta and Manyasha. So does Nadya. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Written June 28 or 29, 1913 
Sent from Berne 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



502 



242 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Saturday, July 26, 1918 

Mother dearest, 

After a fortnight's "preparation" in the clinic, Nadya 
was at last operated on on Wednesday. The operation seems 
to have been successful because she looked quite well yes- 
terday, and had begun to drink willingly. It seems to have 
been a rather difficult operation, they tormented Nadya 
for about three hours without an anaesthetic, but she bore 
it bravely. On Thursday she was very bad, a high temper- 
ature and delirium, so I was pretty scared. But yesterday 
there was an obvious improvement, no fever, the pulse was 
slower, etc. 

Kocher, of course, is a wonderful surgeon, and anyone 
with thyroid trouble should go to him; he has a huge clien- 
tele of Russians, of Jews especially. 

I am already thinking of the journey back; we expect 
to leave on August 4 (unless Kocher delays it, which some- 
times happens) and we shall make overnight stops at Zu- 
rich, Munich and Vienna, and go on home from there. 
I shall be here long enough to receive another letter from 
you, after which you must write to Poronin. If I am delayed 
here I will write again. 

The suppression of the paper I wrote for 322 leaves me in 
a very critical position. I shall try harder than ever to find 
publishers and translations; it is very difficult at present 
to find any literary work. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



503 



I embrace you fondly, my dear, and send very best 
regards to Manyasha and Anya. Nadya sends her fondest 
regards. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Sent from Berne to Vologda 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



504 



243 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Samarin's House, Apt. 3, 
Moskovskaya Street, 
Vologda, 
Russia 

Dear Manyasha, 

I received your letter a few days after I had posted you 
a letter from Nadya and me. 

You make me ashamed of myself for my silence. I really 
am at fault — there has been a lot of bother over our moving 
and because of the influenza. Now Y. V. here is ill — she 
has had a very bad attack of influenza but is now recovering. 

You ask about new German literature. I have just fin- 
ished reading the four volumes of the Marx-Engels cor- 
respondence. I want to write about it in Prosveshcheniye. 323 
There is much of interest. It is pity the publishers — 
those Bosches! — charge such a price for it — 40 marks! I 
have not yet read Beer's new History of Socialism in 
England, but I soon shall. 

Cunow's book on the origin of religion appeared recently. 
I would send it to you (I can buy it) but I am afraid it 
would not reach you. If you receive or can obtain Neue Zeit, 
there is a list in it of all the interesting things. I do not see 
any new bourgeois literature. If you like I can send you a 
list of all new books in German (a small publication I get every 
month, it is put out by Hinrichs, a bookseller in Leipzig). 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



505 



All the best. Give Mother many kisses for me and for 
Nadya. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

It is a long time since I had word from Anyuta. 
I am reading Octave Mirbeau's Dingo. In my opinion 
it is no good. 

Written November 12 or 13, 
1913 

Sent from Krakow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



506 



244 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Samarin's House, Apt. 3, 
Moskovskaya Street, 
Vologda, 
Russia 

December 21 

Dear Manyasha, 

Under separate cover I am sending you some German 
book catalogues. Look them over and drop me a line to 
say if there is anything that interests you (when you have 
finished with them — there is no hurry — return them). 

How are you and Mother getting on? Do you intend 
to see Mark or Anya during the holidays? Have you heard 
anything from Mitya? 

Everything is still the same here; I have already got 
thoroughly used to the Krakow way of life — narrow, quiet, 
sleepy, but in some respects more convenient than life in 
Paris. 

Forgive me for not writing often, business interferes. 
Give Mother many kisses for me. Nadya and Y. V. also 
send regards and kisses. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Written December 21, 1913 
Sent from Krakow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



507 



245 

KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

December 26 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

It is an age since I last wrote to you. In general I have 
been conducting a sort of sit-down strike against letter-writ- 
ing lately. Volodya is partly to blame. He has enticed me 
into the "excursionist" party. It is our local joke that we 
have a "cinemist" party (of cinema-lovers), an "anti-cine- 
mist", or "anti-semitic", party, and an "excursionist" party, 
which is always finding excuses for excursions. Volodya is 
a confirmed anti-cinemist and an enthusiastic excursionist. 
He has recruited me into his party and so I have no time left 
for anything. To make things worse, we are having some 
wonderfully fine days. With just a light fall of snow- 
really excellent. And autumn, too, was fine. After all, what 
is there to do in Krakow but go walking. We have no sophis- 
ticated amusements of any kind. We did once go to a 
concert, a Beethoven quartet, we even clubbed together 
to buy a season ticket, but for some reason the music made 
us terribly miserable, although an acquaintance of ours,* 
an excellent musician, was in ecstasies over it. We do not 
want to go to the Polish theatre, the cinema here is quite 

absurd — all five-act melodramas Volodya and I have 

decided that after the holidays we will begin a study of the 
local University library, for, to our shame, we have never 
been there. If there is anything we thirst for here it is good 
literature. Volodya has practically learned Nadson and 
Nekrasov by heart and an odd volume of Anna Karenina 



* Inessa Armand. — Ed. 



508 



V. I. LENIN 



is being read for the hundredth time. We left our literature 
(a tiny fraction of what we had in St. Petersburg) in Paris 
and here there isn't a Russian book to be had anywhere. 
At times we read with envy the advertisements of second- 
hand booksellers offering 28 volumes of Uspensky or 10 
volumes of Pushkin, etc., etc. 

Volodya, as luck would have it, has become a great 
fiction-lover. And an out-and-out nationalist. You cannot 
get him to look at the pictures by Polish artists at any 
price but he has picked up, for instance, a catalogue of 
the Tretyakov Gallery that some acquaintance had thrown 
away and is always burying himself in it. 

We are all well. Volodya takes a cold shower every day, 
goes for walks and does not suffer from insomnia. He con- 
tinues praising the local swamp. Mother is often unwell, 

first a gumboil, then a cough She sends her best regards. 

I had a letter from Manyasha, but it was in her usual scrawl 
so I understood nothing of it. She should write more often. 
I embrace her and you most fondly, wish you good health 
and everything of the best. Again I kiss you. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

MOT V 

Many kisses, my dear, I wish you good health and spi- 
rits. Very best regards to Manyasha (I wrote to her a few 
days ago) and to Anyuta, who is probably with you. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Written December 26, 1913 
Sent from Krakow to Vologda 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



509 



1914 



246 

KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

January 7 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

A Happy New Year to you, Manyasha and Anya, with 
all best wishes for everything that is good. 

We spent the European New Year's Eve alone with 
Volodya sitting over plates of curds, and the Russian New 
Year's Eve we shall not celebrate at all because Volodya 
is going away for a month or six weeks to work in a library. 324 
I envy him a bit because our place is more like a backwoods 
village than a town and I miss people quite a lot. There is 
simply no one here to bother about and no one to take 
care of. 

We do not seem to be able to make acquaintances among 
the local inhabitants. 

Winter tried hard to get going here, Volodya went skat- 
ing three times and tempted me to buy skates, but the 
weather suddenly turned warm, all the ice melted, and 
today, for instance, there is a real smell of spring in the 
air. Yesterday, too, was not at all like winter. Volodya 
and I went for a long walk in the country and it was 
fine. 

That, then, is all our news. I embrace you fondly, Mother 
sends regards. 
How are your eyes? Did Anya come as she intended to? 
Keep well! 

Yours, 

Nadya 



510 



V. I. LENIN 



Mother dearest, 

I embrace you fondly and wish you a Happy New Year — 
you, and Manyasha and Anya! 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Written January 7, 1914 
Sent from Krakow to Vologda 

First published 

in the Fourth Edition Printed from 

of the Collected Works the original 



511 



247 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova, 
Goncharnaya Street, 11, Apt. 23, 
St. Petersburg, 
Russia 

Dear Anyuta, 

At last I am home after a long absence; I found and read 
all your letters, and today another one came, the one you 
thought might not arrive. We have them all. You were 
right about the delay with the articles, but there is nothing 
I can do. I have only two hands. Prosveshcheniye No. 1 has 
not arrived, although I have received a newspaper with a 
notice that it has been published. You are also delaying 
things. I am going to write about the self-determination of 
nations — perhaps it will be in time for No. 2. 325 

Please send me Proletarskaya Pravda No. 11 (2 copies), 
Put Pravdy No. 2, Novaya Rabochaya Gazeta No. 8 (126) 326 — 
do not ask anybody else to send them (that is hopeless) 
but send them yourself. 

With regard to the summaries of crime statistics for 
1905-1908, I would ask you not to buy them (there is no 
need, they are expensive) but to get them from a library 
(either the Bar Council or the Duma Library) and send 
them for a month. (Many thanks for the journal of the 
Ministry of Justice — I hope you got it back.) I heard that 
you people crossed out of the article on the X affair* 



* For the case of X (Danski, B. G.) see Collected Works, Vol. 20, 
p. 524.— Ed. 



512 



V. I. LENIN 



something against the liquidators and I was very angry at 
this inappropriate and harmful conciliation; you are only 
helping the foul slander of the liquidators, delaying the 
inevitable process of chucking such scoundrels as Galina, Mar- 
tov, Dan and others out of the working-class movement. You 
won't succeed in anything but disgracing yourselves. I am 
really mad at the disgusting blackmail engineered by Mar- 
tov & Co. in the X affair; we shall gradually crush that gang 
of blackmailers, 

I have not written home for a long time. I hope everything 
is all right there. Drop me a line or two. 

I have just received Prosveshcheniye No. 1. Congratula- 
tions. In general it is good. Except for the misprints.... And 
the review of Levitsky's book with the foolish word "factio- 

nally" in it 327 Who let that go through? Who is the 

author? N. K. will write about the women's magazine. 328 

Written February 11, 1914 
Sent from Krakow 

First published in 1933 Printed from 

in Lenin Miscellany XXV a typewritten copy 

(made by the police) 



513 



248 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Samarin's House, Apt. 3, 
Moskovskaya Street, 
Vologda, 
Russia 

February 16, 1914 

Dear Manyasha, 

I recently returned from a trip (among other things, 
I lectured on the question of nationalities in Paris) 329 
and still cannot settle down to write. 

How are you? When will your term of exile be over? 

How is Mother keeping? Has she completely recovered? 

It is a long time since I had news of Mark or Mitya. I 
know nothing about their way of life or their plans. 

There have been no changes here. We still live modestly. 
Nadya seems to be in for a relapse of her thyroid trouble — 
the symptoms are still mild but they are there. Perhaps I 
shall have to take her for another operation in spring.... 
It is still not certain and it is better so far to say nothing 
to her about if. I am quite well, so is Y. V. 

All the best. Give Mother many kisses for me. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Sent from Krakow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



514 



249 

TO HIS MOTHER 

February 21, 1914 

Mother dearest, 

I have received your postcard — merci. What a difference 
between, your weather and ours here! Here it is already 
spring-there has been no snow for a long time, it is warm, 
we do not wear galoshes and the sun is unusually bright 
for these parts. We cannot believe that we are in "wet" 
Krakow. It is a pity that you and Manyasha have to live 
in a nasty little town!... I have been to Paris and not to 
London and have had quite a good trip. Paris is a very 
unsuitable town for a man of modest means to live in, and 
very tiring. But there is no better and more lively town 
to stay in for a short time, just for a visit, for an outing. It 
made a good change. 

In summer we shall probably go to Poronin again. 

I embrace you fondly, my dear, and hope you keep well. 
Best regards to Manyasha. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

P.S. Nadya and Y. V. also send many kisses. 

Sent from Krakow to Vologda 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



515 



250 

KRUPSKAYA AND LENIN TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

March 16 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

It is an age since I wrote to you. For some reason it seems 
difficult to write this year. We are very lonely here — there 
is really only one family in the whole town with whom 
we are acquainted. They have an amusing little boy but 
we do not see eye to eye with the mother. There is one other 
family but their company is painful, they are so worn out 
with poverty, so completely crushed. Nor do we get many 
letters. We live mostly on newspapers. 

The weather here is not bad, the grass is showing green 
and so are the buds on the trees, but the mud on the roads 
is terrible. Volodya went for quite a long ride on his bicycle but 
had a burst tyre. We intend to go for long outings in the woods. 
We go walking a little every day — our house is on the very 
outskirts of the town and the fields are only five minutes' 
walk from us. We have already arranged for the old cottage 
in the country and are thinking of moving there on May 1. 
The house there is a bit on the big side for us and is a long 
way from the shops, but the rooms are very good and have 
stoves in them, there are two verandahs, and it is some 
distance from the road. 

Perhaps I shall recover my breath there. Again I have 
thyroid trouble, not as badly as before, my eyes are almost 
normal and my neck swells only when I am excited, but 
the palpitation is rather bad. Actually the disease does not 
yet bother me very much and does not prevent my doing 
anything, but it is a bore to have to be careful of everything 
and to have to start an invalid routine again. It is damp 



516 



V. I. LENIN 



here in Krakow but in Poronin I shall probably get over 
it all very quickly. 

Volodya is very fond of Poronin and particularly likes 
scrambling up the mountains. This time we intend to take 
a servant who will live in, so that there will be no bother 
with the housekeeping and we shall be able to go on long 
outings. 

Anya is spoiling us this year by sending so many books. 
Has Manyasha received my letter? 

Many kisses for her and for you, my dear. 

Mother sends regards. She wanted to go to Russia, but 
it is a lot of trouble. 

I wish you all the best and hope you keep well. 



Many kisses, Mother dearest, and regards to all. Mitya 
as well — many thanks for the letter. I have also had a letter 
from Mark. Here we saw the "Beilis affair" 330 in the cin- 
ema (they made a melodrama of it). We went to the Shev- 
chenko 331 celebration — it was in Ukrainian. I understand 
terribly little Ukrainian. There have been no changes. I 
embrace you fondly and hope you keep well. 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Written March 16, 1914 
Sent from Krakow to Vologda 



First published 
in the Fourth Edition 
of the Collected Works 



Printed from 
the original 



517 



251 

TO HIS MOTHER 

April 10, 1914 

Mother dearest, 

I embrace you fondly and congratulate you and Ma- 
nyasha on the occasion of your name day. I now hope that 
the summer in Vologda will be better than the winter has 
been and it is, after all, the last summer!* 

In these last few days I have caught a slight cold (that 
has to happen every spring!) but am now quite well. 

Very soon, early in May, we are going to Poronin again. 

I embrace you fondly and hope you keep well! 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Sent from Krakow to Vologda 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



* Maria Ulyanova's term of exile ended in the autumn of 1914. — 
Ed. 



518 



252 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Samarin's House, Apt. 3, 
Moskovskaya Street, 
Vologda, 
Russia 

April 22 

Dear Manyasha, 

I have had news that you are annoyed at my prolonged 
silence. I am indeed at fault as far as letter-writing is con- 
cerned — it is very difficult in our situation (in yours and 
in mine especially) to carry on the correspondence one 
would like.... 

Yesterday we received a letter from Mother addressed 
to me and to Nadya. Give Mother many kisses for me. Per- 
haps you will be better off in summer than in winter. 

I recently received information about the exiles at Olo- 
nets. They have collected material about the situation there 
and who the exiles are — most of them are workers, new 
people (post-revolutionary people), out of 150 people in 
the uyezd there are two liquidators and a few Left Narod- 
niks. Apparently there are great changes in the composi- 
tion of the exile groups — it would be of interest to collect 
the data and publish them occasionally in Prosveshche- 
niye. 332 Nadya has written to you and intends to write 
again. 

In a fortnight or so we are again going to Poronin — there 
are mountains there and I hope that Nadya's thyroid 
trouble will pass — mountain air is good for people suffering 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



519 



from this disease. The weather here is wonderful and I 
frequently go cycling. 

No matter how provincial and barbarous this town of 
ours may be, by and large I am better off here than I was 
in Paris. The hurly-burly of life in the emigre colony there 
was incredible, one's nerves got worn down badly and for 
no reason at all, Paris is an inconvenient place to work 
in, the Bibliotheque nationale is badly organised — we often 
thought of Geneva, where work went better, the library 
was convenient, and life was less nerve-racking and time- 
wasting. Of all the places I have been in my wanderings 
I would select London or Geneva, if those two places were 
not so far away. Geneva is particularly fine for its general 
cultural level and the conveniences that make life easier. 
Here, of course, there can be no talk of culture — it is 
almost the same as Russia — the library is a bad one and 
extremely inconvenient, although I scarcely ever have to 
go there.... 

Autumn in the Tatras (the mountains near where we live 
in Poronin) is marvellous — at least, last autumn was 
delightful after a rainy summer. Your time will be up in 
autumn, won't it? I sometimes have dreams of our seeing 
one another in autumn. If it is fine in autumn we are think- 
ing of staying in the country in October, too. 



All the best, 



Yours, 



V. U. 



Written April 22, 1914 



Sent from Krakow 
First published in 1929 



in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



520 



253 



TO HIS SISTER ANNA 



Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova, 
Grechesky Prospekt, 17, Apt. 18, 
Petrograd, 
Russia 



Wl. Uljanow, 
Distelweg, 11, 
Berne 



November 14, 1914 



Dear Anyuta, 

I have received a letter from you and also from Mark, 
and, lastly, a postcard from Mother. Many, many thanks to 
everyone! I do not need any money at present. My incarcera- 
tion was a very brief one, 333 only 12 days, and I was soon 
granted certain privileges, so that the "time" I did was 
very easy, the conditions and the treatment were good. 
Now I have had time to look round and settle down here. 
We are living in two furnished rooms, very good ones, and 
we eat in a neighbouring dining-room. Nadya feels quite 
well, so does Y. V., although she has aged badly. I have fin- 
ished my article for the Granat Encyclopaedia (about Marx) 
and am sending it in a few days. 334 I had to abandon part 

(the bigger part, almost all) of my books in Galicia I 

fear for their safety. 335 It is very sad to watch the growth 
of chauvinism in a number of countries and to see such 
treacherous acts as those of the German (and not only the 

German) Marxists, or pseudo-Marxists It stands to reason 

that the liberals are praising Plekhanov again; he has fully 
deserved that shameful punishment. 336 Answer me as 
quickly as possible about how matters stand with the jour- 
nal. 337 Is there any possibility of starting it? If so, when? 
Does the post office accept responsibility for manuscripts 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



521 



sent by registered post? I embrace Mother fondly, send her 
many kisses and hope she keeps well; regards to all from 
all! 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

P.S. I have seen the disgraceful, shameless issue of Sov- 
remenny Mir.... 338 Shame! Shame! 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



522 



254 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 



Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 

Kostomarovsky Street, 15, 

Apt. 336, 

Syromyatniki, 

Moscow, 

Russia 



Expedie par Wl. Oulianoff, 

Distelweg, 11, 

Berne, 

Switzerland 



December 22 

Dear Manyasha, 

I was very glad to receive your letter of November 14 
which arrived today. You addressed it to our old apart- 
ment; our present address is Distelweg, 11. 

I will try to find out whether or not there is a bureau 
here that can give information about Russian prisoners 
of war, and also about that particular prisoner you are 
interested in. 339 Perhaps because of the coming holidays 
I shall not be able to find out immediately, but in any case 
I will try. 

We are living fairly well, quietly and peacefully in sleepy 
Berne. The libraries here are good, and I have made quite 
decent arrangements as far as the use of books is concerned. 
It is even pleasant to read after my daily newspaper work. 
There is a pedagogical library here for Nadya and she is 
writing something on pedagogy. 

I wrote asking Anyuta whether it is possible to find a 
publisher for an agrarian book; I could write one here. 
If you have an opportunity to do so, would you, too, try 
to find out? 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



523 



Why didn't you write anything about yourself — how 
are you keeping? Are you earning anything? How much, 
where, and is it enough? Drop me a line if you can. 

Very best regards, 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Nadya and Y. V. send best regards. 

If you have an opportunity, please find out (if it is not 
too much trouble) whether Granat received my article on 
Marx. I would like to get some work for the Encyclopaedic 
Dictionary, but it is probably not easy to arrange unless 
you have an opportunity to meet the secretary of the edi- 
torial board. 

Written December 22, 1914 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



524 



1915 



255 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, Uljanow, 
Kostomarovsky Street, 15, Apt. 336, Distelweg, 11, 
Syromyatniki, Berne (Switzerland) 

Moscow, 
Russia 

February 9, 1915 

Dear Manyasha, 

I have received two pamphlets from you — by Oganovsky 
and Maslov. Many thanks! They are both rotten opportu- 
nists of the most harmful type (can there be anybody in 
agreement with them and with Plekhanov? It could not be 
worse). It is, however, extremely useful to know what they 
are writing. I shall therefore be extremely grateful if you 
send me things of this sort and also clippings from news- 
papers (and magazines) dealing with similar subjects. A 
long time ago (in the August or September issues), Y. Smir- 
nov, for instance, wrote something extremely shallow in 
Russkiye Vedomosti about voting for credits, etc. I saw that, 
but I know nothing further about the literary activities 
of this man and others like him. 

Here we are well off for foreign newspapers and books 
in the libraries. We are living fairly well. Berne is a small 
and dull but quite civilised town. Y. V. is ill with influ- 
enza. 

There is a growth in the anti-chauvinist mood among 
the Germans; there has been a split in Stuttgart and in 
Frankfurt am Main. 340 An anti-chauvinist publication Licht- 
strahlen 341 is appearing in Berlin. 

If it will not be too much trouble, and if you should hap- 
pen to be somewhere near (please do not go there specially 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 525 



as there is absolutely no hurry) please find out from the 
Granats who accepted my article for the Encyclopaedic 
Dictionary, whether they sent the fee to M. T. Yelizarov 
(as I asked),* and whether it is possible to obtain some 
more work there for the Encyclopaedic Dictionary. I have 
written to the secretary** about this but he has not 
answered me. 

Wishing you all the best — regards from me and from 
Nadya. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



* The article was entitled "Karl Marx" and the fee for it was 
handed to Lenin's sister Maria, personally. — Ed. 
** Collected Works, Vol. 36, p. 317.— Ed. 



526 



256 

TO HIS MOTHER 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, Ulianow, 

Shirokaya Street, 48/9, Apt. 24, Seidenweg, 4aIII, 

Peterburgskaya Storona, Berne 

Petrograd, 

Russia 

October 7, 1915 

Mother dearest, 

Nadya and I moved a few days ago to Berne. We wanted 
to stay longer in Sorenberg, 342 but it was snowing there 
and the cold was just impossible. This year autumn is very 
cold, and Sorenberg has a mountain climate. We have 
found a nice room here with electricity and bath for 30 
francs. Nadya has put on quite a lot of weight; the palpi- 
tation has gone; she has even been up the mountains — let's 
hope there is no recurrence of that thyroid trouble. 

How are you all getting on? Have you made good arrange- 
ments for the winter? Are you keeping well, and is the 
apartment warm? We thank Anyuta very, very, very much 
for the book, for the most interesting collection of peda- 
gogical publications and for the letter.* I wrote to her about 
a publisher and am now awaiting an answer. 343 How is 
Manyasha? If you can, send her this letter; I should be 
glad to get a line from her too. Give or send our best regards 
to Mitya and Mark. I should be very grateful for a sub- 
scription to Rech (Anyuta wrote that she intended sub- 
scribing). There are not many newspapers, books or pamph- 
lets in Russian, we see very few and thirst for them. Has 



Apparently a letter in invisible ink. — Ed. 



LETTERS TO RELATIVES 



527 



Anyuta received my list of "the desirable" that I sent her 
a long time ago? (i.e., desirable Russian books). I send 
you many kisses and embrace you fondly. Anyuta, too. 
So does Nadya. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 



First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



528 



1916 



257 



TO HIS SISTER MARIA 



Mile. Marie Oulianoff, 

Malaya Gruzinskaya, 7, Apt. 13, 

Moscow, 

Russia 



Ulianow, 
Spiegelgasse, 12 
(bei Kammerer), 
Zurich I 



February 20, 1916 



Dear Manyasha, 

Many thanks for the newspapers you sent me a few days 
ago. Today I received a notice from the Central Committee 
of the German Red Cross Unions to the effect that Aaron 
Rosenfeldt is a prisoner of war at Biitow, 66 Regiment. 344 
It has taken more than a year to get the information; neith- 
er the Geneva nor the Danish Red Cross could find any- 
thing out, but I accidentally came across the address of 
the German prisoner of war commission and wrote to them. 
They, too, took more than two months to reply! 

Nadya and I are very pleased with Zurich; there are good 
libraries here — we shall stay a few weeks more and then 
return to Berne. 345 You may write to this address, the post 
office will forward the letters. 

With all my very best wishes and Nadya's too. 



Yours, 



V. Ulyanov 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



529 



258 

TO HIS MOTHER 

March 12, 1916 

Mother dearest, 

I am sending you some photos, one of them for Manyasha. 

We are now living in Zurich. We came here to work in 
the libraries. We like the lake here very much and the 
libraries are much better than those in Berne, so we shall 
probably stay here longer than we had intended. You may 
write to this address, the post office always forwards let- 
ters. 

I hope that the cold weather is already past and that 
you are not freezing in a cold apartment. I hope it will 
soon be warm and you will recover from the winter. 

Nadya sends her very best regards to all. Many kisses, 
Mother dearest; keep well. Best regards to Anyuta and also 
to M. T. 

Yours, 

V. U. 



Sent from Zurich to Petrograd 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



530 



259 



TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW 



His Excellency 

Mark Timofeyevich Yelizarov, 

Po Volge Steamship Co., 

Nevsky, 45, 

Petrograd, 

Russia 



Uljanow, 

Spiegelgasse, 14 n , 

Zurich, 

Switzerland 



September 20, 1916 



Dear M. T., 

Please show this postcard to Manyasha or send it on 
to her. I yesterday received her letter (postcard) dated 
August 8, and also some books, for which my best thanks. 
I was greatly worried by the news that Anyuta is in hos- 
pital. 346 What is the matter? Is it the same disease that made 
her once before, as she wrote, go into hospital for an operation? 
I hope that she and you will, at least, apply to only the very 
best surgeons because in such cases one should never have deal- 
ings with mediocre doctors. I shall impatiently await more 
frequent news, even if only in brief. Letters take a terribly 
long time nowadays! Many thanks to Manyasha for taking 
so much trouble over publishers; I shall get down to writing 
something or other, because prices have risen so hellishly 
that life has become devilishly difficult. How is Manyasha 
getting on? Does she earn a good salary? (I received 200 
rubles and acknowledged it; thanks again.) If you can, 
please send Russian newspapers once a week after you have 
read them, because I have none at all (it is not worth while 
sending them more often). All the best and kisses for Ma- 
nyasha. Nadya says the same. 



Yours, 



V. Ulyanov 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



531 



260 



TO HIS SISTER MARIA 



Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Shirokaya Street, 48, Apt. 24, 
Petrograd, 
Russia 



Oulianoff, 
Spiegelgasse, 14 n , 
Zurich I, 
Switzerland 



October 22, 1916 



Dear Manyasha, 

I received your two postcards dated August 29 and Sep- 
tember I at the same time. Thanks very much for the trouble 
you have taken with the publishers and for the money you 
sent. Has the new publisher received the manuscript on 
modern capitalism? 347 Please let me know when he does. 
I regard this work on economics as being of exceptionally 
great importance and would especially like to see it in print 
in full. You write that the publisher wants to put out The 
Agrarian Question as a book and not as a pamphlet. I 
understand that to mean that I must send him the continuation 
(i.e., in addition to what I have written about America I 
must write what I have promised about Germany), 348 
I will start on this as soon as I have finished what I 
have to write to cover the advance received from the old 
publisher.* 

And so I take it that the new publisher has commis- 
sioned me to continue the agrarian question! If you have 
the chance, remind him of that. (I have not received the 
500 rubles, but shall receive them in a day or two, of course; 
I do not think it is an advance, but payment for the manu- 
scripts received.) 

Is it at all possible (if an opportunity offers, not especially) 
to find out whether Granat included my article on Marx 



The old publisher was V. D. Bonch-Bruyevich. — Ed. 



532 



V. I. LENIN 



in the Dictionary?* I did not get the promised reprints. 
If he does not answer, can you find out from the library by 
taking out the volume for that letter? 

I have sent you three suggestions for translation (three 
books — Kemmerer; Gilbreth; Hobson). If they are not suit- 
able let me know and I will look for others. If suitable, 
you must make sure that an order is given and the suggestion 
accepted. Then I will start work. Perhaps Anya will under- 
take the translation of one of the books? Give Anya my very 
best regards and Nadya's. I have sent you three postcards 
to M.T.'s** address and am now sending this to your 
address. Is it just as convenient? Nadya and I are still living 
in the same old way, quite quietly; the libraries in Zurich 
are better and it is more convenient to work. Many kisses 
from Nadya and me and regards to M. T. I am very grateful 
for the books you sent; we have also received the women's 
journal. 



*See Note 334.— Ed. 
** Of the three postcards two have been lost and the third is 
published as Letter No. 259. —Ed. 



Yours, 



V. U. 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



533 



261 



TO HIS SISTER MARIA 



Her Excellency Maria Ilyinichna 
Ulyanova, 

Shirokaya Street, 48/9, 

Apt. 24, 

Petrograd, 

Russia 



Oulianoff, 
Spiegelgasse, 14 n , 
Zurich, 
Switzerland 



November 26, 1916 



Dear Manyasha, 

I had just sent a registered postcard to Mark Timofeye- 
vich's address when the books (a novel in two volumes) came 
from you, and then a postcard saying you were expecting 
Anyuta in a day or two.* Many thanks for the books. I am 
very glad to get the news about Anyuta. My very best 
regards to her; I hope she will not be long in Astrakhan 
Gubernia and, while there, she should be careful not to get ill 
from the hot climate to which she is not accustomed. Nadya 
sends regards and thanks you for the news about Lidiya. 

There have been no changes here. Prices are rising more 
than ever. Many thanks for the money (I have written to 
M. T. acknowledging receipt of 500 rubles = 869 francs). If 
it is not too much trouble send me three or four times a 
month the Russian newspapers after you have read them — 
tie them up tightly with string or they will get lost. I have 
no Russian newspapers here. For translation I proposed 



* This refers to the release of Lenin's sister Anna from prison. 
-Ed. 



534 



V. I. LENIN 



three books — Kemmerer, Technischer Fortschritt, Hobson, 
Imperialism, and Gitbreth, Motion Study. I have not yet 
received an answer and am awaiting one (because the pub- 
lisher must find out whether they have been published 
before). 

I again wish everybody all the best and send you and 
Anya many kisses. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



535 



1917 



262 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Mile Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, Oulianoff, 

Shirokaya Street, 48/9, Apt. 24, Spiegelgasse, 14, 

Petrograd, Zurich I, 

Russia Switzerland 



February 15, 1917 

Dear Manyasha, 

I today received 808 francs through the Azov-Don Bank; 
in addition to that I received 500 francs on January 22. 
Please write and let me know what money this is, whether 
it is from a publisher, from which one, for what and whether 
it is for me. I must keep an account, that is, I must know 
what the publisher has paid for and what he has not. I 
cannot understand where so much money comes from; 
Nadya says jokingly that I must have been "pensioned 
off". Ha, ha! The joke is a merry one, for the cost of living 
makes one despair and I have desperately little capacity 
for work because of my shattered nerves. But joking aside, 
I must know more about this; please let me know. It is most 
likely that one (or more) of your letters has gone astray 
and I do not know what is going on. I am afraid to spend 
the money (sometimes money was sent through me to a 
sick friend). 

I recently received these books from you: Russkiye Za- 
piski, Tvyordige tseny na khleb, Trudovoye posrednichestvo, 
Tulskaya statistika. I am very, very grateful. 

Very best regards to Anyuta, M. T. and Mitya. There 
are no changes here, we live very quietly; Nadya often 



536 



V. I. LENIN 



feels poorly. The winter has been exceptionally cold, even 
now it is still cold. How are all of you there? Are you keep- 
ing well? We rarely get news of you. 

All the best, many kisses, 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



537 



263 



TO HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW 



Registered. 
His Excellency 

Mark Timofeyevich Yelizarov, 
Po Volge Steamship Co., 



Wl. Oulianoff, 
Spiegelgasse, 14, 
Zurich I, 
Switzerland 



Nevsky, 45, 
Petrograd, 
Russia 

Dear Mark Timofeyevich, 

From the enclosed you will see that Nadya is planning 
the publication of a Pedagogical Dictionary or Pedagogical 
Encyclopaedia. 349 

I am strongly in favour of this plan because, in my opin- 
ion, it fills a very serious gap in Russian pedagogical liter- 
ature; it will be a very useful work and will provide an 
income, which for us is extremely important. 

With the increase in the number of readers and the broad- 
er circles involved, there is now a quickly growing demand 
for encyclopaedias and similar publications. A properly 
compiled Pedagogical Dictionary or Pedagogical Encyclo- 
paedia will become a handbook and go through a number 
of editions. 

I am sure Nadya can do this because she has been working 
in pedagogy for years, has written about it and has under- 
gone systematic training. Zurich is an exceptionally con- 
venient centre for work of this kind; it has the world's 
finest pedagogical museum. 

There is no doubt that such an undertaking would be 
profitable. The best thing would be for us to undertake 



538 



V. I. LENIN 



the publication of it ourselves, borrowing the necessary 
capital or finding a capitalist who would come in as a part- 
ner in the enterprise. 

If that is not possible, and if it would be merely a waste 
of time to go chasing after it — you, of course, will know 
what is best, and when you have given it some thought 
and obtained some information, decide the matter for your- 
self — the plan should be offered to the old publisher, who 
will probably accept it. The plan must not be stolen, i.e., 
somebody else must not get in first. Then a detailed contract 
must be concluded with the publisher in the name of the 
editor (Nadya) that covers all the terms. If not, the publish- 
er (the old publisher too!) will grab all the profit for him- 
self and enslave the editor. That happens. 

I should very much like you to give this plan your best 
attention, take a look round, talk with people, worry them, 
and answer* me in detail. 

All the best, 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

P.S. The publication is in two volumes, two columns 
to a page; to be issued in parts of 16 to 32 pages. Advertise 
for subscribers. Then the money will come in quickly. 

Written February 18 or 19, 1917 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



* If you are successful send a telegram "Encyclopaedia contract 
concluded" and Nadya will speed up the work. 



539 



264 

TELEGRAM TO HIS SISTERS MARIA AND ANNA 

Telegram No. 148, 
Form No. 71, 

Received April 2, 1917 at 20 hrs 8 m. 
Ulyanova, 

Shirokaya, 48/9, Apt. 24, 
Petrograd, 

From Torneo, 2. 18 hrs 12 m. 

Arriving Monday 11 p.m. inform Pravda. 

Ulyanov 

Written April 2, 1917 
First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the telegraph form 



540 



265 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Dear Manyasha, 

I am sending you greetings and all best wishes. I am quite 
comfortable and am working on the question of the state, 
which has interested me for a long time. 350 I want to give 
you some advice — you absolutely must go away for medical 
treatment. There is nothing much doing at the present 
time, troubled though it is, and you must use it to get your 
leg and your nerves treated. I ask you very, very sincerely 
to go away — immediately and without fail. You can take 
a translation or some fiction with you, so that you will be 
better able to stand the boredom that to a certain extent 
is inevitable during medical treatment. But you absolutely 
must go. Please do as I ask and drop me a line in reply. I 
embrace you fondly. 

Yours, 

Ulyanov 



Written in August 1917 
Sent from Helsingfors (Helsinki) 
to Petrograd 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the telegraph form 



541 



266 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Dear, sweet Mimosa,* 

I ask you very much to go away for treatment, do not 
postpone it. You must not miss the chance. When you 
return it will be easy to arrange a job for you. You abso- 
lutely must go. 

The Beer plan is an excellent one. Try also to get Schlii- 
ter on Chartism (in German); 351 it appeared after Beer 
and corrected that opportunist. A very good booklet could 
be written about Beer and Schliiter. Drop me a line in reply. 

"Party Congresses" is also a good subject (in addition 
to the minutes, various booklets** are needed, I do not 
even approximately remember which ones). If you do write, 
send me the draft and we can discuss it. 

I embrace you very fondly. 

V. Ul. 

Written at the end of 
August-September, 1917 
Sent from Helsingfors (Helsinki) 
to Petrograd 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the telegraph form 



* Mimosa was one of the Pay nicknames used by Lenin's sister 
Maria Ulyanova. — Ed. 

** Lenin's "Report" on the Stockholm Congress is in my posses- 
sion quite by chance, and nothing else.... Too little! 



542 



1919 



267 

TELEGRAM TO HIS WIFE 

To Ulyanova-Lenina 
Kazan or present whereabouts of 
the Government propaganda vessel 
Krasnaya Zvezda 

Am forwarding Pozner's telegram. Please wire about your 
health and route you are following. 352 

Lenin 

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars 

Written July 2, 1919 

First published in 1933 Printed from 

in Lenin Miscellany XXIV the original 



543 



268 

TO HIS WIFE 353 

July 9, 1919 

Nadya dearest, 

I was very glad to hear from you. I sent a telegram to 
Kazan and, as I got no answer, sent another to Nizhny, 
and from there I today received a reply to the effect that 
the Krasnaya Zvezda is supposed to arrive in Kazan on 
July 8 and stay there for not less than 24 hours. In that 
telegram I asked whether it would be possible to give Gorky 
a cabin on Krasnaya Zvezda. He is arriving here tomorrow 
and I want very much to drag him out of Petrograd, where 
he has exhausted his nerves and gone sour. I hope you and 
the other comrades will be glad to have Gorky travelling 
with you. He is really a very nice chap, a bit capricious, 
but that is nothing. 

I read the letters asking for help that sometimes come 
for you and try to do what I can. 

Mitya has left for Kiev; the Crimea, it seems, is again 
in the hands of the Whites. 

There is nothing new here; on Sundays we take a holiday 
at "our" country house. 354 Trotsky is better; he has left 
for the South and I hope he will manage all right. I am 
expecting an improvement from the substitution of Kamenev 
(from the Eastern Front) for Vatsetis. 

We are giving Pokrovsky (M. N.)* two months' leave 



* M. N. Pokrovsky was at that time Deputy People's Commissar 
of Education of the R.S.F.S.R.— Ed. 



544 



V. I. LENIN 



for a rest; we want to appoint Lyudmila Rudolfovna Men- 
zhinskaya as deputy commissar in his place (although it 
is not yet definite), but not Pozner. 

I embrace you fondly and ask you to write and to telegraph 
more often. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

N.B. Obey the doctor's advice: eat and sleep more, then 
you will be fully fit for work by winter. 



First published in 1931 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



V. I. LENIN 

October 1918 



545 



269 

TELEGRAM TO HIS WIFE 

Ulyanova, 
Kazan 

We are all well. 355 I saw Gorky today and tried to per- 
suade him to travel on your steamer, about which I sent 
a telegram to Nizhny, but he flatly refused. We are giving 
Pokrovsky leave of absence. Menzhinskaya has been pro- 
visionally appointed in his place. I received your letter 
from Uretsky and sent a reply back by him. Do you get 
the Moscow newspapers? 

Lenin 

Written July 10, 1919 



First published in 1945 
in Lenin Miscellany XXXV 



Printed from 
a typewritten copy 



546 



270 

TO HIS WIFE 

Nadezhda Konstantinovna Ulyanova, 
Government vessel Krasnaya Zvezda 

July 15 

Nadya dearest, 

I am taking advantage of Krestinsky's visit to Perm to 
write to you. Maybe he will catch up with you. 

Yesterday I received a telegram from Molotov in Kazan 
and answered him in time for you to get it before the vessel 
leaves Kazan, which should be, I am told, at 3 a.m. 

I learned from Molotov that you did have a heart attack; 
that means that you are overworking yourself. You must 
stick strictly to the rules and obey the doctor's orders 
absolutely. 

Otherwise you will not be able to work when winter 
comes. Don't forget that! 

I have already wired you about affairs in the People's 
Commissariat of Education. 

Things are going brilliantly on the Eastern Fronts. Today 
I learned of the capture of Yekaterinburg. In the south 
there has been a change, but there is still no serious turn 
for the better. I hope there will be. 

I could not persuade Gorky to go, hard as I tried. 

Yesterday and the day before I was in Gorki with Mitya 
(he has been here for four days) and Anya. The limes are 
in bloom. We had a good rest. 

I embrace you fondly and kiss you. Please rest more 
and work less. 

Yours, 

V. Ulyanov 

Written July 15, 1919 
First published 

in the Fourth Edition Printed from 

of the Collected Works the original 



547 



271 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA AND HIS WIFE 

Maria Ilyinichna 
and 

Nadezhda Konstantinovna, 

Please wake me not later than 10 o'clock in the morn- 
ing. It is now a quarter past four and I cannot sleep; I am 
quite well. If you do not wake me I shall lose another day 
tomorrow and shall not be keeping a proper regimen. 

Written in 1919 or 1920 



First published 
in the Fourth Edition 
of the Collected Works 



Printed from 
the original 



548 



1921 



272 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

On the white table behind the bed in my room there are 
two books and two newspapers, all Italian. 

1) Turati, Trent 'anni di Critica Sociale 

2) Troves, Polemiche Socialiste 

3) Stampa \ Italian 

4) and another J newspaper. 

Written 1921 



First published 
in the Fourth Edition 
of the Collected Works 



Printed from 
the original 




ANNA ULYANOVA-YELIZAROVA 
1921 



549 



1922 



273 

TO HIS SISTER ANNA 

Dear Anyuta, 

This is what happened. The book, it seems, is from the 
Socialist Academy, and it is forbidden to take books home 
from there. 

They made an exception for me! 

It created an awkward situation — my fault, of course. 
Now you must take the greatest care that Gora reads the 
book quickly at home and returns it. 

If necessary I can arrange for it to be sought in another 
place — so that the book will become my property. 

Yours, 

V. U. 

Written at the end of 1922 



First published in 1957 
in the magazine Yunost No. 1 



Printed from 
the original 



550 



274 

TO HIS SISTER MARIA 

Manyasha, 

Please bring the big map of Moscow Gubernia. It is lying 
on top of the bookcase in our dining-room. 

Yours, 

V. I. 

Written 1922 
Sent from Gorki Leninskiye 
(near Moscow) 

First published 

in the Fourth Edition Printed from 

of the Collected Works the original 



APPENDICES 



553 



I 

ENTRIES CONCERNING LETTERS FROM LENIN TO 
HIS RELATIVES 

(From the Files of the Moscow Gendarmerie) 



During a search of the house of Lenin's sister Maria Ulyanova 
on the night of February 28, 1901, six letters from Lenin were seized 
and placed in her dossier as "material evidence". The files of the Mos- 
cow Gendarmerie (Dossier of the Moscow Group of the R.S.D.L.P., 
No. 69, Volume V, 1901, sheet 101)* contain the following entries 
concerning these letters. 

1. A letter dated July 3, 1897, signed "Yours, V. £/." and 
beginning with the words "I have received your letter of June 
16, dear Manyasha", was found in an envelope addressed to 
Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova (the mother of "Manyasha"). 
The letter contains a programme of Marxist studies, and among 
the source material mentioned are such Social-Democratic 
periodicals as Vorwarts and Neue Zeit. 

2. A letter dated September 4, 1898, is signed "Yours, 
V. U." but on the envelope the address of the sender is given 
as Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova. In this letter, which begins 
with the words "A few days ago, Mother dearest, I received 
your letter", the following phrases are outstanding: (1) "As for 
sending books to Sergei Ivanovich, I must say that I do not 
know where he is. Perhaps he is already in Sredne-Kolymsk"; 
(2) "Lyakhovsky wrote a few days ago — mostly about new exiles 
passing through Verkholensk"; (3) "Vas. Vas. (Starkov) is think- 
ing of asking to be sent to Nizhneudinsk"; (4) "The Lepeshinskys 
are being moved to Kuraginskoye"; (5) "Apollinariya Alexan- 
drovna wrote recently from Kazachinskoye". 

3. A letter signed "V. U", dated December 15, 1898, begin- 
ning with the words "I am sending Anyuta Y. M.'s letter which 

* The dossier is now in the Central Party Archives of the Insti- 
tute of Marxism-Leninism, C.C., C.P.S.U.— Ed. 



554 



APPENDICES 



he sent me with a request that I despatch it immediately", 
in which the phrase quoted, and the initials "Y. M." in that 
phrase, are deserving of attention. 

4. A letter dated June 14, 1899, signed "Yours, V. U", 
begins with the words "This week there has been no news 
from home, Mother dearest"; the name of Prince Yegor Yegoro- 
vich Kugushev is mentioned in the letter; the author of the 
letter asks for a copy of his book on the development of capital- 
ism to be sent to the aforementioned Kugushev. 

5. A letter by the same author dated "August 18, 1900, 
Paris", addressed to M. A. Ulyanova; it contains the address: 

"M. Dr. Dubon, chez Pour M. Goukowsky, 8 Boulevard 

Capucines, Paris". 

6. A letter dated "October 20, Prague", signed "V. U", 
addressed to Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova; it contains the 
address: "Herrn Franz Modracek (for V. I.), Smecky, 27. Prag. 
Austria." 

Attempts to find these letters have not so far met with any suc- 
cess; it is possible that they were destroyed in one of the fires that 
occurred in the early days of the February Revolution. 



555 



II 

LETTERS WRITTEN 
BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



1898 
1 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA 

February 15, 1898 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Did not Anna Ilyinichna receive the letter I sent on February 8 
or 9? I wrote in some detail about myself in that letter. The trouble 
is that I still do not know when the sentence will be pronounced; at 
the Ministry of Justice they told me that the case would be reported 
on in either the first or the second week of Lent. They also said that 
I have been sentenced to three years in Ufa Gubernia (the sentence 
is not to be changed), but that the Department can, on its own author- 
ity, permit me to spend the time I am under surveillance in Shu- 
shenskoye. The situation is thoroughly vague. After the sentence has 
been pronounced I shall probably have to remain in St. Petersburg 
a couple of weeks, so we may expect to leave during the third or fourth 
week of Lent. We shall stay in Moscow for two or three days and I 
shall write and let you know the day of arrival as soon as I know it, 
for certain. As far as Volodya's work* is concerned, I have been defi- 
nitely promised that a publisher will be found; they say that censor- 
ship conditions in Moscow are very bad and that there is a risk of the 
book lying at the censor's for a long time; I have been advised to publish 
the book in summer, so that it appears in autumn, the most suitable 
time for the publication of a book of this type. Because of all this, I 
did not take the manuscript back but asked Anna Ilyinichna what 
she thought would be the best thing to do — I have not received an 
answer. In the meantime I have sent Volodya a translation from 
English (the editor says that it does not matter even if Volodya does not 
know English very well, he can translate from the German version 



* The work referred to is Lenin's Economic Studies and Essays. — 
Ed. 



556 



APPENDICES 



and use the English only to check with); it is a very interesting trans- 
lation and the pay is good. I do not know whether Volodya intended 
taking translations although I gathered from one of his letters that 
he did; in any case, there is nothing to worry about because I have 
been told that we may both translate, the book is a big one. I am ter- 
ribly ignorant on the administrative side of literary work. 

Mother has been suffering from pleurisy and, has not been out for 
about a month; today a new doctor is coming to examine her — the 
one who treated her before was very casual. Mother sends her very 
best regards to all. 

Still, I think I shall be allowed to go to Shusha — what do they 
care? 

Many kisses, 

Your loving, 

Nadya 



February 15 

Dear Manyasha, 

I have written once to Anna Ilyinichna but she evidently has not 
received my letter. Bulochka, too, is scolding me for not writing and 
also without any reason! Of course, there is nothing to write about, 
nothing is definite, one thing today, another tomorrow, but I do write 
about essential things and I answer letters. 

I have not seen Kuba and probably shall not see her before I leave. 
I had a letter from her saying that now she does not have to talk she 
feels wonderful. She studies a lot, is very glad about the Thursdays 
and sends, regards to all. 

I shall probably get V. V. I have given Volodya's list to an acquaint- 
ance, who has promised to get everything except Lyudogovsky 
(it has long been out of print) and the journal on economics. I do 
not know whether he will get them although he is an expert at obtain- 
ing books. I want to get in a good stock of books but I do not know 
what to take. I have few books of my own and they are very ordinary, 
so I don't really know whether it is worth taking them — Volodya 
probably has them all anyway. It is not very easy to get books from 
acquaintances — and what should one get? In a couple of weeks I have 
to go and my stock of books is still pitifully small. In general we are 
being rather slack and quite unmethodical about preparing for the 
journey. People say we ought to take as many warm things as 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 557 



possible.... It probably will not be long now before we start. Kiss A. I. 
and tell her it is not nice of her to give such accounts of me every- 
where — to Volodya she wrote about my looking like a herring, to 

Bulochka she complained of my slyness Many kisses for you, dear. 

Thank Dmitry Ilyich for his congratulations. I hope his case is over 
by the summer. Au revoirl 

N. Krupskaya 

Sent from St. Petersburg to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



2 

TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

March 6 

I am sending Volodya's articles. I did not send them before because 
I was waiting for him to reply to the letter in which I wrote about 
censorship conditions. He asked me to make enquiries, and the 
result of my enquiries is that the place of publication is most impor- 
tant. In this respect, Moscow is worse than St. Petersburg because 
even the most innocent books are held up for a long time and then hacked 
about very badly. Bulgakov's book was held up for a year by the 
censor. It appears that Vodovozova has also transferred her publish- 
ing house to St. Petersburg. The ecrivain insists that it would be 
extremely unwise to publish the book in Moscow. So that's that. 

About my departure ... Manya dear, I know nothing at all. There 
is a lady from Minusinsk living here who says that I shall not be able 
to leave after the 10th or 12th without the risk of getting stuck on the 
way. I was hoping all along that the sentence would be pronounced 
on March 4 and we would be able to leave on the evening of the 10th. 
The sentence, however, has been postponed until the 11th (not definite 
either) and this is what they say in the Department: my request will 
"probably be taken into consideration", and if I am given permission 
to go to Siberia, it will not be before the sentence has been pro- 
nounced, and perhaps I shall be given permission to go straight from 
St. Petersburg and not from Ufa Gubernia (!). I am going to the 
Department again tomorrow. I certainly don't want my journey to be 
postponed until spring. I am in a great hurry today but tomorrow eve- 
ning I will write to Anna Ilyinichna and tell her about my trip to the 



558 



APPENDICES 



Department. Tomorrow, while I am there, I shall ask to be allowed 
to see Kuba — it would be such a pity to go away without having seen 
her once. 

Many kisses, 

N. Krupskaya 

You address letters wrongly to House 18, Apt. 35, it should be 
the other way round, House 35, Apt. 18. 

Written March 6, 1898 
Sent from St. Petersburg to Moscow 

First published in 1931 Printed from 

in Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 



3 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

We have now reached Shushenskoye and I am keeping my promise 
to write and tell you how Volodya is looking. It seems to me he is 
a picture of health and looks very much better than he did in St. 
Petersburg. One of the local inhabitants, a Polish woman,* says, "Pan 
Ulyanov is always in a good mood". He is terribly taken up with the 
shooting, in fact they are all such enthusiastic sportsmen that I, too, 
will probably soon be on the constant look-out for duck, teal and 
other such creatures. 

The journey to Shusha is not at all tiring, especially if there is no 
need to wait in Krasnoyarsk; it is even promised that in June the 
steamers will go right up to Shusha. That will make everything just 
right. So if you can manage a trip the journey will not be too bad. 
It seems to me that Shusha is very nice, the forest and river are near. 
I am not writing a lot because this is only a postscript to Volodya's 
letter.** He has probably written in much greater detail. In Minu- 
sinsk I went to enquire about the books; a letter from you and a notice 
about the receipt of a parcel had come, but the addressee cannot get 
them from Krasnoyarsk; things were set right that same evening and 
we sent a power of attorney to Krasnoyarsk and the books will be here 
in a day or two. Many thanks. Things turned out quite all right with 



*The wife of I. L. Prominsky.— Ed. 
**See Letter No. 47.— Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 559 



our innumerable bags and baggage, nothing was lost and people made 
room for us everywhere. Thanks, too, for the food. It lasted us for 

three days and it was much nicer than railway-station meals So 

here we are. They did put us ashore after all. Volodya is not satisfied 
with what I had to tell him about all of you. He says it is very little, 
but I told him all I knew. Kisses for all of you, regards to M. T. and 
D. I. 

N. Krupskaya 

Written May 10, 1898 
Sent from St. Petersburg to Moscow 

First published in 1931 Printed from 

in Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 



4 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

June 14 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Volodya is sitting here engaged in an earnest conversation with 
a miller about some houses and cows and things, so I am taking the 
opportunity of writing you a few lines. I do not know where to begin, 
one day is the same as another and there is nothing happening outside 
the family. I seem to have been living an age in Shusha and have 
become completely acclimatised. Shusha is a very nice place in sum- 
mer. We go walking every evening. Mother does not go very far, but 
we sometimes set off for more distant places. In the evenings there is 
no humidity in the air and it's just right for walking. There are a lot 
of mosquitoes and we have made nets for ourselves but they seem to 
go out of their way to bite Volodya, although in general they are quite 
bearable. The famous "gun dog" accompanies us on our walks and 
spends all its time chasing birds, which always makes Volodya 
indignant. At this time of the year Volodya does not go shooting (he is 
not really such an enthusiastic sportsman), it is nesting time or 
something, and even his waders have been put away in the cellar. 
Instead of shooting Volodya tried his hand at fishing. A few times he 
crossed the Yenisei to fish for burbot at night but the last time he 
came back without so much as a tiddler, and since then there has 
been no more talk of burbot. Across the Yenisei it is just marvellous. 
We once went across there and had heaps of adventures of all kinds 
and everything was fine. It is hot nowadays. We have to walk quite 



560 



APPENDICES 



a long way to bathe. A plan for morning swimming has been elaborat- 
ed for which we are to get up at 6 a.m. I do not know how long this 
will last, but today we went swimming. Altogether our life here fol- 
lows the "standard" summer-cottage routine, only we have nothing 
for the house. 

They feed us well here, we have all the milk we like and we are 
all flourishing. I have not yet got used to Volodya's healthy appear- 
ance, in St. Petersburg I was accustomed to seeing him in a perma- 
nently out-of-sorts condition. Zinochka even gasped when she saw 
him in Minusinsk. And you should see what she looks like — thank 
God. With Lirochka it's a different story. We were sent a photograph 
from St. Petersburg; it was taken the day after she was released and 
she looks simply terrible. Can she have changed so much? Sometimes 
I think they might send her to Shusha. That would be fine. In Shusha 
she might recover a little. 

Well, I have given you a whole heap of gossip. In her last letter 
Manyasha asked about photographs. On the way here I wrote to St. 
Petersburg and asked them to send you my photograph (home produc- 
tion) but they must have forgotten. As regards photographs that are 
not home-made, I shall write to St. Petersburg and ask them to go 
to the photographer's and order a few more pictures of me, and that 
they certainly will not refuse to do. I should very much like you and 
Manya to come to visit us here. There is still time for it. Give D. I. 
my regards. Volodya has finished talking to the miller and has already 
written two letters and I still cannot wind up my gossip. 

Good-bye for now and many kisses. Mother sends regards to all. 
It is useless sending regards through Volodya, he thinks they should 
be taken for granted. Nevertheless I send many kisses to Manya and 
Anyuta and regards to M. T. 



Yours, 



N. Kr. 



Written June 14, 1898 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



561 



5 

TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA 

August 9, 1898 

It gave Volodya great satisfaction to read out to me all the 
reproaches that you have written about me. Well, I admit that I am 
guilty but deserving of leniency. 

Today Volodya finished his "markets",* now he has only to cut 
it down and the job is done. In a few days, too, Webb will come safely 
to an end. Less than a half is left to be checked. I think the translation 
turned out all right in the end. 

Another box of books for Volodya — among them Adam Smith, 
philosophy and two books of yours by Ada Negri — has arrived addressed 
to Madame Friedmann. She looked like raising a real storm but 
the outcome is that the books have been received, put on the shelves 
and catalogued. Volodya from time to time looks lovingly at the phi- 
losophy and dreams of the time when he will be able to wallow in it. 

I received a letter from Lirochka yesterday, such a cheerful one, 
describing her life at Kazachinskoye. There are ten exiles there, most 
of whom live in a commune; they have their own vegetable garden, 
a cow and a meadow and live in one big house. Lira says she enjoys 
her freedom, goes picking berries and haymaking, does some house- 
keeping and never looks at a book. She proposes spending the summer 
in this way and then leaving the commune in autumn and settling 
down to work. It was a long and lively letter and I am very glad for 
her sake, she is at least getting a rest. 

Life here goes on as usual and there is no news of any kind. 
Volodya has been busy all the time, although occasionally he has been 
snipe shooting. They had intended going somewhere after snipe today 
but the wind has been howling mercilessly for several days, day and 
night. There is no rain but just this raging wind. 

We are [eating] 

bottling rasp[berries]...** in spirit, salting cucumbers — everything is as 
it should be, just as in Russia. We once bought some water melons 
but, as was to be expected, they turned out absolutely white without 

* Lenin's book The Development of Capitalism in Russia. — Ed. 
** The dotted line indicates part of the letter cut out together 
with names on the other side of the page. The last syllable of the 
verb in the Russian has been cut away, so the sense might have been 
"We are [going]...."— Ed. 



562 



APPENDICES 



the faintest suggestion of red flesh. We have also tried cedar nuts. 

Volodya is thinking of going into the taiga for a couple of days; 
he wants to see what the taiga is like, gather berries and cones and 
shoot hazel grouse. There has been a lot of talk about the taiga, and 
it is much more interesting than the talk about ducks. 

That, I think, is all there is to tell about us. 

When is Manya leaving for Brussels? I am glad for her sake. I have 
written a letter to [Anna Ivanovna Meshcheryakova] (the former 
[Chechurina]),* our schoolteacher and my very good friend. She 
will be living in Liege — the only thing I am afraid of is that she has 
left already and my letter will be too late. 

And so good-bye; many kisses for you, Manya and Maria Alexan- 
drovna. Regards to M. T. Mother sends regards to all — she has been 
feeling poorly lately. All the best. 



Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

A telegram about the release of D. I. eventually arrived with the 
last post. The post came when our place was full of visitors. During 
the past few days we have been subjected to an invasion of "aliens", 
some from Minusinsk, some from places round about — people of very 
different character. They brought discord into our peaceful life and 
towards the end we were growing a little bit crazy. The various "farm" 
discussions about horses, cows, pigs, etc., really wore us out. Every- 
one here is interested in farm life — even we acquired half a horse (one 
of the local residents hired a horse from the volost and we wanted to buy 
the fodder for it so as to be able to use it as much as we wanted), but our 
half horse turned out to be such a worn-out nag that it took an hour and 
a half to drag us three versts and we had to give it back; and so our 
efforts in this field turned out a fiasco. We do, however, gather mush- 
rooms with great zeal, there are lots of saffron milk-cap and milk agaric 



The names in square brackets were cut out for secrecy. — Ed. 



Nadya 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



6 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 563 



mushrooms here. At first Volodya announced that he did not know 
how to gather mushrooms and did not like it, but now you cannot 
drag him out of the forest, he gets real "mushroom fever". Next year 
we intend to have a vegetable garden and Volodya has already agreed 
to dig the seedbeds. That will be physical exercise for him. Up to now 
he has been enthusiastic only about his shooting. Right now he is 
arming himself for the hunt. He shoots grey-hen and we eat them and 
praise them. I do not think our "manor house" will be very cold. A 
clerk lived here before us and said it was all right, warm. In any ease 
we are taking all the necessary precautions — we have ordered some 
felt, we are sealing the windows up carefully, are piling up earth round 
the bottom of the house, etc. We have a stove in every room, so we do 
not expect it to be very cold. Well, that's enough gossip. I embrace 
you fondly, I am awfully glad for D. I.'s sake and for yours. Give him 
my very best regards. Many kisses for Anya and Manya. Mother sends 
best regards to all. She is gradually being drawn into Shushenskoye 
life and is not so bored now as she was at first. 

Yours, 

Nadya 



Written August 26, 1898 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



7 

TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

September 11, 1895 

Today I am going to write an enormously long letter; Volodya 
has gone off to Krasnoyarsk and the place seems empty without him, 
the "regime" has changed. As there is suddenly nothing to do this 
evening the best thing is to scribble a letter. I can run on about this 
and that for any length of time, but that is all it will be — just "this 
and that". 

Today, dear Manya, I got your long, long letter, and Volodya 
received a postcard from Tula, I suppose from D. I. I have put it in his 
desk. I imagine it must be boring for D. I. to hang about in Tula and, 
in general, his present state of uncertainty is not of the pleasantest 
and in a strange town it is particularly miserable; but the worst is 



564 



APPENDICES 



over, that endless "sit-down at Azov".* By now D. I. may perhaps 
be in Podolsk ... in any case the question has probably been settled. 

We are having a marvellous autumn, except that in the early morn- 
ing it is cold and at night there are frosts. Because of this Volodya 
has taken all his warm things with him — a warm cap, winter coat, 
mittens and warm socks. He put in a request about his teeth a long 
time ago; now his toothache has gone and permission has come for 
him to spend a week in Krasnoyarsk. At first Volodya thought he 
would not go, but then he yielded to temptation. I am very glad that 
he will be making this trip, it will liven him up and he will be seeing 
people — he was vegetating here in Shusha. He was also glad to be 
going. The day before he left not a single book was opened. I spent 
all my time repairing his winter equipment, while he sat on the win- 
dowsill talking excitedly and giving me all sorts of advice — to have 
the double windows put in properly, to keep the door well locked 
(he even borrowed a saw from our landlord and set about sawing a 
piece off the door to make it fasten more easily. In general, he has been 
worrying a lot about our safety — he has persuaded Oscar to come to us 
to sleep and he has been teaching me how to use a revolver. He slept 
badly that night but when I woke him up in the morning — that was 
when the coachman was already here — he was so cheerful he began 
singing a song of triumph. I do not know whether he will be pleased 
with the trip. He couldn't resist taking a mountain of books with 
him — five of the fattest tomes — and intends to make notes in the 
Krasnoyarsk library in addition to that. I hope the books will remain 
unread. When in Krasnoyarsk Volodya is under an obligation to buy 
for himself two caps, linen for his shirts, a sheepskin greatcoat for 
family use, skates, etc. I wanted to order him to buy material for a 
blouse for Prominsky's daughter but since Volodya went to Mother 
to find out how many "pounds" of cloth to buy for a blouse he had 
to be relieved of that onerous duty. I have received a short note from 
Volodya sent from Minusinsk; although he grumbles at having to 
wait for a steamer I gathered that the journey is beginning satis- 
factorily. 

During Volodya's absence I Intend: (1) to carry out full repairs 
to his suits; (2) learn to pronounce English, for which I have to learn 
by heart 12 pages of various exceptions in Nurok's book; (3) finish 



* Don and Zaporozhye Cossacks were besieged in the fort of Azov 
in 1641; they "sat" in the fort for over a year before abandoning it 
to the Turks.— Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 565 



reading an English book I have started. And then do some general 
reading. Volodya and I began to read The Agitator ("For Nadya" 
is written on The Agitator in Anya's hand and I keep intending to 
thank her for it, but so far have done nothing but intend) and we have 
been tormented by English pronunciation, so now I have promised 
him to learn Nurok by heart. These days I am doing the cooking. 
Mother has an awful cold in the head which has developed into a 
severe chill, so I am running the show. Mother has become quite used 
to Shushenskoye and in her letters describes the wonderful Shushen- 
skoye autumn. Before Volodya left we all went with him on a shoot 
for grey-hen. The season is now open for grey-hen and partridge. 
They are noble birds — you don't have to crawl in swamps for them 
like you do for ducks and things. But no matter how many times we 
went out we never saw either a grey-hen or a partridge, but still the 
walks were fine. By the way, we once saw about twenty partridge; 
we were riding on a cart, all the Shushenskoye colony, when suddenly 
a whole flock of them rose from both sides of the road; you can imag- 
ine what our sportsmen were like. Volodya actually groaned. 
Still, he managed to take aim, but the partridge simply walked away 
without even bothering to fly. Altogether that was a sorrowful shoot; 
we didn't kill anything, though Oscar shot Jenny in the eyes and we 
thought the dog would be blinded, but she recovered. Jenny is awfully 
miserable without Volodya, she keeps close to me all the time and 
barks for no good reason. 

You see what nonsense I am writing because there is nothing 
happening outside the family. That is why Volodya writes about one 
and the same thing in his letters — when things outside are so monoto- 
nous one completely loses one's sense of time. Volodya and I once 
got to the state when we could not remember whether V. V. had visit- 
ed us three days or ten days before. We had to adduce a whole series 
of arguments to settle the issue. We only just managed it. Volodya 
intended writing home from Minusinsk, so some parts of my letter 
will probably be repeated. Perhaps not, though. Mine is a purely 
feminine letter, not much in it. I recently received a letter from the 
writer's wife, who writes that she is reading the proofs of Volodya's 
book,* she had the seventh signature at the time. She was afraid there 
would not be ten signatures in the book — there is a new law about the 



* N. A. Struve read the first part of the proofs of the symposium 
Economic Studies and Essays. — Ed. 



566 



APPENDICES 



number of letters to a signature. If not, Karyshev* can be shoved in, 
too; it would be a good idea, except that the book will be held up. We 
are expecting it any day. Volodya hopes to finish the "markets" by 
the New Year, but he is rather doubtful about it. And that's that. 
I have received Maria Alexandrovna's letter of August 10 and for some 
reason was particularly glad to have it. Many kisses for her. 

By the time you receive my letter you will probably be getting 
ready to leave. I wish you every success. There was a time when I 
very much wanted to go to Belgium. Perhaps I shall feel like going 
abroad again, just to take a look at the wide world — when that is 
possible. But for the time being it is not to be thought of. I suppose 
you will wait for Anya, won't you? When did she expect to get back? 
[Meshcheryakova]** is a very fine person, a bit wild, but amazingly 
forthright and good. It is time to stop. Again, many kisses for you 
and Maria Alexandrovna from me and Mother. 

Yours, 

N. 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 5 the original 



8 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

September 27 

Today I am again writing instead of Volodya, dear Maria Alexan- 
drovna. Volodya returned from Krasnoyarsk late in the evening the 
day before yesterday; two of Manya's letters were awaiting him and 
he intended to sit down and write a letter home, but first thing in the 
morning Oscar and Prominsky came to entice him away shooting 
at a place called Aganitov Island where, according to them, hares run 
around in thousands and flocks of grey-hen and partridge fill the air. 
Volodya began by hesitating but in the end yielded to temptation; 
by the way, it is a wonderful day today. In general this autumn has 



* Lenin's article was entitled "On the Question of our Factory 
Statistics (Professor Karyshev's New Statistical Exploits)", Collected 
Works, Vol. 4, pp. 13-45.— Ed. 

**The name was cut out for purposes of secrecy. — Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 567 



been a good one except for a week or so when it was cold. Alto- 
gether, Volodya was pleased with his trip to Krasnoyarsk. He has 
probably written that he went to Krasnoyarsk with Elvira Ernestovna 
and Tonechka because E. E. had injured her liver and was quite ill.* 
We thought she had cancer or an abscess of the liver but fortunately 
it was neither, only a blow. And all she has to do is look after herself. 
They came back with Volodya. E. E. was in hospital in Krasnoyarsk 
and Volodya lived at Krasikov's. He saw lots of people in Krasnoyarsk, 
had plenty of talks and played about ten games of chess. One of the 
people now living temporarily in Krasnoyarsk is very likely to be 
sent to the village of Yermakovskoye, about 40 versts from us. He is 
a chess player and a very interesting conversationalist — Volodya made 
his acquaintance in Krasnoyarsk. I should very much like him to be 
sent there. We could visit each other, 40 versts is no great distance. 
Volodya travelled as far as Minusinsk (the steamer took five days to 
crawl there) with Lepeshinskaya, the wife of an exile who lives in 
Kazachinskoye. She has been given a job as nurse in the village of 
Karaginskoye, also not far from here, and her husband is joining 
her. He is a chess player, too. Lepeshinskaya told Volodya that Liroch- 
ka is in a state of nerves and irritable, lives in the commune and 
does the cooking every other week. They have three women there, one 
of them bakes bread and the others take turns at cooking. The day 
before yesterday I had a letter from Lirochka and she seems to be 
thoroughly fed up with the life of the colony; she writes that she is 
glad when she is alone and can do something. It turned out that the 
tooth of Volodya's that ached was not the one he had been trying to 
pull out but another, and this the Krasnoyarsk dentist duly pulled. 
Volodya found the way back home deadly boring although he had 
mustered quite a pile of books in addition to the masses he took from 
home. He did not want to stop in Minusinsk and did not even hand 
his travel permit in to the chief of police. In Krasnoyarsk he bought 
a long sheepskin coat. It is intended actually for me but in reality it 
will be a family coat for travelling and distant excursions. It cost 
twenty rubles and is so delightfully soft that once you are inside it 
you don't want to get out of it again. In general he bought everything 
he was supposed to, even toys for Prominsky's children and for Minya, 
the son of the felt-boot maker who lives next door. The lad is about 
five years old and often trots in to see us. The morning he heard that 
Volodya was back, he snatched hold of his mother's boots and began 



* See Lenin's Letter No. 55. — Ed. 



568 



APPENDICES 



pulling them on. "Where are you off to?" "Don't you know Vladimir 
Ilyich has come back?" "You'll get in his way, don't go...," "Oh 
no, Vladimir Ilyich likes me!" (Volodya really is fond of him.) Yes- 
terday, when we gave him the horse Volodya had brought from Kras- 
noyarsk for him, he was so taken with Volodya that he would not 
even go home to sleep but lay down on the mat with Jenny. An amus- 
ing lad! 

At last we have engaged a servant, a fifteen-year-old girl, for two 
and a half rubles a month + boots; she is coming on Tuesday and that 
will be the end of our independent housekeeping. We have got in supplies 
of everything we can for winter. We still have to put the double win- 
dows in, although it is a pity to seal ourselves in when it is so fine 
outside! Mother is gradually being drawn into Shushenskoye affairs, 
she keeps well and is not bored. Thank Manyasha for the letter; of 
course I shall write to her abroad, too. I wonder how she will get fixed 
up there. It is a pity it is inconvenient for her to travel with the 
Meshcheryakovs, they are excellent people, Anna especially. We have 
received the German Zola and are going to start reading it. We shall 
now be receiving Frankfurter Zeitung. It will be sent from St. Peters- 
burg and Volodya intends subscribing to some English newspaper. 
Why is there not a sound about Volodya's book? It will be a pity 
if it doesn't come out. The review of Karyshev's book should be 
sent to St. Petersburg, perhaps there are not ten printer's signatures 
and that is the reason for the delay. Well, that's enough gossip. Many, 
many kisses for you and Manyasha from me and Volodya. Mother 
sends best regards. When is Anya arriving? 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Last time I forgot to write that we have received Bios. Does it 
have to be sent on? 

It is strange that no letter from Volodya came with the Karyshev 
review. I remember that he wrote a letter at the time.* 



Written September 27, 1898 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 5 the original 



See Letter No. 54.— Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 569 



9 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

October 14 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Immediately Volodya had left for Krasnoyarsk I wrote you a 
detailed letter and did the same on his return from there. You have 
probably received both those letters. Well all that is a matter of the 
past. It is winter here now, our River Shush is frozen hard, we have 
had some snow but it has disappeared. It is quite cold (five below), 
which has not prevented Volodya going off to the island all day to shoot 
hares, although so far this year he has not yet managed to dispose of 
a single hare. He is warmly dressed and it will not do him any harm 
to get a breath of fresh air; he has recently been buried in his "mar- 
kets" up to the ears, writing from dawn to dusk. The first chapter 
is ready now and it seemed very interesting to me. I play at being 
the "un-understanding reader" and am supposed to judge whether 
the exposition of the "markets" is sufficiently clear; I try to be as 
"un-understanding" as possible, but there is not much I can find 
fault with. It is awfully strange that we have not yet heard a word 
from the ecrivain about the book, we think it has fallen through. 
Lately the post has been pretty miserable. Yesterday we had a good 
laugh; there was nothing in the post except newspapers, and Mother 
began to accuse the postman of mischievously hiding letters, our 
friends of being utterly selfish, us of giving him too few tips; and 
then she said we grudged money for the postman but otherwise wasted 
it. Why did we go to see Kurnatovsky the day before yesterday? 
We only interrupted his work and ate his dinner. In the end we all 
started laughing and got rid of the unpleasant feeling we always get 
when there is not much in the post. We did once go to see Kurnatovsky,* 
who works at a sugar refinery about twenty versts from here. It was 
on a Sunday and, although it was cold, the sun was shining in a clear 
blue sky and away we went. We were dressed in all our winter things, 
Volodya was in his winter coat and felt boots and they wrapped me 
in the "family" sheepskin, so that I was covered from head to foot. 
Kurnatovsky proved to be terribly busy, has no holidays and works 
12 hours a day. We really did take him away from his work (but that 
was good for him) and we really did eat his dinner, too. We looked 



* They made the journey on October 11, 1898.— Ed. 



570 



APPENDICES 



over the sugar refinery, the director was unusually attentive to the 
"important foreigners" (although Volodya in his felt boots and quil- 
ted trousers looked like the giant from Hop-o'-My-Thumb and the wind 
had made my hair stand on end); he tried to justify the rotten condi- 
tions in which the workers have to work, turned the talk to that sub- 
ject himself and extended his kindness so far that, despite his elegant 
and prosperous appearance, he rushed to give Volodya a stool to sit 
on and himself brushed the dust from it. I almost burst out laughing. 
In a month's time Kurnatovsky is coming to us on a visit and perhaps 
Bazil and Tonechka will also manage to call in some day. I do not 
know whether Volodya told you that Bazil and Gleb are asking to 
be transferred to Nizhne-Udinsk, where they have been offered jobs 
as engineers. We now use the Minusinsk library through the people 
in Tesinskoye, although the library is a very poor one. Anyway, we 
have enough books. Anyuta once asked me what I am doing. I am busy 
on a popular booklet that I want to write, but still do not know how 
it will turn out.* That, so to say, is my chief occupation and in addi- 
tion I do whatever else comes along — study English, read, write 
letters, take an interest in Volodya's work, go for walks, stitch on 

buttons We are now living like real householders; we have piled 

stable manure round the bottom of the walls outside our house, put 
in the double windows, made a wonderful little window that opens 
to air the rooms, planted a garden beside the house and put a fence 
round it. We have hired a girl who helps Mother with the housework 
and does all the dirty work. Thank you, dear Maria Alexandrovna, 
for your offer to send us underwear and household utensils. We do not 
need any clothes, before we left for Shushenskoye we overhauled our 
things very thoroughly and as far as household utensils are concerned, 
we brought some things with us from St. Petersburg and all we 
need are such kitchen utensils as beaters, tongs, fire irons and similar 
items. Volodya also has everything he needs; at one time he had no 
nightshirts but he bought some material in Krasnoyarsk and now 
they are ready, but for I don't know how many days he has been 
unable to find time to try them on. Volodya is always wondering 
where I get sufficient material for long letters; in his letters he writes 
only about things of general human interest, while I write about all 

the little things I am still in debt to Anyuta, I have not answered 

a letter of hers, but tell her not to grumble and not to count letters. 



* This appears to refer to Krupskaya's Zhenshchina-Rabotnitsa 
(The Working Woman), a book she wrote while in Shushenskoye. — Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



571 



How are you all? Has Manya left? Was she very excited at leaving? 
Did she go alone or with the Meshcheryakovs? How has D. I.'s affair 
turned out? Has he received permission to live in Podolsk? Are Anyuta 
and M. T. pleased with their journey? But I could keep on asking 
questions till tomorrow. Regards to everyone and many kisses for 
you and Anyuta. Mother sends best regards. Volodya can write 
himself. Again many kisses. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

What is Manya's address? 

Written October 14, 1898 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 5 the original 



10 

TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

November 11, 1898 

We are today still feeling the excitement caused by yesterday's 
post. Yesterday we saw a boy from the volost centre climbing over 
our fence with a huge bundle. It proved to be our post, which was of 
such dimensions that it had to be brought from town wrapped in a 
sheepskin coat to make sure it was all delivered intact. It was not 
letters, of course, only books, but sometimes it is surprisingly pleas- 
ant to receive books. How are you keeping? Have you made many 
friends and, in general, do you still like Brussels? I used to receive 
enthusiastic letters from Meshcheryakov, who was greatly attracted 
by life in Belgium. Sometimes when I read a letter of his I longed 
to see how people lived out in the wide world. By the way, you prob- 
ably get quite a lot of pleasure out of various folk choruses. They 
say the singing in Belgium is very fine. Gleb paid us a visit and 
one evening he and Volodya sang a little. I thought about 
you and thought how you would be listening to the Belgians. Gleb 
stayed four days with us. He came without Zina because Elvira Erne- 
stovna was ill and could not be left. They went shooting but Gleb 
spent most of the time reading the first two chapters of the "markets". 
You think the "markets" are finished, do you? Nothing of the sort. 



572 



APPENDICES 



The book will not be finished until February. Volodya writes all 
the time from dawn to dusk and has practically no time left for 
anything else. 

Many kisses from me and from Mother. 

All the best, 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Sent from Shushenskoye to Brussels 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 5 the original 

11 

TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA 

November 22 

A. I. 

It is quite a while since I wrote "home", as I put it. Today, as 
usual, I an going to chatter about this and that, only I don't know 
where to begin, I have forgotten what I wrote last time. The most 
outstanding event in our life recently was, of course, the arrival of 
Studies and Essays. We waited and waited and then gave it up; the 
day before the post came Volodya asked pessimistically what in 
particular we could hope for in the post. Then one grey morning we 
saw a boy from the volost centre clambering over our fence with a huge 
bundle of something; it turned out to be tremendous numbers of the 
Studies wrapped in the volost sheepskin.... Our mood soon changed. 
In his joy Volodya almost agreed to go to a wedding at the Matovs' 
(local Jewish shopkeepers for whom Volodya has a special antipathy 

because of their importunate ways) But that was all a long time 

ago. Volodya has now buried himself resolutely and irrevocably in 
his "markets", grudges time for anything else, we have not been to 
the Prominskys for several months, he asks me to wake him at 8 
o'clock in the morning, or at half past seven, but my efforts are usu- 
ally fruitless, he gives a couple of grunts, pulls the clothes over his 
head and goes to sleep again. Last night he argued in his sleep about 

some Mr. N. — on and natural economy The other thing that keeps 

him busy, apart from the "markets", is the skating rink. On the ini- 
tiative of Volodya and Oscar a skating rink has been cleared on the 
river near our house; the schoolmaster and some other locals helped. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



573 



Volodya skates beautifully and even keeps his hands in the pockets 
of his grey jacket like a thorough-going sportsman. Oscar skates badly 
and very carelessly, and so he is always falling. I cannot skate at 
all; they have fixed up a chair around which I do my best (by the 
way I have only been out twice and have achieved some success) and 
the schoolmaster is still waiting for his skates to come. We are a free 
spectacle for the local public; they are amazed at Volodya and amused 
at Oscar and me, and, all the time they keep ruthlessly cracking nuts 
and throwing the shells on our precious rink. Jenny thoroughly disap- 
proves of the rink, she prefers running about the farmyard, burrowing 
in the snow with her nose and bringing Volodya all sorts of curiosi- 
ties, like old horseshoes. Mother is afraid of the skating rink. There 
was one very fine day when we dragged her out for a walk; the ice on 
the river was wonderful, so transparent. We walked on the ice and 
Mother slipped and gave her head such a bang that it bled. Since then 
she has been more afraid of the ice than ever. Mother is displeased 
with Volodya; recently he mistook grey-hen for goose, ate it and praised 
it — a fine goose, not too fat. Oh yes, there is one other amusement. 
We intend going to the town at Christmas and Volodya is making 
some chessmen to be ready for the time when he will engage in a life 
and death struggle with Lepeshinsky. Volodya is carving the chess- 
men from bark, usually in the evenings when he has "written himself 
to a standstill". Sometimes he asks my advice — what sort of head to 
give the king or what should the queen's waist be like. I have only 
the very faintest conception of chess, I mix the knight with the bishop, 
but I give my advice boldly and the chessmen are turning out splen- 
did. However, I have begun to write all sorts of nonsense. Many kisses 
for you and Maria Alexandrovna and my best regards to the male 
part of the family. Mother sends best regards to all. 

Today the sun is shining so brightly in a beautiful blue sky, it 
will be excellent on the skating rink. However, good-bye for now. 



Nadya 



Written November 22, 1898 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 
First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 5 



Printed from 
the original 



574 



APPENDICES 



1899 
12 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

January 10, 1899 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Many thanks for the letter and the parcel. We have not received 
it yet because we have a new postman and the registered mail has 
been held up. The postman tried to be stand-offish and did not want 
to take power of attorney to receive correspondence, but now every- 
thing has been arranged. We thoroughly enjoyed ourselves during 
the holidays in Minusinsk and had a break that will last us for a long 
time. At Christmas almost the whole district was in town, so we saw 
the New Year in very pleasantly at a big party. When the company 
broke up everyone was saying "A wonderful New Year's party!" 
The main thing was the splendid mood. We mulled some wine; when 
it was ready we put the hands of the clock at "12" and saw the old 
year out in proper style, everybody sang whatever he could and some 
fine toasts were pronounced — we drank "To Mothers", "To Absent 
Friends", and so on, and in the end danced to a guitar. One of the 
comrades draws well and he has promised to draw some of the out- 
standing scenes of the New Year's party. If he keeps his promise you 
will get a very good idea of our New Year's eve. Altogether it was a 
real holiday. Volodya battled on the chessboard from morning till 
evening and ... won all the games, of course; then we went skating 
(a pair of Mercury skates was sent to Volodya as a gift from Krasno- 
yarsk and on these you can cut figures and do all sorts of tricks. I, too, 
have some new skates, but I skate as badly on the new ones as on the 
old, or rather I do not skate but strut like a chicken, the art is a little 
too much for me!), sang in chorus and even went driving in a troika. 
We wore out our hosts completely! They admitted that another day 
of it and they would have taken to their beds. E. E. looks much better 
than she did in St. Petersburg despite her illness (she cannot eat 
meat or bread at all). She is very pleased with the way their family 
has taken shape and is afraid only of returning to Russia. There is 
nothing to be said in praise of the others. Tonechka looks particularly 
bad — she suffers from anaemia and eczema. Even Zina has grown 
thin and nervous. They all gasped and expressed astonishment at 
our healthy rustic appearance, and E. E. even declared that I am fat- 
ter than Zinochka. Mother did not go away with us for the holidays 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



575 



and was pretty miserable. They have all announced their intention 
of coming to us in Shushenskoye for Shrovetide. All of us, the Shu- 
shenskoye public, including Oscar and Prominsky, dream of the 
arrival of the visitors and have already decided who will stay with 
whom, what treat we can best arrange for them, etc. 

However, it is still a long time to Shrovetide and we have returned 
to our normal occupations and have cleared the skating rink; Volo- 
dya is hurrying with his "markets". I have received Anya's letter 
of December 24 but shall not write a separate letter to her because 
I would only have to write the same things; there is one little note for 
her. She is indignant that I give my letters to Volodya to "edit", 
but in most cases I describe our Shushenskoye life in humorous terms 
and Volodya comes in for a lot of badinage in them; I would not write 
such letters if I did not give them to him to read before I send 
them off. 

One of the letters I received from the ecrivain's wife* informed 
me that two of her letters to us had gone astray. A pity! About my 
photograph. Last spring I asked for a family photograph that you 
liked to be sent to you. Apparently my request was not fulfilled. I 
am now going to write for my latest pictures to be ordered and sent 
to Podolsk. I do not know if I should have recognised D. I. if I had 
met him in the street, in some other, more suitable circumstances. 
Perhaps I should. By the way, Vasily Vasilyevich has started reading 
Bios and has taken it to the factory and asked us to leave it with 
him for a while, and Zinaida Pavlovna was going to write to her sister 
in Tula and ask her to send her Bios to Podolsk. That's that. I must 
stop. I embrace you and Anya fondly and send regards to all. So 
does Mother. 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 6 



Printed from 
the original 



This refers to N. A. Struve, wife of P. B. Struve.— Ed. 



576 



APPENDICES 



13 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Many thanks for the parcel, the only thing is that you are spoiling 
us too much. On the whole I must admit I have a very sweet tooth 
and in self-defence I say that my "organism requires it" (I have to 
say something). By the way, I am now converting Volodya to my 
faith. I feed him sweets regularly, every day after dinner and after 
supper, and every time he says it's "outrageous", but eats them and 
enjoys them. Although we do have enough consuming capacity, we 
intend leaving some of the sweets for Shrovetide, when we shall be 
having guests and shall provide the feast of feasts. Here I must 
stop. I embrace you fondly. Kisses for Anya and regards to all. 

Yours, 

Nadya 



Written January 17, 1899 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1931 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



14 

TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

January 24 

Dear Manya, 

You are probably thinking that I am a faithless creature — prom- 
ised to write and then ... not a word. If the truth be told, you ought 
to be scolding me. I intended writing long ago, but kept on putting 
It off. First of all, let me tell you how we spent Christmas. We had 
a wonderful time. All the people from the district came into town, 
most of them for three or four days. There are very few of us in Shu- 
shenskoye and it was very pleasant to be among people. We now 
know everybody in the district. We had a real festive time — went 
skating. I was laughed at, but since Minusinsk I have made progress. 
Volodya learned a lot of figures in Minusinsk and he now amazes the 
Shushenskoye public with his "giant steps" and "Spanish leaps". 
Another amusement was chess. People played literally from morning 
to night. Only Zina and I did not play. But even I caught the infection 
and played once against a poor player and checkmated him. Then we 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



577 



sang, in Polish and Russian. V. V. has a guitar and so we sang to gui- 
tar accompaniment. We also did some reciting and talked to our 
heart's content. Best of all was our New Year's party (Volodya, 
incidentally, was tossed, it was the first time I had seen that perform- 
ance and I had a good laugh). We are expecting visitors here at 
Shrovetide. I do not know whether they will come, but I hope they 
do. I cannot say that the Minusinsk people look well; Tonechka has 
awful anaemia and she is terribly thin and pale. Zina has also grown 
thinner but the worst thing is that she has become extremely nervous; 
the male side is also weak. Gleb kept lying down, first on the sofa, 
then on the bed. On top of everything, we wore our hosts out completely. 
Towards the end of the holidays they were having 10 to 16 people 
to dinner every day. They themselves admitted that if they had had 
another day of it they would have collapsed. Mother did not go with 
us, she was afraid of the cold. 

After Minusinsk we returned to our usual occupations. Volodya 
got down to his "markets". He is now writing the last chapter and 
the book will be ready by February. I got a letter from the ecrivain's 
wife in the last post. The letter was a jubilant one. The new journal 
Nachalo has been sanctioned, permission for it came quite unexpect- 
edly and the fuss and bother going on there now is something terrible. 
The letter makes you feel how excited the people there are. She writes, 
by the way, that the Webb translation is very good, and that it will 
soon be out. Nice to know. We are having a marvellous steady win- 
ter. So far there has not been a suggestion of the terrible Siberian frosts, 
the sun shines as if it were spring and we are already talking about 
how the winter passed without our noticing it (although it has by no 
means passed). How are you getting on there? It seems that you count 
the letters you get and don't write very often yourself. That's not 
the way. Do you see much of Belgian life? In general, do you like 
what you have seen of it? But do write more often and I will try to 
be more punctual. Mother sends her kisses. When will you be going 
home? You have probably become a real Frenchwoman. I am jealous 
in advance of your knowledge of the language, how I would like to 
know even one foreign language thoroughly. 

Good-bye and all the best. 



Nadya 



Written January 24, 1899 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1931 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



578 



APPENDICES 



15 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

April 4 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

A couple of weeks ago I wrote to you and, as usual, filled up the 
letter with all sorts of nonsense. Nothing has changed here, we are 
all well, and it is warm outside — the temperature reaches 17° and 
there are dry patches in the fields; we take long walks and we have 
seen two wild geese and a drake. Volodya has bought himself new 
waders for shooting excursions, almost to the waist, reads outside in 
the garden, and goes about in a summer coat, and I recently dug a 
little ditch wearing no coat at all; I am now thinking seriously of 
vegetable and flower gardening and pondering deeply over a booklet 
on the subject sent me by Gleb. As far as my health is concerned I 
am quite well but as far as concerns the arrival of a little bird — there 
the situation is, unfortunately, bad; somehow no little bird 
wants to come. You ask me whether our quarters are big. The 
apartment is a big one and, if you come — which we would very, very 
much like — there will be plenty of room for everybody. I remember 
that I once sent you a plan of the apartment — I am not sure, though, 
perhaps I only intended sending it. It consists of three rooms, one 
with four windows, one with three and the other with one. It is true 
the apartment has one disadvantage — the rooms are all adjoining, 
but since we are all of one family that does not worry us much. Vo- 
lodya and I are thinking of giving you the room we now live in (the 
one with three windows) and we will move into the middle one; our 
present room has the advantage that no one has to go through it to 
get to another room. However, we shall see. The main thing is that you 
should be well enough to travel here, my dear; we shall always be 
able to find room for you. If you come in May, the journey on the 
steamer will be a good one. We came on the first boat when the 
countryside was bare, but even then it was beautiful; I think it should 
be a pleasant journey in summer. The railway journey, however, 
is very tiring. I believe Volodya has written that the people in Minu- 
sinsk have changed their minds about spending the summer in Shu- 
shenskoye and have rented a cottage near the town, the only one in 
the district. Do you like bathing? Our bathing place is some distance 
away — about 20 minutes' walk. I know Anya likes to bathe. I 
remember I once came to visit you at Beloostrov and Anya and I went 
bathing in the rain. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 579 



We have received Nachalo from town and Volodya is highly 
indignant over Bulgakov's article and is already thinking out a reply to 
it. We had to wait quite a long time for that Nachalo. At first I 
thought the postman had lost the post. He is an awful muddler, that 
postman of ours — loses a newspaper, forgets to hand over a receipt or 
takes letters to the wrong address. I am always cursing him under 
my breath with all the Siberian swearwords. But enough of that. 
This letter will probably arrive just in time for Easter. Although 
Volodya objects, I intend to colour some eggs and make an Easter 
cake from curds. Do you know that it is the custom here at Easter 
to decorate the room with spruce boughs? It is a very pretty custom 
and we intend to "keep" it (I nearly wrote "keep it up", but then 
remembered that next Easter we shall be in Russia again). Mikh. 
Al. and Kurnatovsky may visit us. Good-bye. Many kisses for 
you and Anya. Regards to all, from Mother as well. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Written April 4, 1899 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published 

in the Fourth Edition Printed from 

of the Collected Works the original 



16 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

June 20 

It is ages since I wrote to you, dear Maria Alexandrovna. Some- 
how I could not get down to writing, especially as I thought you might 
still be coming here. Now I don't want to put off my letter-writing 
any longer. We are all the same as ever. Volodya is busy reading 
all kinds of philosophy (that is now his official occupation) — Hol- 
bach, Helvetius, etc. My joke is that it will soon be dangerous to talk 
to him because he has soaked up so much philosophy. There is no shoot- 
ing for the time being and the famous gun is scarcely ever taken 
out of its cover. We go for our daily walk and swim regularly, we 
pick sorrel, berries, etc., and Volodya gathers everything with the 
enthusiasm of a hunter; I was surprised one day to see him tearing 
up sorrel with both hands.... There has been a lot of talk about shoot- 
ing expeditions; the places they intend to go to — some place called 



580 



APPENDICES 



Forty Lakes, where there is so much game they will need a cart to 
bring it home, and so on. All that will be after St. Peter's Day,* and 
we intend going to Minusinsk at that time, probably on the steamer; 
we have already received permission. We had visitors recently; first 
there was Anatoly and his wife, and then Lepeshinsky and his wife 
and three-months-old daughter. Anatoly looks very bad, he is not likely 
to get better and his wife is completely broken, such a quiet little 
thing. Even the favourable climate here can no longer help Anatoly. 
The Lepeshinskys filled our apartment with hubbub — the baby's 
cries, lullabies, etc. — the two days they were here. They have a fine 
little girl, but the two parents are so fond of her they don't give her 
a moment's rest — they sing, dance and pester her all the time. No 
new people have been sent here and since summer began Oscar and 
Prominsky have been putting in an appearance less often, both of 
them are busy in the vegetable garden. Mother and 1 have planted 
a lot of things (even melon and tomatoes) and we have been eating 
our own radishes, lettuce and dill for a long time. The flower garden 
is also in bloom, there are blossoms on the mignonette, and the others 
(stocks, sweet peas, daisies, pansies and phlox) will be blooming in 
the more or less distant future; the garden gives Mother pleasure, 
too. The girl who worked for us last winter is staying on this sum- 
mer, so the housekeeping is no bother. Since only seven months remain 
before we leave, the talk often turns to the subject of Russia and 
Volodya intended writing to you about our plans in that direction. 
How are you keeping? Have you got rid of your fever, and Anyuta 
of her cough? I have not answered Anyuta's letter but she should 
not be angry as I had intended having a good chat with her when 
we met. It is a great pity you are not coming here, but it is not long 
before we return to Russia and if we get away from here at the proper 
time we shall be home in Russia by February. Then you will see 
how Volodya's health has improved in Shushenskoye; you cannot 
compare him with what he was in St. Petersburg. I embrace you 
fondly, my dear — keep well. Many kisses for Anyuta and Manyasha, 
regards to M. T. and D. I. Mother sends regards to all. 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Written June 20, 1899 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 



First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 



Printed from 
the original 



*July 12, N.S.-Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



581 



17 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

July 3 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Yesterday I received your letter of June 10. We are getting our 
letters written today because we had intended to go visiting, but it 
is doubtful whether we shall make the trip since some "weather" 
is beginning. Volodya must have praised it too much — he kept say- 
ing "lovely, lovely weather" and now it has changed till it is like 
nothing on earth. There is wind every day that makes the shutters 
rattle. But it isn't cold and we take a daily walk as we did before. 
Although the shooting season has begun, Volodya has not yet got 
"hunting fever". He has been shooting only a couple of times. He 
shot some grey-hen and we made some good meals off them. We keep 
intending to go visiting, we have permission to go to town, but the 
permit is lying at the volost centre and we don't know whether we 
shall go or not. We were all ready to go when we learned that Vasily 
Vasilyevich was at the factory and on his way back would call for us 
to go with him — and we have invited Gleb and Zina to come at that 

time I want to see Zina and have a chat with her, it is a long time 

since I last saw her. The only thing is that after all those meetings 
with comrades one feels somehow dissatisfied. You intend to say every- 
thing there is to say but when you meet the talk somehow gets 
pushed into the background by all sorts of excursions, chess playing, 
skating, etc. The result is more like fatigue than pleasure. However 
that may be, it is good to see people. We have heard from Yermakov- 
skoye that Anatoly is very bad, Lepeshinsky's wife is a nurse and she 
thinks the end is not far off. The doctor at Yermakovskoye is a great 
optimist and assures Dominika that there is still hope. About Mikh. 
Al. — he is all alone because his fiancee* has postponed her arrival 
until the end of summer. Yermakovskoye is now the most populated 
place in our district. I have been wondering all the time whether 
they will send anybody else to Shushenskoye, but they have not done 
so. Prominsky's time will be up in the autumn and the main question 
for them now is whether they will go home at the cost of the govern- 
ment; it is a big family, eight of them, and they will never manage 
it on their own resources. In the time we have been here we have got 
quite used to our Shushenskoye comrades and if for any reason a day 



*0. A. Papperek.— Ed. 



582 



APPENDICES 



passes without Oscar or Prominsky coming we feel that there is some- 
thing missing Why is Lirochka so bored? She wrote to us that 

she has so much work she has to get up at 5 or 6 in the morning to 
get everything done. It is true that all her work is the sort that gives 
her little satisfaction, but that is something she cannot change. 
Kazachinskoye is no worse than any other place. I should very much 
like to see her but now I am hardly likely to. If she is transferred 
to our district, it will be when we are no longer here. 

Well, good-bye. Many kisses. Mother sends very best regards. 
Has Anyuta left yet? If not, kiss her for me, and kiss Manya, too, 
many, many times. 

Yours, 

N. Ulyanova 

Written July 3, 1899 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Podolsk 

First published in 1931 Printed from 

in Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 



18 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

It is quite a long time since I wrote to you and I have not even 
answered Manyasha's letter of September 14 and my conscience is 
troubling me on account of it. There is nothing new to write about 
and I have described our daily life many times. A few days ago Kur- 
natovsky visited us and he told us about the people at Yermakov- 
skoye. A son has been born to Dominika but the child is ill, they think 
it is consumptive, and she herself is sick all the time and very miser- 
able. Mikh. Al. has been found fit for service in the army and he is 
now enjoying his last few months of freedom. In December he will 
be sent nobody knows where but for the time being he is very busy. 
His wife is always rather poorly, she is miserable and amuses herself 
by taking walks in the vegetable garden with a calf and her dog, 
Kurtashka. They promised to come to us as soon as the sleigh road 
is open. On the two days Kurnatovsky was with us, the men all went 
out shooting first thing in the morning; Kurnatovsky is fanatically 
keen on this sport. Somebody has heard from Kazachinskoye that Yaku- 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 583 



bova has disappeared from there, enquiries are being made about her 
everywhere, and the people at Yermakovskoye have been asked whether 
she has been there; according to their information she was there a 
week ago. There are rumours that she has escaped abroad, somebody 
has seen her in Berlin. So that's that. 

It is already autumn here and soon we shall go skating. That will 
be better because we have got rather fed up with walking and 
Volodya's shooting will soon be over. He is now busy with the Webbs' 
book. He has to work on alone because two of us together take longer. 
It is boring enough work because the translation is a poor one and 
it has to be almost all retranslated. Actually I don't do anything 
and I don't know where all the time goes. There remain three months 
and 13 days to the day of our departure, that is very little. I have 
already applied to the police department for permission to go to 
Pskov. Mother intends to make the same application in her own 
name. 

Well, good-bye. Many kisses, regards to all. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Written October 17, 1899 
Sent from Shushenskoye to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 8-9 the original 



1900 
19 

TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

March 28 

There have not been any letters from you or Anyuta for a long 
time. It looks as if my last "collective" letter was not to your liking. 
Somehow I could not write at that time. The Siberians recently 
gave me a good trouncing for a "collective" letter. Volodya came in 
for a good dose, too; he wrote a letter of twenty lines for five persons 
and expected to get five letters in answer to it They made merciless 
fun of him. So that was that. Congratulations, dear Marusya, and 
here's wishing you all the best. Since I have written all the gossip 



584 



APPENDICES 



about myself in a letter to Maria Alexandrovna,* I am going to write 
about mutual acquaintances. Yegor came to see us. I was awfully 
glad to see him because I had not known what to think about him. 
He looks radiant and very much alive. He kept talking the whole 
time without a stop. He told us that Vasily Vasilyevich had got a 
good job in Omsk, that Tonya had given birth to a girl and that both 
were doing well, E. E. is in ecstasies over her granddaughter (she 
was quite indifferent to the first). Gleb has also got a good job, assist- 
ant manager of a railway depot near Tomsk. So far, Zina is still in 
Nizhneudinsk. And so everything is all right with them. But poor M. A. 
is having a bad time in Riga. He wrote that the barracks were worse 
than a prison; he is not allowed out alone, always in the company 
of a soldier, and then only as far as the shop. They took away all his 
books except the German dictionary and Civil Law. The food is bad 
and he cannot take any into the barracks, it would be stolen 
immediately. The clothing they gave him is so bad he had 
to get some of his own. The worst thing of all is that M. A. has been 
posted to the very company that dealt brutally with the workers; 
the soldiers received an award of 10 rubles each for killing a worker, 
and when they were on patrol they opened fire on their own Initiative. 
So you see! 

The comrades in Minusinsk are all keeping well. I recently received 
a letter from them which made me very glad. Altogether, I never 
imagined that I had become so fond of the Minusinsk crowd. Baram- 
zin, the man we left our dog with, intends to bring us (really to Volo- 
dya) a drawing of her, he draws very well. Our dog seems to be having 
a good time and has become a general favourite. Talking of the dog 
reminds me of Lirochka. She once passed on some instructions 
through me, and one of them concerned a most detailed description 
of a moth-eaten mongrel. One of our mutual friends recently got a 
letter from her and sent me an extract from it. I was not at all pleased 
with the theoretical part of the letter. She says that Bernstein offers 
nothing in the way of theory — "That is some sort of idiocy!" But the 
practical significance of the book, she says, is tremendous; he has 
turned his attention to the needs of the masses and calls for reality, 
for concrete things. She believes the book to be a success because 
the orthodox trend had begun to pall. She says about the resolution** 



* This letter has been lost.— Ed. 
**This apparently refers to the "Protest by Russian Social-Demo- 
crats" (Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 167-182).— Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 585 



that here energy finds an outlet in inventing a path that development 
must follow. In general, Lirochka to me is now an X. She and I for- 
merly held astonishingly identical views, but something has been 
happening to her in the past three years and I don't understand her 
any more. Perhaps we would come to an agreement if we met, but 
there's something lacking in our correspondence. She is not the Li- 
rochka I knew and it is no use writing about mists, weather and so 
on, and she doesn't seem to want to write about anything else, and 
she can't, anyway. To tell the truth, I cannot reconcile myself to 
her marriage. Her husband* created the impression on me of a kind 

of narrow self-assurance But I have said too much on this subject. 

Good-bye. Kiss Anyuta and give M. T. my regards. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Written March 28, 1900 
Sent from Ufa to Moscow 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



20 

TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

Her Excellency Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, No. 25, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 
Moscow 

March 30 

Dearest Manyasha, 

The day before yesterday I sent a letter to you and M. A. and 
yesterday got one from you. I am very glad that M. A. may 
possibly go to visit Volodya, as it looks as if I shall not be able to 
move from here for a long time. Yes, Volodya has got thinner, but 
it was only very recently that he lost weight, before that he looked 
very healthy. I think it is not so much the catarrh that bothers him 
as insomnia. Recently his insomnia has been chronic, he was very 
excited before our departure and the frosts were so fierce that he did 
not go out at all. As soon as we set out Volodya cheered up and began 



K. M. Takhtarev.— Ed. 



586 



APPENDICES 



to eat and sleep properly. I think he will be able to check the catarrh 
with the waters that did him good before; in general, Volodya takes 
care of his health. He writes that he is being well fed. It is a pity, of 
course, that he has to live away from the family. 

I gathered from your letter that Yuly came to see you and so all 
my news is now stale. 

I am sending you my translation and the book. I don't understand 
any of the underlined passages and, apart from that, I imagine I have 
translated a lot of the rest all wrong. I do not know the language at 
all, and the dictionary is little help; one phrase often has several 
meanings the way I read it. You must take a look at the entire trans- 
lation and correct it where it is wrong. That's all. Good-bye, my 
darling Englishwoman. Many kisses for M. A. and Anya. 

Yours, 

N. U. 

Written March 30, 1900 
Sent from Ufa 

First published in 1931 Printed from 

in Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 

21 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

July 26 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

I have just received a postcard from Volodya, sent from Austria 

The letters are a long time on the way — I got the postcard on the 
eighth day, which means I shall receive Volodya's letters on the ninth 
or tenth day. Volodya writes that he feels very well and I am very, 
very pleased about it, of course. How are you keeping? Are you quite 
well? After the impassable mud and the dampness here, we are now 
enjoying wonderful days. You are probably having excellent weather 
too and you can take advantage of the summer. Things are all right 
here now. I am sorry you and Anyuta got such an unfavourable 
impression of Ufa; the weather was terribly muggy at the time and our 
place was all higgledy-piggledy. We are still living in the same apart- 
ment but we shall probably soon be moving to a winter apartment, 
an excellent one that we have tried, across the road diagonally from us. 
I am now quite well and so is Mother. She sends you all her regards. 

When Volodya was staying here in Ufa he wrote Filippov a scath- 
ing letter about his having printed Volodya's article in such distorted 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 587 



form.* A letter came from Filippov after Volodya had left in which 
he tried to gloss it over. "Dear Sir, an opportunity of settling the affair 
has occurred. I am sending you the manuscript of Skvortsov's article, 
so that you can reply. I ask you to bear the censorship conditions in 
mind and keep the article short." It seemed as if he wanted to appease 
Volodya by sending him the article, but two days later he changed 
his mind and sent another letter, this time not for forwarding to 
V. I. as before, but to be forwarded to Mr. Ulyanov. The outward 
appearance of the letter alone was evidence of his disdain — a torn-off 
half sheet of paper on which the letter had been typed with correc- 
tions to the typing. The letter was foolishly abusive, the man does 
not seem to understand what he is talking about. I wrote him that I 
had received the two letters and could not send them on to Volodya 
because I did not know his address, but would send them immediately 
I did; I said I was returning the manuscript because if it were sent 
abroad there would be a long delay in getting it printed and the author 
would hardly be likely to approve of it. Volodya would probably not 
want to accept favours from that idiot. Skvortsov's article is also 
excessively abusive. The same meaningless quotations from Marx 
and complete failure to understand one's opponent. There is no point 
even in polemicising with such a person. I doubt whether Volodya 
will answer him. 

Maria Andreyevna called the day after Volodya's departure. She 
was very nice and awfully kind. I felt a twinge of conscience — I do 
not know how to be nice to people. I wanted to demonstrate my kind- 
ness by offering to help her make jam, only I remembered in time 
that I had never made any jam and the Lord alone knows what I might 
have made They are going to live at the farmhouse all the win- 
ter Well, good-bye. Many kisses for you and Anyuta and I will 

drop Manyasha a few lines. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Written July 26, 1900 
Sent from Ufa to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



* The letter has been lost. The article was "Uncritical Criticism 
(Regarding Mr. P. Skvortsov's Article 'Commodity Fetishism' in 
Nauchnoye Obozreniye No. 12, 1899)" (Collected Works, Vol. 3, pp. 
609-632).— Ed. 



588 



APPENDICES 



22 

TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

July 26 

Thank you, Manyasha dear, for the books and the photograph — 
that is probably your doing — and for the postscript to Volodya's 
letter. I have been intending to write for a long time but kept on put- 
ting it off. How are you all? I have not heard anything of you for ages. 
When are you thinking of returning to town, what plans have you 
made for the winter? When I received a letter from Volodya saying 
that Maria Alexandrovna and Anyuta were coming with him I was 
very glad and thought I would be able to discuss everything with 
Anyuta. There are many things I wanted to talk about. When they 
arrived, however, I was so distracted that all my ideas flew away — 
and there were other visitors here besides the family. It turned out 
that I did not have a real talk at all and I do not know when I shall 
see them again. Oh well, we shall see what will happen; I have only 
seven and a half months left to remain in Ufa, the time will pass very 
quickly. I have found pupils to teach and am taking German lessons 
myself. I have discovered a German from Berlin and with some dif- 
ficulty persuaded him to talk to me twice a week. So far we have had 
only one talk. The German is a chatterbox, so I may get something 
out of it. In addition to that I have been reading the silliest German 
novels and have been so busy at my German that I do not go any- 
where; I am becoming unsociable and have no desire to go anywhere. 
Good-bye. I embrace you fondly. 

N. Ulyanova 

P.S. Did Volodya tell you that a young lady from here is coming 
to see you? She is the niece of an old acquaintance. Tell her whatever 
you can about studies at Brussels University. 

Written July 26, 1900 
Sent from Ufa to Podolsk 



First published in 1931 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 589 



23 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

Her Excellency Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Kedrova's House, 

Podolsk (Moscow Gubernia) 

August 26 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

It is again a long time since I wrote to you, but all I have to write 
about is myself and that is boring. Nevertheless, I will write. I am 
keeping perfectly well, so is Mother. It is three weeks now since we 
moved to a new apartment. It is very convenient, downstairs, two 
rooms and a kitchen, newly decorated, and a garden under our win- 
dows; the owners are nice people. We lived in this apartment once 
before, but now it has quite a different appearance. Our address is 
Priyutskaya Street, Kulikova s House. We seem to have settled down 
at last. I am now pretty busy; I still retain my summer pupils and 
winter lessons have also begun. Two lessons will remain for the win- 
ter, both quite pleasant and paying quite well (62 rubles). I shall 
spend about 6 hours a day on them. Since I like teaching, it will be 
quite all right, not a bit tiring. The bad thing is the mud in Ufa, you 
can drown in it, and in the evenings, when there is supposed to be a 
moon and the streets remain unlit for that reason, you are quite likely 
to land up in a ditch — and one of my lessons is in the evening. On 
Sundays I take German lessons from an excellent German. Every- 
thing would have been all right except that there has been so much 
commotion at our place lately that I have not been able to take up 
a book for a fortnight. And so I have not been busy at my German at 
all and that is a great pity. Volodya complains of the turmoil of life 
in Paris, but that is Paris and turmoil is in the nature of things; but 
when there is turmoil in Ufa it is like nothing on earth. This, of course, 
is the time when some people are going, some are coming and others 
are passing through. People passing through say that Zina is very 
miserable, that she has recently changed very considerably, and grown 
thin and pale. They also say that Mikh. Al. is having a bad time, 
and that 0. A. could not find any pupils for a long time. Mikh. Al. 
has been posted to the Krasnoyarsk Regiment, a regiment that was 
about to set out on a march (it has started by now). The Siberians 
are lazy correspondents and so I know little about them. I am partly 
to blame, by the way. Lidya intends moving to Ufa, she has made an 



590 



APPENDICES 



application, but I don't know whether she will be able to get trans- 
ferred; I should very much like to see her before I leave here. Volodya 
writes very rarely and has apparently given me the wrong address, 
since he does not seem to have received my letters. I am now writing 
to him in Paris. I don't know where to send the magazine he asks 
for, Zhizn. In the end I shall probably send it to you, perhaps he has 
given you his proper address. I gathered from his last letter that he 
is leaving Paris but he did not say where for. I am returning Manya- 
sha's French book together with Zhizn. She wrote that she had to 
return it in September. Anyuta, by the way, took a Gorky book to 
read in the train and its owner is asking for it back; if it is not too 
much trouble, please send it to me. I ask Manyasha to excuse me for 
not writing to her separately — I should only have to repeat everything. 
How are you? Are you keeping well? Has Anyuta gone for long? Have 
you received a reply from St. Petersburg about whether D. I. has 
been accepted into the University? Are you moving to Moscow soon? 
Well, good-bye. Many, many kisses for you and Manyasha. Mother 
sends regards to all. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

P.S. Have just made a discovery — I have not got the issue of 
Zhizn that Volodya wrote about and so am sending only the French 
book. 



Written August 26, 1900 
Sent from Ufa 

First published in 1931 Printed from 

in Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 



24 

TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

Her Excellency Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 

Kedrova's House, 

Podolsk (Moscow Gubernia) 

September 11 

Our letters must have crossed in the post, Manyasha dear. At 
the end of August I wrote to Maria Alexandrovna a most minutely 
detailed letter describing my way of life. I wanted to send the French 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



591 



book with a young lady who was supposed to come to visit you but 
who, it turned out, had found a travelling companion to go to Paris 
with; I think she is going to Paris for no particular purpose, just 
for amusement, she has not much intention of studying and cannot 
come to Podolsk. And so I sent the book to you by post, I did not go 
to the post office myself and in my hurry forgot to write "Registered" 
on the parcel and so it went by ordinary book post. I am afraid it 
might get lost. Please write and let me know if you received it. Speak- 
ing of books — when Volodya was staying here he promised to send an 
acquaintance The Development of Capitalism but forgot to do it and 
now asks for it to be done. To prevent any unnecessary posting please 
send one copy direct to the following address: Birsk (Ufa Gubernia), 
Pavel Fyodorovich Savinov. I think that is all there is to be done. 
Has D. I. got anything? When are you moving to Moscow? Are you 
all well? When is Anya returning? 

There are no changes here, we are both well. I am busy with my 
teaching, I teach all subjects, even Latin; there are crowds of people 
here with nothing to do, as before; I am busy with German but there 
seems very little time for it. It is, of course, much easier to study 
the language with a German teacher than to work alone. Volodya 
seldom writes, says little about himself and complains of the turmoil. 
Olga Alexandrovna is not coming to Ufa because she has got fixed 
up in Krasnoyarsk, and Mikhail Alexandrovich is in the regular 
army. Zina is anxious to get to Russia and does not write in very great 
detail. I am expecting to see a returning comrade in a few days; he 
should have passed through here a long time ago but he was taken 
ill with dysentery just before he left and is still recovering slowly. 

Here in Ufa there is absolutely impassable mud such as I have 

never in my life seen before, and all the time it is raining, raining 

Perfectly beastly. 

Well, good-bye, many kisses for you, for you and Maria Alexan- 
drovna. Regards from Mother. 



Nadya 



Written September 11, 1900 
Sent from Ufa 

First published in 1931 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



592 



APPENDICES 



25 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

Her Excellency Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 
Moscow 

October 1, 1900 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

I received a letter from Manya a long time ago but, as usual, allowed 
other things to intervene. You probably moved to Moscow a long 
time ago. How are you? Are you keeping well? Has D. I. left for Yu- 
riev? Will Manyasha's case soon come to an end?* I once received 
a letter from Anyuta and answered it immediately, but my letters 
are not always delivered at the proper time and I sometimes receive 
letters from Volodya in different order from what he wrote them in. 
Although Volodya now writes more frequently, I still know very little 
about the way he is living there; I know he has taken up some English 
language courses, and that he cannot get into his stride.... Zina and 
her husband blame me for not writing enough about Volodya, but 
what can I write to them? Volodya is quite unable to write about 
the ordinary side of life. Let him write to them himself. They are not 
thinking of moving to Russia yet and have not done anything about 
it — I think they should. It will soon be March 11 and even Zina will 
be her own mistress then. Five months and eleven days — I no longer 
know whether that is much or little. I do not know whether I shall 
be able to leave Ufa on the 11th by the morning train as I have long 
been intending. Incidentally, there is nothing so very bad about 
Ufa except the mud, and I have long since become an Ufa patriot. 
We have fixed ourselves up well — in provincial style — a good apart- 
ment, good food, etc., in short we have adapted ourselves somewhat 
to provincial life. Time goes like a machine that has been wound 
up and I have some nice children as pupils. In general, I am very fond 
of teaching children, and at the moment the children are very nice, 
especially one tiny little girl. I give lessons to the numerous progeny 
of a local millionaire merchant — he has five of them. They are very 
strict, the way our merchants are, and I actually like the way the 
children are brought up. The parents do not dress them up, they have 

* Lenin's sister Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova was arrested on Sep- 
tember 30, 1899 and sent to Nizhny Novgorod until the preliminary 
investigation was over. She returned to Moscow at the end of Decem- 
ber.— Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



593 



very few toys, no nursemaids, plenty of freedom, the youngsters are in 
the street all day, the children clean their own boots, tidy up their 
rooms (even wash clothes). In general, there is nothing aristocratic 
about them and they are not spoiled. They all learn very willingly, 
both the youngsters and the older ones. The youngest girl (seven 
years old) is very nice, a delightful character, clever, pretty, and 
such an industrious and attentive pupil I have never seen. Every 
day she is "simply longing" to read, write and do arithmetic. And 
when there is something just a bit more interesting, her eyes flash. 
She now waits for me every time on the staircase and reports to me on 
all the events in the lives of the children. In short, this little girl 
has completely captivated me. Such wonderful children do exist! 
She is a happy-go-lucky kid, laughs a lot and has not been drilled 
(sometimes she wipes her nose on her frock). There is also a nice boy, 
but of a different kind. In general, I usually get interested in the boys 
and girls I teach, the pity is that the lessons take up too much time, 
they are foolishly arranged. I have taken up some French language 
courses here (soon German courses will open). Three times a week, 
an hour a time, six rubles a month; the courses are conversational, 
and so far I am very satisfied. I am the senior in a group of four. The 
Frenchman is an experienced teacher and conducts a very lively 
lesson, but the pupils are rather inert. It is a pity I have no French 
books here at all, and the French teacher gives us June newspapers 
to read or magazines with no beginning and no end. Has Manyasha 
(she probably has) any French fiction or, in general, any French books? 
None of the people here know any languages, so I with my half-baked 
knowledge am considered a specialist in this field; it is difficult to 
get any foreign books. I also go to the German teacher and write 
essays ten pages long for him, but we meet only once a week and that 
is too little for practice. I read German fiction on my own, but it's still 
more difficult for me to speak German than French. And that is how 
the day passes up to 8 o'clock in the evening, and in the evening I am 
rarely able to do anything, few evenings pass without somebody calling in. 
There you have the smallest details of the way I spend my time. Mother 
sends her best regards and I send many kisses. I shall not write a 
separate letter to Manyasha since I should only have to repeat what I 
have written, but instead I simply embrace her. That's all. All the best. 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Sent from Ufa 

First published in 1931 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



594 



APPENDICES 



26 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

November 8 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

I received your letter a few days ago and yesterday a letter from 
Manyasha with newspaper cuttings enclosed; many thanks, I have 
already read them. 

I recently wrote to you, but our letters, as usual, crossed in the 
post. I am now better, but Mother is still feeling rather bad, first 
she has palpitation, then she catches cold. We now have an excellent 
apartment, even a piano. We have an acquaintance who sings well 
and we manage some music in the evenings, rather strange music, it is 
true, for the piano groans, wheezes and rattles, but still it is music. 
Visitors make Mother tired and I, too, would be glad if they did not 
come so often; the fact of the matter is that I come home so tired 
at nine o'clock that there is not much I can do, anyway. 

A few days ago I got a letter from Volodya that was two and a half 
weeks on the way and another that took a fortnight. The letters take 
a terribly long time to come. Volodya advises me to make a start with 
my English but I don't suppose I shall follow his advice. I have 
arranged with the German to have lessons three times a week and things 
will go better. Apparently I have been infected by Volodya's idee 
fixe — I must master languages at all costs. I now have some other 
work in addition to my teaching and language lessons and in the 
spring I will tell you all about it in detail. Only four months are 
left to March, when I shall come to you and then go on to Volodya. 
At the moment I am not allowing myself to think deeply on this sub- 
ject, because if I do the time will drag heavily. 

I don't know what to do about getting to Moscow in spring; I 
suppose it would be the wrong thing to tender an application before- 
hand. But why should I start guessing in advance? Spring is a long 
way off. It is winter here, a good, healthy winter. I hope the time 
will pass quickly for you until Christmas, and that at Christmas....* 

Written November 8, 1900 
Sent from Ufa to Moscow 

First published in 1931 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



The end of the letter has been lost.— Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 595 



27 

TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

Her Excellency Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Sharonov's House, 
Bakhmetyevskaya Street, 
Moscow 

December 2 

Dear Manyasha, 

Many thanks for the album, excuse me for the trouble I have 
caused you in getting it sent on; thanks also for bothering to supply 
me with French books. I have not yet managed all the old ones for 
I read terribly little. I know very well that unless I read I cannot 
master a language, but there is no time. How I sometimes envy you 
your solitude! It would give me the greatest pleasure to pore 
over my books of an evening, but I never manage to. Hustle, bustle 
and again hustle! One would have thought this could be avoided in 
Ufa. I do not know how it happens because I am not, I believe, very 
sociable. It is true that I have lost my shyness, only on rare occasions 
am I overcome by a sudden wave of shyness and cannot utter a word; 
now, however, that rarely happens and soon passes, but it used to be 
a real misfortune. That is why I understand you so well when you write 
about .your being shy. I know what a tormenting feeling it is and 
how difficult it is to get over it.... 

I have another request to make of you. Volodya asked for someone 
to write to Filippov about manuscripts and about payment for the 
Skvortsov article. I am writing about the manuscripts today but a 
letter must be written to Soikin about payment, mentioning the exact 
number of pages. I have not got a copy of Nauchnoye Obozreniye handy, 
so I cannot count the number of pages; more important than that — I 
am afraid there may be some delay in sending the money and that 
I shall have left Ufa in the meantime — I want to avoid complications. 
It is also possible that Filippov has sent the money to Moscow and 
that may make things awkward. So please write to Soikin in Volo- 
dya's name telling him to send the money to you. I think it would 
be better to do this before the New Year. 

What were you sick with? What did you have, influenza? I hope 

you have completely recovered Have you? And is Maria Alexan- 

drovna keeping well? For some reason you did not write anything 
about her. What are you doing? What are you reading? 

If you have not gone abroad by that time, we shall see one another 



596 



APPENDICES 



in March. Only three and a half months left, actually not very much. 
Do you know, I sometimes wonder whether I shall be given a pass- 
port to go abroad with Volodya away, perhaps his consent is neces- 
sary. Do you know whether Mark Timofeyevich's consent was required 
before a passport was issued to Anyuta? In general, as we get nearer 
to March I am getting alarmed at the possibility of delays. It is true 
that Volodya's letters have now become calmer and he writes that he 
is quite well, but it would not be a bad thing if those three months 
passed more quickly. 

The Siberians write very seldom, and from people passing through 
I have learned only that Gleb has grown thin and Zina has got fat. 
That's not much. 

Well, good-bye, I embrace you fondly and kiss you. Many, many 
kisses for Maria Alexandrovna as well. Mother sends regards. 

Yours, 

N. Ulyanova 

Written December 2, 1900 
Sent from Ufa to Moscow 

First published in 1931 Printed from 

in Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 



28 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER AND HIS SISTER MARIA 

December 22 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna and Manyasha, 

It seems quite a time since I wrote to you. Today I am in something 
of a holiday-eve mood and I am spending the day in a most unusual 
manner. I shall not have any lessons for a fortnight, yesterday I gave 
my last lesson, my French teacher has also gone away for the holidays, 
and so I am, as the saying goes, as free as the birds of the air. I began 
today by cleaning up the house and then got down to letter-writing 
and finishing off all kinds of unfinished jobs. I wanted to write you 
a letter for Christmas but I have been so busy, and this letter will 
probably arrive in the New Year, if you bear in mind the holidays and 
the snowdrifts. I wish you, dear people, a happy New Year; I send you 
many kisses and wish you good health and everything, everything 
that is good. I hope that this year I shall be able to spend some time 
with you. Mother also sends her best wishes. Here it is "seriously" 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 597 



cold, thirty below zero every day, and sometimes there is a snowstorm 
on top of the frost. I parade in Mother's fur coat and felt boots and 
she does not go out at all — the cold immediately takes her breath 
away. The post is greatly delayed by the snowstorms. 

How are you spending the holidays? Has D. I. arrived? Oh, there's 
something else — what is Anyuta's address? I wrote to her at Volodya's 
address a long time ago and do not know if she received my letter. 
I'd like to write to her, but I don't know where to send a letter. Olga 
Alexandrovna, from whom I recently received a letter, is also asking 
about the address. What a pity, Manyasha dear, that they would 
not let you go abroad — I had already begun to envy you. Perhaps 
we shall be able to go together. I am trying not to think of spring and 
my journey yet; if I do, I get lost in wild ideas. People had a good 
laugh at my expense yesterday. I started crossly trying to preach 
that it was essential to maintain an even temper and got so angry 
that I proved brilliantly that I was not even-tempered myself. 
Unfortunately my acquaintances are all nervous wrecks, people with 
"moods"; of course, if one's nerves are out of order there is nothing 
one can do about it, only why let oneself go — that I cannot stand. 

Olga Alexandrovna writes that they are badly off; she is living 
in Krasnoyarsk where Mikhail Alexandrovich enjoys some privileges 
on account of her. She has one small lesson, a poor one, and hopes to 
find another. M. A. gets terribly fatigued by army service and is bored 
by doing nothing and being a soldier. All the Siberians write regularly, 
except the Taiga and Omsk people, who maintain an unconscionable 
silence. Gleb, they say, is completely worn out at his job; I am sur- 
prised that they hang on there. We live on the main highway and 
people are passing through all the time so that we have a life of variety. 
Not long ago one of our Minusinsk acquaintances was here; he had 
been released for a month to visit his mother. By the way, Manyasha, 
you asked me about 0.,* you wanted to know what sort of person she is. 
I have very little personal knowledge of her but have heard many 
good things about her. I had intended to send a letter with her but, 
first, she did not go direct and, second, I had influenza at the time 
and could not think properly. I thought she would get to know Anyuta. 
Here I am, chattering away nineteen to the dozen. My study of lan- 
guages is making poor headway. I suppose I am not good at them. 



This refers to G. I. Okulova.— Ed. 



598 



APPENDICES 



And so, good-bye. Once more I embrace and kiss you; regards to M. T. 
and D. I. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

The Kautsky translation* is not here now, it was sent temporarily 
to Astrakhan, it will be returned soon, but Volodya has asked for it 
to be sent to him, only I don't know if it's fit for posting, it has 
acquired such a battered look. 

Written December 22, 1900 
Sent from Ufa to Moscow 

First published in 1931 Printed from 

in Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 



1901 
29 

TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

February 2 

Dear Manyasha, 

I have not answered your last letter until now because when I 
received it I wrote to Astrakhan asking then to send me the Counter- 
criticism quickly; so far I have not had a reply but expect one in a 
couple of days. In the meantime ask Filippov for the translation, 
I wrote to him once at Volodya's request, asking him to send all 
Volodya's manuscripts to your address. I suppose he has not sent them. 

I was beginning to let my correspondence lag but today I am in 
a tranquil mood and am, therefore, inclined to chatter, although there 
is actually nothing to chat about. Nothing here has changed except 
that the sun is shining in a joyful, springlike way, and I just dream 
of spring, I keep returning to the idea that there are only six weeks 
left and then ... then I shall be quite crazy with joy, especially 
when I have travelled to where Volodya is. At present there is no time 
to get really bored, there is plenty of work of all kinds. I ought to be 
trying to get everything done in time, but sometimes I laze around 
unpardonably, really unpardonably. I feel the urge to go out and 

* This refers to the manuscript of Lenin's translation of Karl 
Kautsky's book Bernstein und das sozialdemokratische Programm. Eine 
Antikritik, Stuttgart, 1899.— Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



599 



sometimes, instead of sitting down to work, I go wandering about 
the streets and once I started reading a novel first thing in the morn- 
ing. The boredom in Ufa is terrible, but you can build up your health 
here — I, for instance, have got so fat lately it's simply awful. But 
Mother cannot boast of her health, she is always feeling poorly. She 
is already making preparations to leave, and is busy sewing something 
and counting the days. After Ufa, you know, only Moscow and St. 
Petersburg are banned; at least there have been three such cases. 
But people do get terribly attached to one place. They stay put in 
Ufa, where you can earn good money, or else they move on to Samara. 
And what's good about Samara! 

Oh how little I read! All this time I have read only Berdyayev. 
And how poor is my progress with languages. I have not been to the 
French courses since Christmas because our group broke up and the 
Frenchman teaches me very perfunctorily when I go alone. I have 
German lessons on rare occasions. The results depend on my mood, 
sometimes I chatter away well enough and sometimes I say the weird- 
est things. All our people in Ufa have now joined forces with Samar- 
skaya Gazeta and write for it — so do I.* Since I have so little expe- 
rience in this field, it causes me plenty of worry. Altogether I am 
making attempts this year to get into the literary world. Some of the 
attempts are successful, but the trouble is that I cannot write the 
way I want to and I just hate my stuff. That's that. Why don't 
you write anything about yourself? How are you? When is your case 
coming to an end? Good-bye, or rather, au revoirl Many kisses. I fond- 
ly embrace Maria Alexandrovna and send her many kisses; I am ter- 
ribly impatient to get to Moscow. Mother sends regards to all. Good- 
bye, Manyasha dear, excuse me for my unpunctuality. 



Yours, 



N. U. 



Written February 2, 1901 
Sent from Ufa to Moscow 

First published in 1931 



Printed from 
the original 



in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



* Samarskaya Gazeta (Samara Gazette) No. 36 (February 16, 1901) 
published Nadezhda Krupskaya's article "The School and Life".— Ed. 



600 



APPENDICES 



30 



TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 



February 12, 1901 



Dear Manyasha, 

Many thanks for the cuttings. I read them with great interest. I 
have just received a notice from the post office about the arrival of 
a parcel. I suspect it is the Kautsky manuscript; if it is, I will send it 
to you tomorrow for certain. It is a great pity that there has been such 
a delay. Do you know whether Essays and Studies is obtainable? 
People are begging me to get a copy, they write that it is not on sale 
anywhere. 

Just a month left. Wonderful, isn't it? The time will come when 
there is just one day left! Yes, everything will come! 

There is something I almost forgot. Mother has a big request to 
make of you. She would like you to insure a lottery ticket she has, 
serial number 7328; this has to be done before March 1 and it cannot 
be done in Ufa because if the ticket wins it will become known here 
only in April and she would have to come back to Ufa — in short, 
it would not be worth her while. Keep the receipt yourself. The insur- 
ance will cost about three rubles, Mother wanted to send the money 
now, but I managed to convince her that it would do when she sees 
you. That's that. 

Are we really going to miss Anya? I want very much to see her. 
Write and tell me when she thinks of coming. I shall have another 
journey to make, to Astrakhan, and I do not know whether I should 
go to Moscow before or after — I am thinking of making it dependent 
on when Anya will come. 

Well, good-bye for the time being. This week there have been such 
crowds of people here that I am awfully glad the holidays are over. 

Many kisses for you and Maria Alexandrovna, and I embrace you 
both. Mother sends regards. 

Hoping to see you soon. 



Has Filippov sent you any sort of an answer? The blockhead! 

Sent from Ufa to Moscow 
First published in 1929 



Yours, 



Nadya 



in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
the original 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 601 



31 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

June 11, 1901 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

I have not written all this time because at first I relied on Anyuta 
to describe our way of life and after that Mother and Volodya wrote 
to you. We are all quite well, and Volodya shows no sign of catarrh. 
Mother is also keeping well. She finds life with us very monotonous, 
but I do not. It is true that Volodya and I are terrible homebirds. 
So far I have been to only one picture gallery and know practically 
nothing about the town. That is partly because it is summer and 
when we go for walks we go out in the country, not to town. We are 
living in a suburb, where we have the conveniences of a big city — 
shops, trams, etc. — combined with the proximity of the country. 
Yesterday, for instance, we went for a good walk along the road. It 
is a marvellous road lined with poplars and with fields and orchards 
on all sides. We have been for only one long ride and that was not 
a success — we got caught in a storm and came home very tired. We 
are thinking of going to the mountains some time. Anyuta kept advis- 
ing us to move to a village for the summer. Mother, too, thinks it 
would be better, but for many reasons it would be inconvenient. We 
cannot move too far because Volodya would have to travel to town 
every day, and that would be too tiring. Apart from that he goes 
to the library fairly often. There is a park and a place to bathe not 
far from us — about twenty minutes walk. In general life here is grad- 
ually beginning to conform to a pattern and Volodya is getting along 

better with his work As far as I am concerned, well, I work very 

little so far, or, to tell the truth, I do not work at all. Time passes, 
but where it goes I just don't know. 

I intend to visit the local schools. This place is a sort of child's 
kingdom. Everybody pays so much attention to them and the chil- 
dren are so nice and healthy. I have been in our city schools and cannot 
help drawing comparisons; I find that the children here live a lot bet- 
ter. My intentions will probably remain only intentions. Still I have 
plenty of time. Vodovozova has sent a cheque for six hundred odd 
marks, but I have not yet received the money or any letter. Altogether 
people in Russia write terribly little to us, we might well think that 
all our old friends have forgotten our existence. There has not been a 

whisper either from Zina or Bazil Nor do we know whether Gleb 

has left that Taiga of his.... 



602 



APPENDICES 



How are you getting on, dear Maria Alexandrovna? Are you keep- 
ing well? Give D. I. my regards. 

A letter for Manyasha is enclosed,* and give M. T. my regards. 
Is there anything new? Is anything more known? 

Our people all send regards and I send many kisses. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

P.S. Volodya asks D. I. to send three copies of The Development 
of Capitalism to the doctor. 

Sent from Munich to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



32 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

July 16, 1901 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Anyuta has sent us your letter to Volodya and also Manya's letter. 
Why did they not give Manya my letter? Very odd! It would be a good 
thing if the rumours that she is shortly to be released came true.... 
When you see Manya, tell her that I send her my best regards and 
many, many kisses. I was greatly surprised at the place in your letter 
where you said that Volodya would know about your way of life from 
your letter to Mother. That letter must have gone astray because 
Mother has not received a letter from you and quite recently told 
me to ask whether you had received her letter. Mother is ill all the 
time, she has a cough and sleeps poorly. Today she went with us to 
the bathing place, and got terribly tired, though it is no more than 
fifteen minutes walk. We go almost every day, the bathing here 
is excellent and, in general, although we live in a town the country 
is very near to us. It is a fine place in all respects. It is now quite 
warm, but not too hot to bear. 

The time seems to pass awfully quickly. Somehow you scarcely 
notice how week after week goes by; it is not as if there was a lot to 
do, although it seems "y° u never do anything but are never without 
something to do". 



* The letter has been lost.— Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 603 



I am taking up German again, it's a nuisance not to know the 
language; I have found a German woman who will give me lessons 
in exchange for Russian lessons. We'll see how it goes. Volodya and 
I keep intending to go to a German theatre, but we are terribly inac- 
tive in this respect, we keep saying "we ought to go" and that is the 
end of it, for something else always intervenes. Anyuta is more 
active in that sphere. By the way, I have to admit that our present 
mood is not very suitable for it. To get the best out of a foreign 
country you have to go there when you are young and are interested in 
every little thing However, I am in general satisfied with our pres- 
ent way of life; at first it was a bit miserable, everything very alien, 
but now, as we are beginning to take part in the life of the local people, 
that feeling is disappearing. The only thing is that people in Russia 
are miserly with their letters. Well, I must stop. I embrace you fond- 
ly, my dear. Keep well and cheerful. 

Mother sends regards to you and Dm. I. We are awaiting a letter 
from him. All the very, very best. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Sent from Munich to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



33 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

August 2 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

We received your letter to Volodya yesterday. Unfortunately we 
see from it that nothing has changed, and I did not write to Manyasha 
the last time because I thought she would soon be with you. But good 
things always happen when you least expect them. Sometimes, when 
I have been away from home a long time and my thoughts have been 
occupied with something altogether different I find myself coming 
home with the idea that there simply must be a telegram waiting to 
say that our folks are with you.... Please, dearest, when you go to 
see Manyasha, give her many, many kisses from me and give M. T. 
my regards. I will write to Manyasha. 

There are no changes here. Volodya is now working quite hard and 



604 



APPENDICES 



I am glad for his sake; when he throws himself completely into some 
task he feels well and strong — that is one of his natural qualities; 
he is in very good health, there does not seem to be a trace of the cat- 
arrh left and no insomnia, either. Every day he takes a cold rub down 
and we go bathing almost every day, too. But Mother is always feel- 
ing poorly, first rheumatism, then general weakness, and then she 
catches cold. 

In a week or so Volodya and I intend going to Switzerland for 
a short time to see Anyuta. I am very glad that Anyuta did not go 
to Riigen, as she originally intended, but to Lake Thun. It is probably 
better there. We are going for only a few days, but I am looking for- 
ward to the journey with pleasure — first, I want to see Anyuta, and 
second, I want to have a look at the mountains. I don't know what 
these mountains are like, I have never seen them, except in pictures. 
While we are away, an acquaintance of ours is going to stay with 
Mother, so she will not be afraid of being alone. In the autumn Mother 
wants to go to St. Petersburg; I am trying to persuade her to spend 
the winter with us but do not know what she will decide. Summer 
is drawing to a close and I have not even noticed how it passed; it 
is as though there has been no summer. Summer is not a real 
summer in town. 

Well, good-bye, dearest, I embrace you fondly and wish you 
health and strength. Give D. I. my regards and thank him for the 
book I received a long time ago. Mother sends regards to all. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Written August 2, 1901 
Sent from Munich to Podolsk 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 

1902 
34 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

It is a long time since we had a letter from you and I am beginning 

to get seriously worried How are you keeping? Where is Anya 

now? If she is still with you, give her a lot of kisses for me. What about 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 605 



Manyasha? Have you got decently fixed up, have you rented a suit- 
able apartment? 

We are all well. This is a wonderful autumn and Volodya and I 
often go out in the country. Mother is gradually getting used to the 
new surroundings, although she does not like big cities. She sends 
her regards to all. I embrace you fondly, you and Manyasha, and 
Anyuta, too, if she is with you. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Written September 27, 1902 
Sent from London to Samara 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 11 the original 



1903 

35 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

March 4, 1903 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

It is ages since I wrote to you, so long that I have even forgotten 
when I sent my last letter. The fact of the matter is that I have com- 
pletely forgotten how to write letters and regard them with feelings 
of loathing. Every time it requires quite a lot of will power to take 
up the pen. Once I start to write, however, the letter writes itself, I 
even begin to like it, but it is very difficult to start. 

Volodya is not at home now,* he has gone for a breath of fresh 
air. I am always glad when he makes a trip somewhere because it has 
a very refreshing effect on him. A change of surroundings soothes the 
nerves — otherwise life drags on very monotonously, the same impres- 
sions and the same people day after day. And one does get sick of 
poring over books. This time I wanted to go with Volodya but again 
it didn't come off — a lot of work had piled up and Mother is so very 
sick that I did not want to, could not, in fact, leave her alone. She 



* In late February and early March 1903 Lenin visited Paris where 
he lectured at the Russian Social Sciences Higher School and spoke 
to Russian political emigres on the agrarian programme. — Ed. 



606 



APPENDICES 



has had a very bad attack of influenza and has had to keep to her bed for 
about a week. At first the doctor was afraid it might be typhus. She 
has now completely recovered, but the weakness remains. She wants 
to get out into the country as soon as possible, but we shall not be 
able to manage it before May, and even then I don't know how. 
Volodya is not keen on going to the country, he is very fond of Prague.* 
I have also got used to Prague but shall nevertheless be glad to get 
away from here. I should like to write in greater detail about the 
way we live, but there does not seem to be anything to write. How 
I should like to stay with you now! You wrote about your apartment 
in your last letter and I got a very clear conception of the way you 
live there. I was able to picture to myself the frosty weather, the fire 
in the stove, how you wait for Manya to return from work and how 
Manya comes in out of the frost. Life in Samara must be like life in 

Ufa. "Give me the wings of a swallow " But now I am beginning 

to ramble. Sometimes I feel terribly homesick, today especially. By 
the way, that is how I am, I am always feeling drawn to somewhere 
else. 

You will probably think we have no amusements at all here, but 
we go somewhere almost every evening; we have been to the German 
theatre a number of times and to concerts and we study the people 
and the local way of life. It is easier to observe here than anywhere 
else. Volodya is very keen on these observations and gets as enthu- 
siastic about them as about everything he does. It was hard to begin 
this letter and now it is a pity to stop. I embrace you and Manya 
fondly, my dear ones. All the best. 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Mother sends regards. 



Sent from London to Samara 



First published 
in the Fourth Edition 
of the Collected Works 



Printed from 
the original 



*P 



rague is mentioned instead of London for secrecy. — Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 607 



1904 



36 



TO LENIN'S MOTHER 



M. A. Ulyanova, 
Laboratornaya, 12, Apt. 4, 
Kiev 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Your letter came as a great shock to us — and it is so sad.* I can 
only hope they will soon be released. We have heard that there have 
been wholesale house searches and arrests in Kiev. During such raids 
many people are caught in the dragnet. Judging by the fact that they 
have arrested all of them, the case will be a trivial one. I don't know 
what conditions in the Kiev lock-ups are like now — they used to be 
bearable. Have they allowed you to see anyone? I have asked an 
acquaintance of mine to visit you. Since you moved to Kiev so recently, 
I am afraid you have not got any acquaintances there, the city is a 
big one and you are strange to it. It's a great pity that I have lost the 
address of a friend of Anyuta's and cannot write to her. I shall await 
your letter anxiously. Perhaps it will bring pleasanter news. 

We are not living too well in Geneva; Mother is often poorly. We 
feel unsettled somehow and the work goes badly. 

Can you send books and things to the people in prison? Have you 
had any letters from them? Does Mark Timofeyevich intend taking a 
holiday and visiting you? Mother is sorry she is not in Russia with 
you. Wishing you health and strength. 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Written January 15, 1904 
Sent from Geneva 

First published in 1929 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 11 



Printed from 
a typewritten copy 
(made by the police) 



See Note No. 233.— Ed. 



608 



APPENDICES 



1909 
37 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

To begin with, let me embrace you fondly. This letter is being 
written mainly to tell you that, because actually there is nothing 
much to write about. Manyasha has told you about our way of life. 
It differs from last year only in the apartment being very warm and 
Volodya having become a stick-at-home. He has been working a lot 
this winter and he always feels better when he is working. 

For over a week now he has been getting up at eight in the morn- 
ing to go to the library; he returns from there at 2 o'clock. At first 
he found it difficult to get up so early, but now he is very satisfied 
and has begun to go to bed early. It would be a very good thing if 
he could manage to keep it up. 

To think we have been living in Paris for a whole year already! 
We have become fairly used to it, but it's a pity we see so little of 
the real local life. 

Recently we went to a little theatre near here and enjoyed it. The 
audience was pure working class, mothers with babies, hatless, lively 
and talkative. It was interesting to see the audience's spontaneous 
reaction to the play. They applauded not good or bad acting, but 
good or bad actions. The play itself was just as ingenuous, naive as 
the audience, with lots of pretty words that suited the taste of the 
audience. We got the impression of something very lively, very spon- 
taneous. I was sorry that Manyasha was not there. I was also sorry 
she was not here when we went to see a demonstration of a hundred 
thousand people.* That created a very strong impression. In general 
we seldom go anywhere, and if we do, only on Sundays. 

How are your eyes? Are they getting better? Mother, too, often 
complains that it is difficult for her to read in the evenings. Is the light 
good in your apartment? A pity it's chilly, though. It's a good thing 
you're living with somebody you know. If they are nice people, it's 
much pleasanter. Perhaps you will take a place together somewhere 
later on.... 

*A demonstration of 100,000 people took place in Paris on Octo- 
ber 5, 1909 as a protest against the execution of Ferrer in Spain; Ferrer 
had been accused of preparing the uprising in Barcelona in July 1909 
brought about by the despatch of government troops to Morocco. — Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 609 



Again, I embrace you fondly. Mother sends very best regards. I 
wrote to Manyasha recently and yesterday I made a discovery — my 
letter to her was lying undisturbed in Volodya's pocket! How many 
times have I sworn I would never give him letters to post. This time 
he assured me he would not forget it. But he did! 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Written in the twenties of 

December, 1909 
Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 1 the original 



1910 
38 

TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA 

Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova, 

c/o Yekaterina Lesonen, 

Leppeneno Village, 

Terijoki Station, Finland Railway, 

Finland 

August 24 

Dear Anya, 

I have received your letter and passed it on. Shkurka* left** yes- 
terday, and Mother and I are thinking of staying here till mid-Sep- 
tember. It's really rather nice here. I embrace you fondly, M. A. as 
well, if she has not left. Best regards from Mother. 

Nadya 

Written August 24, 1910 
Sent from Pornic (France) 

First published 

in the Fourth Edition Printed from 

of the Collected Works the original 



*V. I. Lenin.— Ed. 
** This refers to Lenin's trip to Copenhagen for the Eighth Con- 
gress of the Second International.— Ed. 



610 



APPENDICES 



1911 
39 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

August 26 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

I have been intending to write to you for a very long time, but 
there is always something that prevents it. A few days ago we received 
Anya's letter. The money, 100 francs, Volodya received a long time 
ago, but the list of books to be bought and sent with that money has 
not arrived. We see from your postcards and Anya's letter that the 
arrangement in Berdyansk was not a real summer affair. It looks urban 
rather than rural, though, of course, there's the bathing Our sum- 
mer has not been very fortunate, either. Mother got ill several times, 
she had pneumonia and the doctor said that her lungs are, in general, 
not in good condition, that she needs rest, good food, and so on. In 
that respect our place here is no good; there is not the tiniest garden 
round the house, not even a yard, and if we want to get out of doors 
we have to go somewhere, which is not the same thing at all. It is 
hot in the house and noisy. Although the food is good — we eat in a 
commune and the cuisine is Russian, filling, home-cooked food — we 
have to walk a verst through the town and that is very tiring; we have 
begun taking the meals home but there is the bother of washing the 
dishes.... In short, it means nothing to a healthy person but is bad for 
one who is ill. And the heat here is simply unbearable. Mother is better 
but the illness set her back a lot, she coughs and has fits of depres- 
sion. 

Volodya is making good use of the summer. He does his work out 
in the open, rides his bicycle a lot, goes bathing and is altogether 
pleased with country life. This week we have been cycling our heads 
off. We made three excursions of 70 to 75 kilometres each, and have 
explored three forests — it was fine. Volodya is extremely fond of 
excursions that begin at six or seven in the morning and last until late 
at night. But the result is that we don't get our work done. Still, 
never mind! The weather is beginning to break. We have the rooms 
here until September 13, but if the weather keeps fine we can arrange 
with the landlord to stay longer. That would be good but there will be 
a big problem. The commune closes early in September, there is nowhere 
to cook at home and the restaurant is bad and expensive. We have, 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



611 



indeed, fixed ourselves up here very cheaply. For the apartment we 
pay 10 francs a month, dinner and supper cost 1 franc 30 centimes a 
head. There are some other expenses, of course, but they are insignifi- 
cant. Volodya is not sure when to advise Anya to come — now or 
later, direct to Paris. As regards work — he is busier at the moment, 
although it is difficult to foresee what will happen in autumn. Living 
conditions are better in town, things are pretty inconvenient here. 
I think Anya should come when it best suits her, it doesn't make much 
difference to us. Volodya will be very busy during the next couple 
of weeks or so. Only she should not come while we are moving; 
although that does not really matter, either. The moving job is not 
difficult. How long it is since we met!... 

Well, I have told you everything there is to know about us and 
now I give you both many kisses. For your health's sake try to take 
advantage of the bathing before you leave. 

Mother sends best regards. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Written August 26, 1911 
Sent from Longjumeau (France) 
to Berdyansk 

First published 

in the Fourth Edition Printed from 

of the Collected Works the original 

40 

TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

September 21 

Dear Manyasha, 

I have received your two letters dated August 29 and 31. Many 
thanks. 

Today, at long last, we moved back to town, there have been some 
fine autumn days lately, but today it is cold and raining. Mother 
has caught cold again recently and coughs a lot. 

Volodya is going away for a few days,* and has asked me to go 
with him to the exhibition in Turin but I shall not be able to go, 
although I should like to make the trip. Still, I have had a good rest 
this summer and am more attracted to books than to holiday-making. 

How is Maria Alexandrovna after her journey? Was she very tired? 



See Letter No. 220.— Ed. 



612 



APPENDICES 



When does Anya intend coming to see us? I am already in the 
mood to go sightseeing in Paris with her.... 
Many kisses for all of you, regards to M. T. 
Mother sends regards. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

P.S. I will send you a long letter soon. This is only by way of 
greeting. 

Written September 21, 1911 
Sent from Paris to Moscow 

First published 

in the Fourth Edition Printed from 

of the Collected Works the original 



1912 
41 

TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA 

March 9 

Dear Anya, 

This year I have somehow fought shy of letter-writing. Life goes 
on so monotonously here that I don't know what to write about. This 
winter I have been at home working persistently and for months on 
end have not left this part of the town. It has been raining all the 
time and I could not go cycling or walking. I have read little and have 
not been to any lectures. That is probably why I got so fed up with 
the winter. I am glad that spring has come, it is very early this year. 
Volodya and I have already been out in the country a couple of times. 
It is true that after these excursions I was so tired I couldn't budge, 
but it was wonderful, all the same. This week has been all going out. We 
went to the theatre, the play was idiotic, but these French fairly 
yelled their heads off. Still, there was some wonderful music during 
the entr'actes — Chaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin. Today we 
are going to see Sophocles' Electra.... And all this because it is spring. 
How you have been spoiling us this year with parcels! Because of 
this Volodya has even learned to help himself from the larder and 
eats out of turn, i.e., not at the proper times. Whenever he comes 
in, he starts eating. Now he drinks milk before going to bed (instead 
of wine) and eats eggs in the mornings. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 613 



I soaked the herring as you told me and they are very nice, like 
salmon. I am thinking of making pancakes soon. 

Mother is not feeling very well. I don't know what she will do in 
summer. First she wants to go to Russia, then she doesn't want to. 
She asks me to send her regards to all. 

I have written about my niece. 

We very rarely see M. F., he is very busy. He is in a hurry to finish 
a translation (this year he has translated three thick books), and has 
now been given some regular medical translation work. Kolya* is 
very pleased with his school, they play the gramophone to the child- 
ren, tell them stories, give them crosses and teach them to write pot- 
books. He is beginning to chatter in French. 

That is all the news. Has Manyasha received my letter? Why 
has she not written for so long? 

I embrace you and Maria Alexandrovna fondly, Manyasha too. 
I should like to write more about Volodya to make the letter interest- 
ing, but couldn't manage it. Another time, perhaps. Regards to M. T. 
Somehow you all write very rarely. 



Yours, 

Nadya 

Written March 9, 1912 
Sent from Paris to Saratov 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



42 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 



May 27 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Your letter was indeed a sad one, one misfortune after another.** 
But I do believe Manyasha and Anyuta will soon be released. Judg- 
ing by the newspapers there are now house searches going on all over 
Russia, and they are arresting everyone who has been inside before, 
arresting them on sight, as a precaution against "something 



* M. F. Vladimirsky's son.— Ed. 
**See Note No. 311.— Ed. 



614 



APPENDICES 



happening", and then, a couple of weeks later, they let them go. I 
have heard of several such absurd arrests. 

But it's a pity you have to worry so much and so deeply while 
things are being sorted out. 

Look after yourself, my dearest. I embrace you fondly, and kiss 
you. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Mother sends her very best regards. 



Written May 27, 1912 
Sent from Paris to Saratov 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



1913 
43 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER AND SISTER ANNA 

January 4 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna and Anya, 

The compliments of the season from me and Mother to you and 
Mark Timofeyevich. Actually there is nothing to write about. Life 
is very monotonous. I have scarcely any acquaintances here. Of late 
I had been getting to know a young girl — not really a girl but the 
mother of the sweetest baby girl — but she left for Russia a few days 
ago. 

We go walking every day, but don't overdo it. The weather is 
fine, but the mud is awful. 

The holidays passed quietly, quite unnoticeably. The libraries 
here are Polish and there is a University library, but we are always 
busy and neither Volodya nor I have ever been to it. 

And we have not been to a concert once. 

We are all well. 

I embrace you and send many kisses. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Written January 4, 1913 
Sent from Krakow to Saratov 

First published in 1931 Printed from 

in Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 615 



44 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER AND SISTER ANNA 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna and Anya, 

Many kisses for the presents, only it is all so luxurious, we are 
not a bit used to it. Today Volodya invited some friends to share the 
parcel and to celebrate some brilliant publishing plans that emerged 
today. He is letting his dreams run away with him, every day a 
new book ... all his old notebooks have been perused, old lists of figu- 
res have been unearthed and the cobwebs wiped lovingly from them. 

For the time being many kisses from me and from Mother, who 
is busy about the house. 

About the mustard — that was Volodya inquiring on his own initi- 
ative — I know how to make mustard. 

We are having winter weather here again. 

The photographs were so good it was a pity to give them up. 
Volodya was particularly pleased with them. 

About publishing and so forth, Volodya will probably write him- 
self.* 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Written February 24, 1913 
Sent from Krakow to Saratov 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



45 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

March 18 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

It is an eternity since we had a letter from you or from Anya and 
we are very worried, not knowing what the matter is. Perhaps a letter 
has gone astray, or perhaps one of you is ill. It's so easy to catch cold 
in spring! Here the grass is already green and dandelions and daisies 
have appeared, but there is a most annoying wind. Mother has managed 
to catch cold and has been wheezing heavily for about a week. It is 
a pity she cannot go out. And so we have been thinking that the 



*See Letter No. 233. -Ed. 



616 



APPENDICES 



climate is worse in Saratov and someone may have caught cold. 
What does Mark Timofeyevich write? Where is he now? 

Life here goes on like clockwork and actually there is nothing to 
write about. We live as we did in Shushenskoye, from one post to the 
next. Until eleven we fill in the time somehow; at eleven the first post- 
man comes, and then we impatiently await the six o'clock post. 

The letters we have been receiving recently are all rather 
gloomy and so our mood falls into line with them. We live a sort of 
reflected life. 

Still, I am glad spring has come because the last winter seemed 
a very long one. People are already renting places for the summer, 
but things are very uncertain with us. Mother will go first to St. 
Petersburg if she is strong enough. 

The amnesty turned out to be an absolute myth. I do not know how 
it will affect Manyasha, but she will get a one-third reduction in any 
case.* 

We have not had a latter from Manyasha for a long time and do 
not know how she is getting on. 

I embrace you and Anya fondly and wish you good health above 
all else. I hope her hand is better and that she will manage to write 
to us. Volodya, I suppose, will write himself.** Mother asks me to 
send regards. 

In a week or less it will be Easter here — so early!*** 



*See Letter No. 234 and Note No. 316.— Ed. 
**See Letter No. 234.— Ed. 
*** Catholic Poland used the Gregorian Calendar and Easter 
usually came earlier than in Orthodox Russia which used the Julian 
Calendar.— Ed. 



Many kisses, 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Written March 18, 1913 
Sent from Krakow to Saratov 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya 
Revolyutsiya No. 4 



Printed from 
the original 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



617 



46 



TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 



Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Yekaterininsko-Dvoryanskaya, 40, 
Vologda, 
Russia 

Dear Manyasha, 

I congratulate you and send you many kisses. Lidya will stay on 
at the old place until May because Anna Mikhailovna and Lodik* have 
come to her. She has been getting ill rather often recently. We are 
moving to the country for five months; it's lovely there — forest, mush- 
rooms, mountains, and a stream. All I am afraid of is that we shall 
get bored. It will be good to put Shkurka out to graze. There is a big 
verandah attached to the house, just right for him to sit and work. 
It is a huge house, big enough for a whole workshop, but for the time 
being Shkurka and I will be alone there because Mother is going to 
Russia for a couple of months. She also sends her congratulations. 
I am dreaming of being able to work a little in summer, for although 
I sit over my books I don't do any reading at all, and I am really ter- 
ribly anxious to get down to work. This month will be wasted. I am 
up to my neck in day-to-day affairs and on top of all that it has been 
discovered that I have thyroid trouble. The doctor has frightened 
me and every day I go to the clinic for electrical treatment; that takes 
three hours and after it I wander about half the day like a lunatic. 
They feed me bromide and, in general, it is all terribly sickening. 
I intend writing you a long letter but somehow time gets frittered away. 



Many kisses, 



Yours, 



Nadya 



Written April 10, 1913 
Sent from Krakow 



First published 
in the Fourth Edition 
of the Collected Works 



Printed from 
the original 



This refers to A. M. Wrzosek (Runina) and her son. — Ed. 



618 



APPENDICES 



1914 
47 

TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA 

Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova, 
Goncharnaya Street, 11, Apt. 23, 
St. Petersburg 

Dear Anya, 

I have received your postcard with your address. The news about 
M. A.'s illness is disturbing. What was wrong with her? Has she com- 
pletely recovered? And how, in general, are they living there? Oh yes, 
about Beer. To translate it, you must first obtain the permission of the 
author and then find a publisher. The first can be managed by writing 
to him, but it will be more difficult to find a publisher. An acquaint- 
ance of ours long ago proposed translating Beer and offered it to 
various publishers, to Semyonov in particular, and they all refused. 
Volodya at first thought you should translate §4 and §5 of Chapter 
Four and all of Chapter Six for Prosveshcheniye, and then came to 
the conclusion that it would be better to write an article (about Beer) 
based on these chapters, leaving out all the uninteresting trivialities 
(which would make the article more popular in form) but retaining 
the more interesting passages untouched. If you have received the 
book, perhaps Manyasha will undertake the job. Volodya has not yet 
returned.* This time he will probably be tired after the journey. 
There is quite a lot of work waiting for him at home. We are already 
beginning to think about a place for the summer. Volodya wants to 
go to the same place as last year. The place is good for one's health, 
although it pours with rain all the time. The winter has been an 
unlucky one for us, we have not been able to work much. It is still three 
months to summer, by the way. Perhaps you could obtain something 
about the public education congress, speeches and so on. I need them 
very much. I have written all about Rabotnitsa* * to twenty places. 
The thing seems to be developing sporadically. Some people seem to 
have taken the matter up seriously. I don't know how it will turn 
out, but Volodya, by the way, will write to you about it. Why are 
you so much against Sibirsky? I embrace you fondly. I wanted mostly 
to write to you about Beer. 

Nadya 



*See Letter No. 246.— Ed. 
**See Note No. 328. -Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 619 



Mother sends regards. She is keeping more or less well. I, too, am 
keeping well on the whole, only my heart gets rebellious occasionally, 
apparently owing to the thyroid trouble. I want to go to the doctor 
in a day or two and ask him whether it is not a relapse. I shouldn't 
think so. 

What does Mark Timofeyevich write? 

Written January 31, 1914 
Sent from Krakow 

First published in 1929 Printed from 

in the Fourth Edition a typewritten copy 

of the Collected Works (made by the police) 



48 

TO LENIN'S SISTER ANNA 

Dear Anya, 

The periodical for women is developing sporadically so far. Moscow 
has promised to arrange a social evening to get money for it, but 
I don't know whether it will come off. Supplements to the newspa- 
per would cost more and not less. A journal would have an organising 
significance and in that respect is better than supplements. In St. 
Petersburg they say "a hundred rubles is not money". I don't know 
about that, but somehow we start everything without money. When the 
first issue appears, perhaps it will be possible to get some, although, 
I repeat, I don't see any in the offing. 

I am very worried about how the editorial side will be arranged. 
Things so far are in a bad way because there are two of us here and two 
more in Paris, but as far as the fifth member of the board is concerned 
things are not so simple. There are some very competent people in 
Paris. You know Lyudmila. The other is still more reliable as far 
as principles are concerned and whatever she undertakes she does 
well.* I should like the Parisians to co-opt a third person and have 
an editorial office there, but somehow this is not being done. The 
actual editorial office will be in Russia, of course. I do not think this 
at all important because the matter is such an elementary one that it 
will not be difficult to come to an agreement. At first there will be 
some slight confusion, then we shall talk matters over and in the end 



* The Parisians were Lyudmila Stal and Inessa Armand. — Ed. 



620 



APPENDICES 



we shall be able to work together and everything will be all right. 
And the disadvantage is that we are not all competent literary work- 
ers, and some of our ideas may not be expressed clearly Still, I 

hope everything will turn out all right. Please write more about this 
matter. 

A few days ago I read through all the articles in our newspapers 
about women's affairs and saw that the insurance campaign had made 
the question of women very prominent. I have sent a short article 
on this issue today. If only I were a competent writer — nothing 
comes out the way I want it to. While you are writing a thing it 
seems good, but when you see it in print you are ashamed to look 
at it. 

I am worried about the article for Prosveshcheniye* It is written 
exclusively from newspaper articles, and from very few newspapers 
at that. The resolutions were reported everywhere very differently 
and many factual errors may easily have crept in. Apart from that, 
the article was written at a time when I was feeling very ill and the 
work did not go well. Then they wrote to me that E. K.** would write 
about the congress. His reports were the best. I was very pleased, but 
it was my article that appeared. So there you are. 

So please let me have the details about the periodical for women, 
I think you will get down to it seriously. It may develop into some- 
thing big. At any rate I am beginning to get an appetite for it. 



*Krupskaya's article "Results of the Congress on Public Educa- 
tion" was published in 1914 in Prosveshcheniye No. 1. — Ed. 
** It is not known whom this refers to.— Ed. 



Nadya 



Written February 11, 1914 
Sent from Krakow to St. Petersburg 



First published in 1955 
in the journal Istorichesky 
Arkhiv No. 4 



Printed from a typewritten copy 
(made by the police) 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 621 



49 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

Her Excellency Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Samarin's House, Apt. 3, 

Moskovskaya Street, 

Vologda, 

Russia 

April 15 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

The compliments of the season; we wish you health and every- 
thing else of the best. It is summer here. Yesterday it was as hot as 
Africa. All the leaves are out. We are all well. 

I embrace you and Manyasha fondly. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Written April 15, 1914 
Sent from Krakow 

First published in 1930 Printed from 

in Lenin's Letters to Relatives the original 

50 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

Her Excellency Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, 

Samarin's House, Apt. 3, 

Moskovskaya Street, 

Vologda, 

Russia 

June 8 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Many kisses for you and Manyasha. I received Manya's postcard 
and short letter and replied to them the same day. 
How are you keeping? 

It is pouring with rain from morning to night here, for a whole 
week I have been unable to step outside except in raincoat and 
galoshes. 

Mother is poorly all the time, her heart troubles her. This year 
she has frequently suffered from [palpitation],* and because of her 
ill[ness and] the rain she is in a bad [mood]. 

[We are] travelling. I have made a [discovery] — Basedow's 
disease gets a lot [better] from excursions into the mountains, but 

* A corner of the postcard has been torn off and the words in brack- 
ets have been filled in by the editor according to the sense.— Ed. 



622 



APPENDICES 



in such weather I cannot, of course, go anywhere. By the way, the 
disease has not made itself very much felt this year. 

That is all. 

Again I embrace you. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Written June 8, 1914 
Sent from Poronin 

First published in 1930 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



1915 
51 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

September 24, 1915 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

Every day we are expecting a letter from you, but for a long time 
there has been no news of you, or of Anya, or of Manyasha. The last 
letter we had was about your going to the country for the summer.* 
You must be back in town by now. It will be September 11 by the Rus- 
sian calendar.... Did you have a good rest in summer? I should very 
much like to know how you are keeping, my dear. Are you quite well? 

There are no changes here. We shall soon be returning to town. 
The mountains do me a lot of good. The thyroid trouble seems to have 
gone altogether. This last week we have been having magnificent 
weather and Volodya and I have been up all the nearby mountains. 
Twice I climbed the Rothhorn, 7,500 feet, which gives you an excellent 
view of the Alps, without getting a bit tired, and that is something 
not every healthy person can manage. In view of this I regard my 
illness as eliminated and am assuming the status of a healthy person. 

Now I have a request to make of Anya. During the winter I studied 
pedagogy quite a lot and during the summer have been writing 
a pamphlet on education. It is almost finished. It will be quite ready 
in a month and will amount to nearly a hundred pages. The subject 
is "The Elementary School and Democracy". I have managed to col- 
lect quite a lot of interesting material, very little of which has been 

* By the way, a letter came later saying that Manyasha is visit- 
ing you. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 623 



analysed before. Do you think some publisher might snap it up? I 
don't know the present situation on the book market or whether a 
publisher can be found. I will try writing to Gorbunov, although the 
subject is one that is only of partial interest to his publishing house. 

Today I received the last issue of Rech (August 31), which we 
have recently been reading with particular interest. It's a pity we 
shall not be getting it any more. We don't receive any other Russian 
newspapers. In general things are bad as far as Russian newspapers 
and journals are concerned. In town they are available in the reading- 
room, but there is a great demand for them and if you come a bit 
late there's nothing left; apart from that it is not always convenient 
to go to the reading-room. Sovremenny Mir was sent to an acquaintance 
from another town for one day. Altogether, on account of the 
post and the general breakdown everybody gets newspapers by 
chance. 

We are thinking of returning to town in a week. If the weather 
is very good we shall try to stay a little longer. After all, it does not 
matter where we live. 

Well, I must close. Many kisses for you and Anya and I embrace 
you both. 

Yours, 

Nadya 

Sent from Sbrenberg (Switzerland) 
to Petrograd 

First published in 1930 
in the journal Proletarskaya Printed from 

Revolyutsiya No. 4 the original 



52 

TO LENIN'S MOTHER 

Her Excellency Mme. Oulianoff, 

Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova, Seidenweg 4a m , 

Shirokaya Street No. 48/9, Apt. 24, chez M-me Schneider, 

Peterburgskaya Storona, Berne 

Petrograd, 

Russia 

October 11, 1915 

Dear Maria Alexandrovna, 

I very much want to write you a few lines and to give you and 
Anya many kisses. Many thanks to Anya for the trouble she is taking; 
today I received the Zhurnal Zhurnalov and about a week ago a whole 



624 



APPENDICES 



pile of the latest educational publications. I was terribly in need of 
them. Thanks, many, many thanks. Today or tomorrow I shall write 
her a long letter. How is Manyasha getting on? Volodya is all the 
time expecting letters from her. Do you know her address? 

Again many kisses, 

Yours, 

Nadya 

First published 

in the Fourth Edition Printed from 

of the Collected Works the original 



53 

TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 
Malaya Gruzinskaya, 7, Apt. 13, 
Moscow, 
Russia 

December 14 

Dear Manyasha, 

Did you receive the long letter I sent you in spring? I wrote then, 
amongst other things, that Mother had died, gave some details of our 
way of life, etc.* 

Now I am writing for one special reason. We shall soon be coming 
to the end of our former means of subsistence and the question of earn- 
ing money will become a serious one. It is difficult to find anything 
here. I have been promised a pupil, but that seems to be slow in ma- 
terialising. I have also been promised some copying but nothing has 
come of it. I shall try something else, but it is all very problematic. 
I have to think about a literary income. I don't want that side of our 
affairs to be Volodya's worry alone. He works a lot as it is. The ques- 
tion of an income troubles him greatly. 

This is what I wanted to ask you about. Lately I have been put- 
ting in a lot of study on education in general and the history of educa- 
tion in particular, so I am well equipped in this field. I have even 
written a whole pamphlet, "The Elementary School and Democracy". 
The first part of it is ready and is called "The Role of Productive 



The letter has been lost. — Ed. 



LETTERS WRITTEN BY NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA 



625 



Labour in Public Education". A hundred odd pages. I think it has 
turned out quite interesting. I should like to ask you to find me a 
publisher. I can send the manuscript by return of post if asked for. 
Perhaps Svobodnoye Vospitaniye or some other publisher would take 
it. By the way, I have sent an article on Rousseau to Svobodnoye Vos- 
pitaniye. They must have received the letter because they have begun 
sending me the journal, but I don't know whether they have received 
the manuscript. Can you find out whether they got the article and 
whether it will be published? I shall soon be sending them something 
on other, more topical subjects. 

I asked Rakhil's brother* to go to Svobodnoye Vospitaniye, but 
he has quite a few affairs of his own to look after and is not a very 
suitable person for such negotiations. 

It is a pity, too, that business with the Granats went wrong. 
Volodya wrote to them in summer** but got no answer, and so I don't 
know whether they left a place for my article "Labour School", 
what size it should be and by what date it had to be submitted. I am 
now busy working on the question of apprenticeship. The libraries in 
Switzerland are, in general, well equipped and work goes well. I also 
have plenty of time, but the real problem is to find whom to write 
for. It is difficult to arrange anything from here. Do what you can. 

Do you know what has happened to Lidya? I have had no news 
of her since summer. Is she well? How is she doing? 

I write to our people from time to time, although there is nothing 
much to write about. 

I send you many kisses, dear Manyasha, drop me a couple of lines 
some time. Keep well! 



Do you ever see Zinaida Pavlovna? Has she completely recovered 
from the operation? Where are they? What are they doing? 

Written December 14, 1915 
Sent from Berne 



Nadya 



First published in 1930 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



L. S. Rivlin.— Ed. 

Collected Works, Vol. 36, p. 317.— Ed. 



626 



APPENDICES 



1916 



54 



TO LENIN'S SISTER MARIA 



Her Excellency 

Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, 

Malaya Gruzinskaya, 7, Apt. 13, 

Moscow, 

Russia 



Sent by Mme Oulianoff, 
Seidenweg 4a m a Berne 



February 8, 1916 



Dear Manyasha, 

Thanks for inquiring about the Gorbunovs,* they really did write. 
I have begun to receive their journal again and I see that it has been 
considerably reduced in size. On Volodya's advice I sent the pamphlet 
to Petrograd. Volodya wrote to the publisher about it.** Anya wrote 
that we may also try Bonch or the Popovs. The postcard you sent in 
spring about the Granats was received. Volodya wrote to you and to 
the Granats but got no answer. Perhaps you will ask them the date 
by which it must be sent and what length it should be. Write more often 
to Volodya, he is always anxious to receive your letters and you have 
now started writing very occasionally. It is true that it is somehow 
difficult to write. Do you know anything about Lidya, I have had 
no news of her since spring, although I have written to her. Many 
kisses. Volodya was very pleased to receive your long letter. Perhaps 
you will write again some time. 



The newspapers and books have arrived. Volodya wrote to you 
when he received them. 



All the best, 



N. 



First published in 1930 
in Lenin's Letters to Relatives 



Printed from 
the original 



* I. I. and V. V. Gorbunov-Posadov.— Ed. 
** Collected Works, Vol. 36, p. 367.— Ed. 



NOTES 



629 



Ulyanova, Maria Alexandrovna (1835-1916) — mother of Vladimir 
Ilyich Lenin, daughter of A. D. Blank, a doctor, who held advanced 
views. A well-educated woman, she spoke several languages 
and was an accomplished musician. Study at home enabled her 
to qualify as a schoolteacher in 1863. She possessed rare talents 
as an educationalist and devoted herself entirely to her family 
and children. Having a strong character and great will power, 
she shared her children's ideas and brought them up to be honest, 
industrious and sympathetic towards the needs of the people. 
She was a warm supporter of her children in their revolutionary 
struggle and endured the misfortunes that came upon her family 
with courage and fortitude. Her children's attitude to her was 
one of love and affection and Lenin always displayed exceptional 
consideration for her. She is buried in Volkov Cemetery in Lenin- 
grad. Letter No. 1 

One of Lenin's younger sisters, Olga Ilyinichna Ulyanova (1871- 
1891) is buried in Volkov Cemetery, Leningrad. She was a talent- 
ed and industrious girl with a strong character. In 1887 she graduat- 
ed from secondary school with a gold medal and entered the Higher 
Courses for Women (Bestuzhev's) in St. Petersburg. She died 
of enteric at the age of 19. Letter No. 1 

The money referred to is what Lenin's mother should have 
received from Kokushkino and Alakayevka. 

Kokushkino — a village 40 versts from Kazan in which 
A. D. Blank, Lenin's maternal grandfather, owned some land, 
a house and a separate cottage. When he died, this property was 
inherited by his daughters, and Lenin's mother's share was 
under the control of her sister, L. A. Ponomaryova. 

Lenin was exiled to the village of Kokushkino for his partic- 
ipation in the student disturbances in December 1887. The cot- 
tage, in which Lenin lived during his exile, has been restored and 
is now a Lenin Museum. 

Alakayevka — a village some 50 versts from Samara (now Kuiby- 
shev) near which Lenin's mother acquired a farmhouse; the Ulya- 
nov family lived there every summer from 1889 to 1893. When 
the family moved to Moscow from Samara the farmhouse was 
rented to Krushvits, mentioned by Lenin in this letter. 

Letter No. 1 



630 



NOTES 



Ulyanova, Maria Ilyinichna (1878-1937) — a leading figure in the 
Communist Party and public affairs; Lenin's youngest sister. 
She joined the revolutionary movement while still a student, 
became a professional revolutionary in 1898 and was later among 
the Bolsheviks; she did Party work in St. Petersburg, Moscow, 
Saratov and in other towns in Russia and abroad. In 1900 she 
began taking an active part in the work of the newspaper Iskra 
(The Spark) and from the autumn of 1903 was in the secretariat 
of the C.C. of the Party. In 1904 she worked in the St. Petersburg 
Bolshevik organisation. She was arrested and exiled several times 
for her revolutionary activities. From March 1917 to the spring 
of 1929 she was a member of the Pravda editorial board and the 
executive secretary of the paper. She became a member of the 
Central Control Commission at the 14th Party Congress and a 
member of the Soviet Control Commission at the 17th Party 
Congress. She was a member of the Moscow Soviet and in 1935 
was elected to the Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R. 

Letter No. 2 

Russkiye Vedomosti (Russian Recorder) — a Moscow newspaper 
that began publication in 1863; moderate liberal in its views. 
It was suppressed in 1918 at the same time as other counter-revo- 
lutionary periodicals. Letter No. 2 

The Mitya here referred to is Dmitry Ilyich Ulyanov (1874-1943)— 
professional revolutionary, Bolshevik, physician by training; 
Lenin's younger brother. He began his revolutionary activities 
in 1894 in Marxist student groups in Moscow; in 1900 he entered 
the Iskra organisation. At the Second Congress of the R.S.D.L.P. 
he was delegate from the Tula Committee, an Iskra supporter and 
member of the majority. After the Congress he was appointed 
agent of the Central Committee. He was arrested and imprisoned 
several times for his revolutionary activities. From 1905 to 1907 
he was a member of the Simbirsk Bolshevik Committee; he then 
worked as doctor in Serpukhov and Feodosia, all the time main- 
taining contact with the central Bolshevik organisations. He was 
mobilised in 1914 and conducted revolutionary work among 
the soldiers. After the October Socialist Revolution he was 
engaged in Party and government work in the Crimea; in 1921 he 
took up work at the People's Commissariat of Health in 
Moscow; from 1925 to 1930 worked at the Sverdlov Communist 
University and from 1933 onwards in the medical department of 
the Kremlin; he was active in promoting the Lenin Central 
Museum. Letter No. 2 

This apparently refers to lithographed copies of lectures on Rus- 
sian history by Vasily Klyuchevsky, the publication of which 
began in the 1880-81 academic year. In the Central Party Archives 
at the Institute of Marxism-Leninism there is a lithographed 
copy of Klyuchevsky's Course of Modern Russian History for 



NOTES 



631 



the 1883-84 academic year which bears notes in Lenin's hand. 

Letter No. 2 

Lenin refers in this letter to a speech made by Klyuchevsky "In 
Memory of the Late Emperor Alexander III, May He Rest 
in Peace" which was published as a pamphlet. Students of Mos- 
cow University bought up several hundred copies and added to 
them mimeographed pages containing D. I. Fonvizin's fable 
"The Intriguing Fox"; these were distributed as a "revised 
and supplemented edition". A copy of this edition was presented 
to Klyuchevsky at a lecture and he was shouted and whistled 
down. Over fifty students were arrested and some of them were 
sent out of Moscow. Letter No. 3 

The Mark referred to in this letter is Mark Timofeyevich Yeliza- 
rov (1863-1919), professional revolutionary, Bolshevik, Soviet 
statesman, husband of Anna Ilyinichna Ulyanova-Yelizarova, 
Lenin's elder sister. He joined the Social-Democratic movement 
in 1893, did Party work in St. Petersburg, Moscow and the Vol- 
gaside towns, took an active part in the First Russian Revolu- 
tion and was one of the leaders of the railwaymen's general strike 
in 1905. He was many times arrested and exiled. After the October 
Revolution he became People's Commissar of Railways and then 
a member of the Collegium of the People's Commissariat for Trade 
and Industry. Letter No. 3 

The Anyuta here referred to is Anna Ilyinichna Ulyanova-Yeli- 
zarova (1864-1935) — professional revolutionary, leading figure in 
the Communist Party, Lenin's elder sister. She joined the revolu- 
tionary movement in 1886 and the Social-Democratic movement 
in 1893. In 1898 she became a member of the first Moscow Com- 
mittee of the R.S.D.L.P. From 1900 to 1905 she worked in the 
Iskra organisation and on Bolshevik illegally issued newspapers 
and was a member of the editorial board of the newspaper Vperyod. 
Between 1904 and 1906 she maintained contact with the Central 
Committee of the Bolshevik Party which was abroad, and acted 
as treasurer to the St. Petersburg Committee. From 1908 to 1910 
she was engaged in revolutionary activities in Moscow and Sara- 
tov and from 1912 to 1914 collaborated in the Bolshevik peri- 
odicals Pravda, Prosveshcheniye (Enlightenment) and Rabotnitsa 
(The Working Woman). She was arrested and exiled a number of 
times. In 1917 she was secretary to the editorial board of Pravda 
and editor of the magazine Tkach (The Weaver). From 1918 to 
1921 she worked in the People's Commissariat of Education. 
She was active in the work of founding the Lenin Institute and 
herself did research work there. She was the author of a number 
of reminiscences of Lenin. Letter No. 3 

On April 25 (May 7), 1895 Lenin went abroad on the instructions 
of St. Petersburg Marxists to establish connections with the Eman- 
cipation of Labour group and familiarise himself with the West- 



632 



NOTES 



European working-class movement. Lenin visited Switzerland, 
France and Germany and returned to Russia in the autumn of 
1895. Letter No. 5 

12 This refers to Anna, the two-year-old daughter of A. A. Schucht 
whose family was in Geneva at the time. Lenin had known the 
Schucht family in Samara. Letter No. 6 

13 The address given was apparently that of Saul Griinfest, one 
of those who organised the Minsk printing press of the General 
Redistribution Group. In 1882 he went abroad and joined 
the Emancipation of Labour group, for which he did some admin- 
istrative work. Letter No. 8 

14 D. A. and Y. N. Ardashev — maternal relatives of Lenin's. 

Letter No. 12 

15 Three days later, during the night of December 8-9, 1895, Lenin 
was arrested in connection with the case of the St. Petersburg 
League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class. 
He spent over fourteen months in solitary confinement in a remand 
prison after which he was exiled to Siberia. Letter No. 12 

16 This letter was sent from prison to A. K. Chebotaryova, wife 
of I. N. Chebotaryov, a close friend of the Ulyanov family; since 
Lenin had boarded with the Chebotaryovs she was officially 
recognised as a person to whom he was allowed to write a letter 
from prison. The letter, however, was actually addressed to 
acquaintances who had not been arrested, including Nadezhda Krup- 
skaya, and its purpose was to find out who else had been arrested 
besides Lenin. To avoid mentioning names, Lenin linked up the 
nicknames of his acquaintances with the contents of scientific 
books he asked to be sent to him. 

This is the first of the letters written in prison that have been 
preserved. Here Lenin outlines his plan of work on his book 
The Development of Capitalism in Russia which he began in prison 
and finished in exile. Letter No. 13 

17 Free Economic Society — a privileged learned body, one of the 
oldest in Europe, founded in St. Petersburg in 1765 for the dis- 
semination throughout the state (says its charter) of information 
useful in agriculture and industry. Letter No. 13 

18 In Goncharov's novel Oblomov there is a passage which speaks 
of a gigantic pie that was baked on holidays; the master's family 
ate it for two days and on the third and fourth days it went to 
the servant girls; the pie lived on until Friday, when one corner 
of it, already hard and without any of the filling, found its way 
to Antip who crossed himself and with a loud noise set fearlessly 
about the destruction of that amazing fossil.... Letter No. 14 



NOTES 



633 



Thursday and Monday were visiting days in the remand prison. 
Lenin's mother and his sister Maria visited him on Mondays, 
when they were allowed a half-an-hour's personal visit; his other 
sister, Anna, visited him on Thursdays, when she was allowed 
a longer time but had to converse with him through a grille. Anna 
brought him books and carried on a correspondence in code. 

Letter No. 16 



Zemstvo — a local government body headed by the local nobility 
in the central gubernias of tsarist Russia; Zemstvos were intro- 
duced in 1864. The competence of the Zemstvos was very limited 
(the building of hospitals and roads, statistics, insurance, etc.). 
The activities of the Zemstvos were under the supervision of the 
governor and the Ministry of the Interior, who could annul any 
orders the government did not approve of. Letter No. 16 

This letter was sent by Lenin on his way to exile in Siberia. 

On January 29, 1897, the sentence of exile in Eastern Siberia 
for three years under the surveillance of the police was confirmed. 
Lenin obtained permission to go to his place of exile at his own 
expense and not under escort; he was ordered in his travel permit 
to report to the Governor-General of Irkutsk for further instruc- 
tions. Lenin did not go as far as Irkutsk, but remained in Kras- 
noyarsk to await an answer to his application sent on March 6, 
for the permission of the Governor-General to remain in Krasno- 
yarsk or Minusinsk District of Yenisei Gubernia. Letter No. 17 

This appears to be the second part of a family letter. The first 
part of the letter addressed to Lenin's mother has not been 
found. Letter No. 18 



The extracts to be made from various books in the Rumyantsev 
Library (now the State Lenin Library) were needed by Lenin 
for his work on the book The Development of Capitalism in 
Russia. Letter No. 18 



When he was in Krasnoyarsk Lenin maintained friendly relations 
with P. A. Krasikov, V. A. Bukshnis, N. A. Merkhalev, A. A. 
Filippov, V. A. Karaulov, N. V. Yatsevich, P. Y. Kulakov and 
V. N. Kudryashev. Letter No. 19 

This refers to a party of exiles who were going to Siberia at the 
cost of the state. Among them were some of Lenin's closest asso- 
ciates in the St. Petersburg League of Struggle — G. M. Krzhizha- 
novsky, Y. 0. Zederbaum (L. Martov), A. A. Vaneyev and 
V. V. Starkov. The party was held up because of badly organised 
transport. They did not arrive in Krasnoyarsk until April 4, 1897. 
At the station Lenin met those of his comrades who arrived with 
this party of exiles. Letter No. 19 



634 



NOTES 



26 Lenin's assumption was a mistaken one; Gleb (G. M. Krzhizha- 
novsky) and all his companions went into exile at the expense 
of the state. 

Krzhizhanovsky's mother, E. E. Rosenberg, followed her son 
into exile. Letter No. 20 

27 G. M. Krzhizhanovsky, V. V. Starkov, Y. 0. Zederbaum and 
A. A. Vaneyev were held in Krasnoyarsk prison from April 4 to 
April 23, 1897, because they were on their way to exile at the 
cost of the state. An order of the Governor of Yeniseisk dated 
April 10 appointed the village of Tesinskoye in Minusinsk District 
as the place of exile of Starkov and Krzhizhanovsky; they left 
for Minusinsk with Lenin at their own expense on board the steam- 
er Svyatoi Nikolai on April 30. Letter No. 21 

28 Novoye Slovo (New Word) — a scientific, literary and political 
monthly published in St. Petersburg from 1894 by liberal Narod- 
niks; from the spring of 1897 it was run by "legal Marxists". It was 
suppressed by the government in 1897. Letter No. 21 

29 Lenin did not receive the official order to leave for the village 
of Shushenskoye in Minusinsk District until April 24, 1897; it 
was then that he received the certificate permitting him to travel 
to that place. Letter No. 22 

30 Minusinsk prisoners— V . V. Starkov and G. M. Krzhizhanovsky 
who were exiled to Minusinsk District. 

Turukhansk people — Y. 0. Zederbaum and A. A. Vaneyev 
who were exiled to Turukhansk. Letter No. 22 

31 Lenin apparently gave a detailed list of extracts from various 
publications in a previous letter which has been lost; he needed 
them for work on his The Development of Capitalism in Russia. 

Letter No. 22 

32 At that time Dmitry Ulyanov was an undergraduate of the 
Faculty of Medicine, Moscow University. Letter No. 22 

33 The fee referred to was probably in payment of his article "A Chara- 
cterisation of Economic Romanticism (Sismondi and Our Native 
Sismondists)", the first part of which was published in the April 
1897 issue (No. 7) of Novoye Slovo. Letter No. 22 

34 Russkoye Bogatstvo (Russian Wealth) — a monthly journal pub- 
lished in St. Petersburg from 1876 to 1918. From the early nineties 
it held Narodnik liberal views and in 1906 became an organ of 
the Popular Socialist Party. 

Vestnik Finansov, Promyshlennosti i Torgovli (The Financial, 
Industrial and Commercial Herald) — a weekly published by the 
Ministry of Finance; it appeared in St. Petersburg from November 
1883 to 1917. Letter No. 22 



NOTES 



635 



35 Archiv fiir soziale Gesetzgebung und Statistik (Social Legislation 
and Statistical Archives) — a monthly published from 1888 to 
1933 in Berlin, Thiiringen and Leipzig. Letter No. 22 

36 The Bulochkins — this refers to Zinaida Pavlovna Nevzorova 
(whose nickname was "Bulochka", Russian for "bread roll") 
and her sisters Sofia and Avgusta; Zinaida and Sofia were arrested 
in 1896 in connection with the League of Struggle for the Emanci- 
pation of the Working Class. Apparently Lenin used the surname 
"Bulochkin" in the plural to include Nadezhda Krupskaya, who 
was arrested on August 12, 1896. "What sort of finale was there?" 
means "What sentence was passed on them?" Letter No. 22 

37 Lenin, Krzhizhanovsky and Starkov arrived in Minusinsk on 
May 6, 1897 and were sent from there to their places of exile on 
May 8. Letter No. 23 

38 This letter has been lost. It was apparently a request to the No- 
voye Slovo editors to forward the fee for the first part of his article 
"A Characterisation of Economic Romanticism". Letter No. 24 

39 Lenin had not received any letters from Krzhizhanovsky and 
Starkov, who were sent to the village of Tesinskoye. Letter No. 24 

40 The "dispute" and "war" were started by P. P. Maslov ("Gold- 
Prospector") and the editors of the newspaper Samarsky Vestnik 
(Samara Herald) against the editors of Novoye Slovo headed by 
P. B. Struve; the latter were accused of feelings of sympathy 
for the bourgeoisie and of liberalism. In this dispute Lenin took 
the side of Novoye Slovo (see pp. 48-49.). Letter No. 24 

41 During his stay in Shushenskoye Lenin went shooting with 
0. A. Engberg and I. L. Prominsky, who were exiled in the same 
village, and the local peasants I. S. Yermolayev and P. T. Stro- 
gonov. Letter No. 25 

42 These words of Lenin's sister were apparently in answer to his 
letter of April 17, 1897 (Letter No. 22). Letter No. 25 

43 Lenin was paid the sum of 8 rubles a month as an exile; he lived 
mainly on this money. Letter No. 25 

44 The articles referred to are the separate parts of Lenin's article 
"A Characterisation of Economic Romanticism" published in 
four issues (7-10) of Novoye Slovo. Letter No. 25 

45 The book Vliyaniye urozhayev i khlebnykh tsen na nekotoriye sto- 
rony russkogo narodnogo khozyaistva (The Influence of Harvests 
and Grain Prices on Certain Aspects of the Russian Econo- 
my)— edited by Professors A. I. Chuprov and A. S. Posnikov, 
was discussed at meetings of the Third Division of the Free Eco- 
nomic Society on March 1 and 2, 1897. Professor Chuprov read 



636 



NOTES 



the paper to the Society. Lenin needed the book and the ver- 
batim report of the Society's meeting for his work on The Develop- 
ment of Capitalism in Russia. Letter No. 25 

Dmitry Ulyanov went to Kazan in connection with the sale of 
Kokushkino after the death of L. A. Ponomaryova. The very 
unpleasant ending of which Lenin writes was that both shares, 
that of Ponomaryova and of Lenin's mother, might be left to 
the latter with all their debts. Letter No. 27 

Rybkina — Nadezhda Krupskaya's Party nickname. 

Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya (1869-1939) — professional 
revolutionary, prominent figure in the Communist Party and 
the Soviet state; the wife of Lenin. 

She began her revolutionary activity in 1890 in student Marx- 
ist groups in St. Petersburg. From 1891 to 1896 she was a teacher 
at the Sunday Evening School outside the Neva Tollgate and 
conducted Social-Democratic propaganda among factory workers. 
She met Lenin when they were working together in the winter 
of 1894. In 1895 she was one of the organisers of the St. Petersburg 
League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class. 
In August 1896 she was arrested and sentenced to exile for three 
years; she started her term of exile with Lenin in Shushenskoye 
and finished it alone in Ufa. After her return from exile in 1901 
she went abroad and worked as secretary of the newspaper Iskra. 
She played an active part in preparing the Second Congress of 
the R.S.D.L.P., which she attended as a delegate with voice but 
no vote. After the Congress she was secretary of the editorial 
board of the Bolshevik newspapers Vperyod and Proletary. She 
played an active part in preparing for the Third Congress of the 
Party. While working abroad she maintained an extensive corres- 
pondence with Party organisations in Russia. During the years 
of reaction she took part in the struggle against the liquidators 
and the otzovists. In 1911 she worked in the Party school at Long- 
jumeau; after the Prague Conference of the R.S.D.L.P. (1912) 
she helped Lenin establish contact with Party organisations in 
Russia, with Pravda and with the Bolshevik group in the Fourth 
Duma. In 1915 she was a delegate to the International Women's 
Conference in Berne. 

Nadezhda Krupskaya returned to Russia with Lenin after 
the February Revolution of 1917 and worked in the Secretariat 
of the Central Committee of the Party; she took an active part in 
preparing and carrying out the October Socialist Revolution. 
After the revolution she became a member of the Collegium of 
the People's Commissariat of Education and in 1921 became head 
of the Chief Committee for Political Education; in 1929 she was 
appointed Deputy People's Commissar for Education. Nadezhda 
Krupskaya was one of the founders of the Soviet system of edu- 
cation and a leading theoretician in the field of pedagogy. She 
wrote a number of books on problems of public education and com- 
munist upbringing, and on the women's and youth movements. 



NOTES 



637 



She also wrote her reminiscences of Lenin. She participated in 
all Party Congresses (except the 1st and 5th), became a member 
of the Central Control Commission in 1924 and a member of the 
Central Committee of the C.P.S.U.(B.) in 1927. She was a member 
of all convocations of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee 
and of the Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R. and 
was a deputy to the First Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. and a 
member of its Presidium. Letter No. 27 

48 The Neva Society for the Organisation of Popular Entertainments, 
the report of whose committee is mentioned here, was founded in 
St. Petersburg in 1885; at first it was a private circle and later, 
in 1891, was formed into an independent society with a set of rules 
and an official name. The society had its own theatres, concert 
halls and sports premises in the area beyond the Neva Tollgate, 
where most factories were concentrated. The society arranged 
carnivals, lectures, concerts, plays, dances, etc.; it, also organ- 
ised workers' choirs, reading-rooms and kindergartens. One of the 
Society's reading-rooms was used by members of Marxist study 
circles for meetings and talks with workers. Before her arrest in 

1896, Nadezhda Krupskaya and other Marxist women teachers 
made extensive use of the reading-room. Letter No. 27 

49 Spiez—a village on the shore of Lake Thun in Switzerland, 
where Lenin's mother and his sister Maria were spending a holi- 
day at that time. Letter No. 28 

50 Lenin attended the wedding of V. V. Starkov and A. M. Rosen- 
berg, which took place in Tesinskoye on July 30, 1897. 

Letter No. 28 

51 Lenin refers here to Ivan Kuzmich Shpekin, the postmaster in 
Gogol's comedy The Inspector-General. Letter No. 29 

52 In August and September 1897, Lenin worked on the article, "The 
Handicraft Census of 1894-95 in Pen Gubernia and General 
Problems of 'Handicraft' Industry". Material from this article 
was also used in The Development of Capitalism in Russia. 

The article was intended for the journal Novoye Slovo but was 
not published in that journal, which was suppressed in December 

1897. The article was first published in 1898 in a miscellany of 
Lenin's writings entitled Economic Studies and Essays (see Col- 
lected Works, Vol. 2, pp. 355-458). Letter No. 29 

53 Lenin sent Mark Yelizarov "The Handicraft Census of 1894-95 
in Perm Gubernia" to be passed on to P. B. Struve; the letter to 
Struve has been lost. Letter No. 30 

54 Lenin here refers to a report from Tula published in the "Home 
News" column of the newspaper Russkiye Vedomosti for August 
6, 1897. The report spoke of an investigation to be carried out by 



638 



NOTES 



the Zemstvo authorities of the gubernia for the purpose of making 
an assessment of property. The gubernia Zemstvo engaged a num- 
ber of statisticians for this work but for some reason they were 
not confirmed by the local administration and the investigation 
was postponed until the following year. Letter No. 30 

55 On August 6, 1897, Lenin's mother sent the Governor of Yeni- 
seisk a petition to have Lenin transferred to Krasnoyarsk for 
treatment on account of his poor health and because of her wish 
to visit him in exile. Her request was refused. Lenin's letter to 
his mother, mentioned here, has been lost. Letter No. 30 

56 After a number of applications the Governor of Yeniseisk per- 
mitted G. M. Krzhizhanovsky and V. V. Starkov to move to 
Minusinsk; they arrived there on August 31, 1898. 

Letter No. 30 

57 For going to Minusinsk without leave V. V. Starkov was arraigned 
before the court and sentenced to three days arrest. Such breaches 
of the regulations were punishable by a written or verbal "reproof" 
or by a fine but not by arrest. Lenin's intervention released Star- 
kov from an illegal sentence. Letter No. 32 

58 Former women students — Yekaterina and Glafira Okulova who 
lived with their father in the village of Shoshino, where they 
were under police surveillance. Glafira Okulova (Zaichik — Bunny) 
was later an active Iskra supporter and Bolshevik. 

Letter No. 32 

59 G. M. Krzhizhanovsky and V. V. Starkov worked for the commis- 
sion on regulating the bed of the River Minusinka in the town of 
Minusinsk, where they went twice from Tesinskoye to attend 
meetings of the commission. Letter No. 32 

60 Here and below the manuscript referred to is that of Lenin's 
article "The Handicraft Census of 1894-95 in Perm Gubernia". 

Letter No. 33 

61 When A. A. Vaneyev was in Yeniseisk he found work in the 
office of the engineer in charge of improving navigation on the 
River Angara. Letter No. 33 

62 Lenin's brother, Dmitry, was arrested on November 7, 1897, 
in connection with the case of the Moscow Workers' Union; he 
was kept in prison until August 20, 1898, was expelled from 
Moscow University and banished to Tula; later he was kept under 
police surveillance in the town of Podolsk, Moscow Gubernia. 

Letter No. 34 

63 Lenin's letters to Struve and Krupskaya proposing the publi- 
cation of a translation of the second part of Antonio Labriola's 



NOTES 



639 



book in Novoye Slovo have been lost. The translation appeared 
in 1898 in St. Petersburg in an edition by Berezin and Semyonov; 
it was given the title K voprosu o materialisticheskom vzglyade 
na istoriyu (On the Question of the Materialistic View of History). 
The English title of this essay of Labriola's is Historical Material- 
ism. Letter No. 34 

64 The books referred to are Ulozheniye o nakazaniyakh ugolovnykh 
i ispravitelnykh (Ordinance on Criminal and Correctional Penal- 
ties) and Ustav o nakazaniyakh, nalagayemykh mirovymi sudyami 
(Code of Penalties Imposable by Magistrates). Lenin needed 
these books for his work as a consulting lawyer in Shushenskoye. 
He later recalled, "...when I was in exile in Siberia I had occa- 
sion to act in the capacity of a lawyer. I was not a certified 
lawyer, because, being summarily exiled, I was not allowed to 
practise; but as there was no other lawyer in the region, people 
came and confided their troubles to me." (Collected Works, Vol. 
33, p. 295.) Letter No. 34 

65 Lenin apparently refers to his essay "Gems of Narodnik Project- 
mongering", which he wrote for Novoye Slovo; he did not at the 
time know that the journal had been suppressed by the govern- 
ment in December 1897. 

In 188 the essay was included in the miscellany Economic 
Studies and Essays (Collected Works, Vol. 2, pp. 459-89). 

Letter No. 35 

66 It has not been established what journal is meant. It is possible 
that as early as 1897 the issue of another periodical was planned 
in view of the constant persecution of Novoye Slovo by the author- 
ities and of its shaky position. After the suppression of Novoye 
Slovo its place was taken by Nachalo (The Beginning), which 
appeared in the first half of 1899 edited by P. B. Struve, M. I. 
Tugan-Baranovsky and others. Letter No. 35 

67 Lenin wrote about these photographs to his sister Anna in a letter 
dated May 25, 1897 (see Letter No. 25). He expected, moreover, 
to be sent a group photograph of the leaders of the St. Petersburg 
League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class 
(V. I. Lenin, G. M. Krzhizhanovsky, V. V. Starkov, A. A. Vane- 
yev, P. K. Zaporozhets, Y. 0. Zederbaum, A. L. Malchenko), 
which was taken in 1897 in St. Petersburg before they left for 
Siberia. Letter No. 35 

68 This refers to D. V. Trukhovskaya, the wife of A. A. Vaneyev, 
who was sentenced to three months' imprisonment in St. Peters- 
burg; she followed her husband into exile and did her three months 
in Yeniseisk prison. Letter No. 35 

69 Lenin sent his article "The Heritage We Renounce" to Novoye 
Slovo. Since the journal had been suppressed the article was 



640 



NOTES 



not printed. It appeared later in the miscellany Economic 
Studies and Essays. (Collected Works, Vol. 2, pp. 491-534.) 

Letter No. 36 

70 This probably refers to the efforts made by Lenin's sister Anna 
on behalf of their brother Dmitry, who had been arrested and 
whose case was being examined in St. Petersburg (See Note 62). 

Letter No. 37 

71 The lectures referred to are "The Development of Our Factory 
Legislation" by M. I. Tugan-Baranovsky and "The Law of June 
2, 1897 and the Rules of September 20 on the Length of the Work- 
ing Day" by P. B. Struve that had been fixed for December 6, 
1897 in the Third Division (Agricultural Statistics and Political 
Economy) of the Free Economic Society. The announcements 
containing the theses of these lectures have been lost. 

The article by Struve which Lenin speaks of as cut out by the 
censor was a regular review in the "Current Home News" 
column of the November 1897 issue of Novoye Slovo. 

Letter No. 37 

72 The lecture referred to was "Peasant Landed Property and 
Measures to Prevent Peasants Losing Their Land" delivered 
by M. A. Lozinsky on December 13, 1897 in the Third Division 
of the Free Economic Society. Letter No. 37 

73 This refers to Struve's article in the "Current Home News" 
columns of Novoye Slovo. Letter No. 37 

74 Syn Otechestva (Son of the Fatherland) — a daily liberal news- 
paper published in St. Petersburg from 1856 to 1900 and again 
from November 18 (December 1), 1904. From November 15 (28), 
1905 the paper became an organ of the Socialist-Revolutionary 
Party. The newspaper was suppressed on December 2 (15), 1905. 

Letter No. 37 

75 On January 8, 1898, Lenin sent a telegram to the Director of the 
Police Department asking for permission for his fiancee, Nadezhda 
Krupskaya, to spend her period of exile in the village of Shushen- 
skoye. Krupskaya sent a request to the Minister of the Interior 
to be allowed to spend her term of exile in Shushenskoye with her 
betrothed and to have her sentence reduced from three to two 
years. She was given permission to spend her period of exile in 
Shushenskoye instead of Ufa Gubernia where she had formerly 
been ordered to go, but the sentence was not reduced. 

Letter No. 38 

76 Krupskaya, Yelizaveta Vasilyevna (1842-1915) — mother of Na- 
dezhda Krupskaya, who lived with her daughter and Lenin in 
exile and abroad; she helped them in their revolutionary work; 
she was given various jobs to do — looking after illegal litera- 



NOTES 



641 



ture, taking things to prisons for arrested comrades, etc. She 
always took good care of Lenin, who had great respect for her. 

Letter No. 38 

77 The plan was put into effect; in the autumn of 1898 the first col- 
lection of Lenin's articles under the general title of Economic 
Studies and Essays by Vladimir Ilyin was published in St. Peters- 
burg. It contained the essays "A Characterisation of Economic 
Romanticism", "Gems of Narodnik Project-mongering", "The 
Heritage We Renounce", etc. Letter No. 38 

78 This refers to Yukhotsky, who began a campaign of slander 
against N. Y. Fedoseyev while in the Moscow transit prison; he 
accused him of embezzling money collected for the needs of exiles. 
Although such accusations were obviously false, Yukhotsky did 
not cease his persecution of Fedoseyev even in exile at Verkho- 
lensk where they were sent at the same time. Yukhotsky's per- 
secution was one of the causes of Fedoseyev's tragic death. 

Letter No. 38 

79 Lenin's review of A. Bogdanov's book Kratky kurs ekonomicheskoi 
nauki, 1897, was written in February 1898 and published in the 
April number of Mir Bozhy (The Wide World). (See Collected 
Works, Vol. 4, pp. 46-54.) Letter No. 39 

80 The Nanny referred to was Varvara Grigoryevna Sarbatova, 
a peasant woman from Penza Gubernia who was Nanny in the 
Ulyanov family for almost twenty years. Letter No. 39 

81 By Ivan Andreich (as in Letter No. 29) Lenin means Ivan Kuz- 
mich, the postmaster in Gogol's comedy The Inspector-General 
who was fond of opening other people's letters. Lenin apparently 
wanted to warn Mark Yelizarov of the need for greater caution in 
his correspondence. Letter No. 39 

82 Russkaya Mysl (Russian Thought) — a literary and political 
monthly published in Moscow from 1880 to 1918; up to 1905 it 
held liberal Narodnik views. In the nineties it sometimes pub- 
lished articles by Marxists. After the 1905 Revolution it became 
an organ of the Right wing of the Cadet Party. Letter No. 39 

83 This refers to S. Bulgakov's book Markets Under Capitalist Pro- 
duction. A Theoretical Study. Lenin reviewed this book in his 
article "A Note on the Question of the Market Theory (Apropos 
of the Polemic of Messrs. Tugan-Baranovsky and Bulgakov)". 
(See Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 55-64.) Letter No. 40 

84 Die Neue Zeit (New Times)— the theoretical journal of the Ger- 
man Social-Democratic Party published in Stuttgart from 1883 



642 



NOTES 



to 1923. Up to October 1917 it was edited by Karl Kautsky, later 
by H. Cunow. Letter No. 40 

85 In one of his August 1897 letters that has been lost Lenin appar- 
ently spoke of a letter he had received from A. A. Vaneyev, 
informing him of the illegal actions of the Yeniseisk District 
Chief of Police Stoyanov, who demanded that Vaneyev hand 
over his shotgun. Letter No. 40 

86 In this letter and the next the corrections mentioned are to the 
article "A Characterisation of Economic Romanticism"; they 
were made when the article was republished in the symposium 
Economic Studies and Essays. Letter No. 40 

87 Lenin refers to "The Handicraft Census of 1894-95 in Perm Gu- 
bernia and General Problems of 'Handicraft' Industry". (See 
Collected Works, Vol. 2, pp. 355-458.) Letter No. 40 

88 This refers to Lenin's articles "The Heritage We Renounce" 
and "Gems of Narodnik Project-mongering", both of which were 
published in the symposium Economic Studies and Essays. The 
note on A. A. Mikulin's book has not been found. Letter No. 40 

89 Yuridichesky Vestnik (The Legal Herald) — a liberal-bourgeois 
monthly published in Moscow from 1867 to 1892. Letter No. 42 

90 Statistichesky Vremennik Rossiiskoi Imperii (Statistical Calendar 
of the Russian Empire)— published by the Central Statistical 
Committee of the Ministry of the Interior. Lenin used material 
from the Statistichesky Vremennik for 1866, 1868 and 1872 for 
his book The Development of Capitalism in Russia. 

The book mentioned, Dnevnik vysochaishe razreshonnogo Vto- 
rogo syezda russkikh deyatelei po tekhnicheskomu i professionalno- 
mu obrazovaniyu, izdavayemyi komitetom syezda (Diary of the 
Royally Sanctioned Second Congress of Russian Specialists on 
Technical and Vocational Education published by the Committee 
of the Congress), was probably sent to Lenin with a letter in 
invisible ink. Letter No. 42 

91 Niva (Cornfield) — an illustrated weekly that published the works 
of various classical and other well-known writers as supplements; 
founded in 1869. Letter No. 42 

92 Lenin did not translate Adam Smith's book. Apparently at the 
time the letter was written he did not know exactly the author 
or the name of the book he was to translate. This is confirmed by 
the fact that a few days later he speaks of having received The 
History of Trade Unionism by Sidney and Beatrice Webb for 
translation. Letter No. 42 



NOTES 



643 



93 Lenin received Book I of the Webbs' The History of Trade Unio- 
nism. In the course of a few months he translated the book 
and wrote a number of commentaries to the Russian translation. 
When Nadezhda Krupskaya arrived in Shushenskoye they worked 
together on the translation of the first volume of the book. 

Letter No. 44 

94 Alexander Ivanovich and Nikolai Ivanovich Veretennikov were 
Lenin's cousins on his mothers side. At the time Alexander was 
seriously ill, and for this reason Lenin was greatly surprised to 
receive a letter that he had found himself work. Letter No. 45 

95 Moskovskiye Vedomosti (Moscow Recorder)— a newspaper founded 
in 1756. From 1863 it expressed the views of the most reactionary 
landowners and clergy. In 1905 it became one of the chief organs 
of the Black Hundreds. It was published up to the Great October 
Socialist Revolution. Letter No. 45 

96 Nadezhda Krupskaya and her mother joined Lenin at the village 
of Shushenskoye on May 7, 1898. Letter No. 47 

97 At the end of May, Lenin and Krupskaya went to Minusinsk, 
where they took part in a conference of exiled members of the 
Narodnaya Volya Party and Social-Democrats that was held on 
account of the flight from exile of the Social-Democrat S. G. Rai- 
chin. Letter No. 49 

98 Lenin refers to the translation of Volume I of the Webbs' book 
and work on his own book The Development of Capitalism in Rus- 
sia. Letter No. 50 

99 This refers to S. M. Friedmann whose address was used by exiles 
to receive literature and money. The "trouble" Lenin mentions 
was caused by the flight of S. G. Raichin (see Letter No. 49), 
who received money from abroad at Friedmann's address without 
her permission. In view of this the Minusinsk colony of exiles 
requested other exiles not to use Friedmann's address so as to 
avoid drawing the attention of the police to her. Letter No. 52 

100 Lenin was allowed to travel to Minusinsk to have his teeth treated; 
he stayed there three days, from the 10th to the 12th of August. 
Since there was no experienced dentist in Minusinsk, Lenin ap- 
plied to the Governor of Yeniseisk for permission to go to Kras- 
noyarsk for a week to have his teeth treated. Permission was grant- 
ed and at the beginning of September Lenin left Shushenskoye for 
Krasnoyarsk, where he stayed at the house of a Social-Democrat 
in exile, P. A. Krasikov. Lenin took advantage of the trip to work 
in Yudin's library and to meet Krasnoyarsk Social-Democrats. 

Letter No. 53 



644 



NOTES 



101 Ob — a railway station on the left bank of the river of that name; 
as there was no bridge across the river at that time, express trains 
went only as far as Ob station. Letter No. 53 

102 Dmitry Ulyanov was banished to Tula and was then kept under 
police surveillance at Podolsk in Moscow Gubernia. 

Letter No. 54 

103 The article referred to is "On the Question of Our Factory Statis- 
tics (Professor Karyshev's New Statistical Exploits)" — see Col- 
lected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 13-45. Lenin made extensive use of the 
material contained in this article and the conclusions drawn from 
it in The Development of Capitalism in Russia. The article was 
not published either in Mir Bozhy or Nauchnoye Obozreniye but 
first appeared in Economic Studies and Essays. 

Mir Bozhy (The Wide World— literally God's World)— a liberal 
literary and popular scientific monthly. It was published in St. 
Petersburg from 1892 to 1906; from 1906 to 1918 it appeared 
under the name of Sovremenny Mir (The Contemporary World). 

Nauchnoye Obozreniye (Science Review) — published in St. Peter- 
sburg from 1894 to 1904; from 1903 it became a general literary 
magazine. It published Lenin's articles "Uncritical Criticism" 
(Collected Works, Vol. 3, pp. 609-32), "A Note on the Question 
of the Market Theory" and "Once More on the Theory of Reali- 
sation" (Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 55-64 and 74-93). 

Letter No. 54 

104 ipjjjg wag a i 000 \ by the writer N. S. Sokhanskaya (pen-name 
Kokhanovskaya) which was used by Lenin's sister Anna to send 
Lenin messages written in invisible ink between the lines. 

Letter No. 55 

105 This refers to The Development of Capitalism in Russia by Vla- 
dimir Ilyin, which M. I. Vodovozova published at the end of 
March 1899. Letter No. 58 

106 The first six sections of Chapter III of The Development of Capital- 
ism in Russia were published as a separate article in the journal 
Nachalo (The Beginning) No. 3, March 1899, under the title "The 
Ousting of Corvee by Capitalist Economy in Contemporary Russian 
Agriculture". An editorial note accompanying the article said, 
"This is an extract from the author's extensive investigation of 
the development of capitalism in Russia." Letter No. 58 

107 Lenin later made an addition to the Preface of The Development 
of Capitalism in Russia which was published as a postscript. 

Letter No. 58 

108 Lenin's sister Anna undertook to correct the author's proofs of 
The Development of Capitalism in Russia; her brother Dmitry 
helped her; the proofs of the statistical tables were read by V. A. 



NOTES 



645 



Yonov whom Lenin had known long before in his Samara days. 

Letter No. 58 

109 This apparently refers to Mark Yelizarov's teaching at evening 
and Sunday schools for workers. Letter No. 60 

110 The letter mentioned here has not been found. It is known from 
the letter of November 11, 1898, that, Lenin received the copies 
due to him as author of the book Economic Studies and Essays 
which he requested be sent to a number of comrades and acquaint- 
ances. Letter No. 60 

111 Frankfurter Zeitung — a daily newspaper, organ of big German 
stockbrokers; published in Frankfurt am Main from 1856 to 
1943. It reappeared in 1949 as Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 
and is the mouthpiece of the West German monopolists. 

Letter No. 60 

112 Stuttgart Parteitag — the Stuttgart Congress of the German Social- 
Democratic Party held October 3-8, 1898, which first discussed 
revisionism in the German Social-Democratic Party. A special 
statement, sent to the congress by Eduard Bernstein who was 
living in exile, was read; it contained an exposition and defence 
of the opportunist views he had earlier expounded in Die Neue 
Zeit in a series of articles under the general heading of "Problems 
of Socialism". There was no unity among Bernstein's opponents 
at the congress; fearing a split in the party, some of them, led by 
Bebel and Kautsky, tried to combine the theoretical struggle 
against Bernsteinism with cautious internal party practice; others 
(Rosa Luxemburg, Parvus), a minority, adopted a much more 
militant position and tried to get a more profound and extensive 
discussion and showed no fear of a split. The congress did not pass 
any resolution on this issue but from the discussion and from 
other resolutions it was clear that most of the delegates remained 
loyal to the ideas of revolutionary Marxism. Letter No. 60 

113 The book Vladimir Ilyin. Economic Studies and Essays was pub- 
lished in an edition of 1,200 copies. Letter No. 61 

114 As we know from a later letter (December 12, 1898, No. 64 in 
this volume), the letter containing the list of misprints in Econom- 
ic Studies and Essays was lost in the post. Lenin subsequently 
made corrections only to the article "A Characterisation of Eco- 
nomic Romanticism", when it was published in the book The 
Agrarian Question, Part I, 1908. Letter No. 61 

115 The trip was sanctioned and Lenin and Krupskaya stayed in Mi- 
nusinsk from December 24, 1898 to January 2, 1899. They took 
part in a meeting of Marxist exiles, who came from various parts 
of Minusinsk District. Letter No. 64 



646 



NOTES 



116 These corrections were never made to the Preface of The Develop- 
ment of Capitalism in Russia. Letter No. 64 

117 The forty-fourth page of the manuscript (the fair copy) coincided 
with page 20 of the first edition of The Development of Capital- 
ism in Russia (Collected Works, Vol. 3, p. 58). The correction 
indicated by Lenin was not made to the first or the second edi- 
tions. Letter No. 64 

118 The writers referred to are M. I. Tugan-Baranovsky, author of 
The Russian Factory, Past and Present, and S. N. Bulgakov, 
author of Markets Under Capitalist Production. A Theoretical 
Study. Letter No. 64 

119 Zhizn (Life) — a literary, scientific and political journal published 
in St. Petersburg from 1897 to 1901. In April 1902 the publication 
of the journal was again started abroad by the Social-Democratic 
group Zhizn (V. D. Bonch-Bruyevich, V. A. Posse, V. M. Ve- 
lichkina, G. A. and M. A. Kuklin, and others). 

The group ceased to exist in December 1902 and the publishing 
office was closed down. Letter No. 65 

120 Lenin here refers to the German firm of Reclam that published 
several thousand booklets on literature (Universal Bibliothek) 
at 20 pfennigs each. Letter No. 65 

121 This was written in Shushenskoye on a postcard. The postscript 
shows that Lenin took it with him to Minusinsk and did not post 
it until December 28. Letter No. 66 

122 Journal Officiel de la Republique Frangaise — Official Journal of 
the French Republic, published in Paris. Letter No. 66 

123 The lecture referred to was "The Basic Features in the Develop- 
ment of Russian Serf Economy from the Beginning of the 19th 
Century to 1861", delivered by P. B. Struve on December 7, 1898 
at the Moscow Jurists' Society. A report of the lecture was pub- 
lished in Russkiye Vedomosti on December 9, 1898. 

N. Y. Fedoseyev's views on the causes of the collapse of serf- 
dom can be assessed only from an article entitled "Historical 
Information", published in the newspaper Samarsky Vestnik, 
January 16 and 17, 1897, and a letter to Andreyevsky headed 
"Where Did the Russian Working Class Come From and How?" 
No basic work by N. Y. Fedoseyev on the subject has yet been 
found. Letter No. 67 

124 Lenin here refers to M. I. Tugan-Baranovsky's book Promyshlen- 
niye krizisy v sovremennoi Anglii, ikh prichiny i vliyaniye na na- 
rodnuyu zhizn (Industrial Crises in Present-day England, Their 
Causes and Their Effect on the Life of the People). 

Letter No. 67 



NOTES 



647 



125 See Krupskaya's Letters Nos. 12 and 14 for a description of how 
Lenin, Krupskaya and their comrades in Minusinsk spent New 
Year's Eve. Letter No. 68 

126 The debate was on the occasion of Tugan-Baranovsky's presen- 
tation of his thesis The Russian Factory, Past and Present for 
the degree of Doctor of Political Economy at Moscow University 
on December 19, 1898. Letter No. 69 

127 This addition to Chapter Two of Lenin's book The Development 
of Capitalism in Russia was apparently the footnote on the book 
by V. V. (V. P. Vorontsov), The Destiny of Capitalism in Russia 
(Collected Works, Vol. 3, p. 184). Letter No. 69 

128 The parcel was sent to Lenin by his mother, who later wrote to her 
daughter Maria, "I sent a chess set for Volodya and some sweets 
for Nadya to Shushenskoye on December 17, expecting that they 
would receive them for the holidays, certainly for the New Year, 
but they did not receive them until a month later, about January 
17." Letter No. 70 

129 A. A. Vaneyev applied to be transferred to a place with a milder 
climate and the Governor-General of Irkutsk ordered him to be 
sent to Tunka, in Irkutsk Gubernia. Only after a second request, 
accompanied by a doctor's certificate, did he manage to get trans- 
ferred to Yermakovskoye in Minusinsk District at the beginning of 
June 1899, where he died three and a half months later. 

Letter No. 70 

130 Chetvert — a Russian measure of capacity used prior to the intro- 
duction of the metric system; it equalled about 45 gallons. 

Letter No. 72 

131 Nachalo (The Beginning) — a monthly scientific, literary and 
political magazine, organ of the "legal Marxists"; it appeared 
in St. Petersburg in the first half of 1899, edited by P. B. Struve, 
M. I. Tugan-Baranovsky and others. It carried several of Lenin's 
book reviews and the first six sections of Chapter III of his The 
Development of Capitalism in Russia. Letter No. 73 

132 As can be seen from the next letter, this refers to R. Gvozdyov's 
book Kulak Usury, Its Social and Economic Significance; Lenin's 
review of the book was published in Nachalo No. 3 for 1899. 
(See Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 67-69.) Letter No. 73 

133 A. A. Vaneyev was not transferred to the village of Antsiferovo 
because of ill health. Letter No. 73 

134 This refers to the appendices to Chapter VII of The Development 
of Capitalism in Russia — "Table of Statistics on the Factory 
Industry of European Russia" and "The Chief Centres of Factory 



648 



NOTES 



Industry in European Russia" (see Collected Works, Vol. 3, pp. 
601-02 and 603-07). Letter No. 74 

135 Lenin apparently returned one of the issues of Wolfe's Izvestiya 
with a letter in invisible ink. For purposes of secrecy he wrote 
that he had been asked for it. Letter No. 75 

136 This refers to Lenin's review of Parvus's book The World Market 
and the Agricultural Crisis. Economic Essays. The review was 
published in Nachalo No. 3 for 1899 (see Collected Works, Vol. 
4, pp. 65-66). Letter No. 75 

137 It can be seen from the next letter that Lenin's sister Anna sent 
him the pamphlet as a sample of the type in which his The Devel- 
opment of Capitalism in Russia was being set. Letter No. 76 

138 Lenin refers here to the "Chart Illustrating Tables A and B" 
in Chapter II of The Development of Capitalism in Russia (see 
Collected Works, Vol. 3, between pp. 136 and 137). 

Letter No. 76 

139 A. N. Potresov sent his criticism of the article "The Heritage We 
Renounce" in a letter to Lenin; he said, in particular, that the 
article produced the impression that the author proposed accepting 
the heritage of Skaldin. Lenin agreed in part with Potresov's 
criticism but wrote in reply that he nowhere proposed accepting 
Skaldin's heritage and had used his name and not that of Cherny- 
shevsky and his followers for reasons of censorship (see Collected 
Works, Vol. 34, pp. 28-29). Letter No. 76 

140 rpjjjg accusation was made by one of the "Samarans" (see Note 
40), P. P. Maslov, in an article entitled "Idealizatsiya naturalnogo 
khozyaistva" published in Nauchnoye Obozreniye No. 3 for 1899. 
Lenin seems to have been informed by Y. 0. Martov about this 
article. Letter No. 76 

141 Here Lenin refers to Chapter V of his article "The Heritage We 
Renounce" (see Collected Works, Vol. 2, pp. 491-534). 

Letter No. 76 

142 It has not been established with any degree of accuracy which 
addendum to Chapter VII of The Development of Capitalism in 
Russia Lenin was referring to. It is quite possible that he referred 
to the footnote to the last paragraph but one of the chapter in 
which Lenin stated that Marx's classification of the capitalist 
forms and stages of industry was more correct than that of Held 
and Biicher, which confuses the manufactory with the factory 
and regards working for a buyer-up as a special form of industry" 
(see Collected Works, Vol. 3, p. 549). Letter No. 76 

143 This refers to the fee due to Lenin for his translation of The His- 



NOTES 



649 



tory of Trade Unionism by Sidney and Beatrice Webb. The 
book was published by 0. N. Popova in 1899. Letter No. 76 

144 ipjjjg a pp ears to refer to Lenin's review of the directory Torgovo- 
promyshlennaya Rossiya. Spravochnaya kniga dlya kuptsov i fabri- 
kantov (Commercial and Industrial Russia. Handbook for Merchants 
and Factory Owners), published in Nachalo No. 3 for 1899 (see 
Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 70-73). Letter No. 77 

145 Lenin here refers to his article "A Note on the Question of the 
Market Theory" published in Nauchnoye Obozreniye No. 1 for 
1899 (see Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 55-64). Struve's article in 
reply to it, "Markets Under Capitalist Production (Apropos 
of Bulgakov's Book and Ilyin's Article)", appeared in the same 
issue of the journal. 

The market theory gave rise to a lively polemic in which A. Iz- 
goyev, P. Nezhdanov, B. Avilov and P. Skvortsov also participa- 
ted. In No. 8 of Nauchnoye Obozreniye Lenin published another 
article, "Once More on the Theory of Realisation" (see Collected 
Works, Vol. 4, pp. 74-93). Struve delayed publication of this 
article, apparently in order to print his "Answer to Ilyin" in the 
same issue. The polemics on this problem continued — Zhizn 
No. 12 for 1899 carried P. Nezhdanov's article "The Polemics 
over the Market Question" and Lenin's "Reply to Mr. P. Nezh- 
danov" (see Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 160-65). Letter No. 77 

146 Die Neue Zeit was a journal published by the German Social-Dem- 
ocratic Party; although subscription to it was permitted in 
Russia it was frequently confiscated if addressed to a politically 
unreliable person. For this reason Lenin referred to it in Russian 
(Novoye Vremya). Lenin's relatives had the journal sent to them in 
Moscow, and sent it on to Lenin in Shushenskoye. Letter No. 78 

147 Lenin refers here to one of the books of agricultural returns which 
was published by the gubernia Zemstvos, and which he used in 
writing his book The Development of Capitalism in Russia. 

Letter No. 78 

148 Lenin probably refers here to the table showing categories of 
industries in Chapter V of his The Development of Capitalism 
in Russia (see Collected Works, Vol 3, p. 347). This table was 
printed in the smallest available type, as Lenin requested. 

Letter No. 78 

149 rpjjjg re f ers t 0 the table in the second section of Chapter II of The 
Development of Capitalism in Russia (First Edition) on the dis- 
tribution of allotment land among the various groups of house- 
holders and the table in the first section of that chapter illustrat- 
ing the ousting of the middle group of householders in the Dnieper 
Uyezd of Taurida Gubernia (see Collected Works, Vol. 3, pp. 86 
and 71). Letter No. 78 



650 



NOTES 



150 Lenin added only a postscript to the Preface of his book {Collected 
Works, Vol. 3, pp. 26-27); he mentions this in Letter No. 82. 

Letter No. 78 

151 Lenin here refers to his article "Once More on the Theory of Reali- 
sation", in which he does not quote The Development of Capital- 
ism in Russia because he does not know when it will be pub- 
lished; instead he quotes "A Characterisation of Economic Roman- 
ticism", published in the collection Economic Studies and Essays. 

Letter No. 78 

152 There follows, in the original, a list of the misprints. Some of 
the corrections were made in the handwriting of Lenin's sister Anna. 

Letter No. 78 

153 Mark Yelizarov won a game of chess against the German chess 
player Emanuel Lasker during a session of simultaneous play 
on several boards. Lasker was in Moscow at the end of January 
and in early February 1899. Letter No. 79 

154 By "true believers" Lenin apparently means the "Samarans" 
(see Notes 40 and 140). Letter No. 79 

155 Lenin's article "Once More on the Theory of Realisation" was 
written in reply to P. B. Struve's "Markets Under Capitalist 
Production (Apropos of Bulgakov's Book and Ilyin's Article)" 
(see Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 74-93). Letter No. 80 

156 Apparently communications were written in invisible ink between 
the lines of Wolfe's bibliographical journal Izvestiya. 

Letter No. 82 

157 The table of contents gave details of the contents of each section. 

Letter No. 82 

158 This was Karl Kautsky's Die Agrarfrage, 1899; Lenin's review 
of this book was published in Nachalo No. 4 for 1899 (see Collected 
Works, Vol. 4, pp. 94-99); his conspectus of it was published in 
Lenin Miscellany XIX. In the Central Party Archives of the 
Institute of Marxism-Leninism, C.C., C.P.S.U., there is a copy 
of the book with notes in it made by Lenin. Letter No. 82 

159 Lenin wrote to Y. 0. Martov in Turukhansk but their correspon- 
dence during exile in Siberia has been lost. Letter No. 83 

160 The event referred to was a student strike that took place in thirty 
higher educational establishments in St. Petersburg, Moscow, 
Odessa, Kiev, Kharkov, Riga, Tomsk and other towns. 

The disturbances in Finland were caused by the suspension of 



NOTES 



651 



the Finnish Constitution on February 3 (15), 1899. Evidently 
the censor inked over the reports of these events published in 
Frankfurter Zeitung. Letter No. 83 

161 Lenin apparently made use of the journal Prakticheskaya Zhizn 
and I. Tsion's book Nigilisty i nigilizm to send letters in invis- 
ible ink. Letter No. 85 

162 The article referred to is B. Avilov's "Novy opyt 'ekonomicheskoi 
garmonii' (N. Kablukov, Ob usloviyakh razvitiya krestyanskogo 
khozyaistva v Rossii. M., 1899), published in Nachalo No. 1-2 for 
1899. Letter No. 85 

163 Bulgakov's article was "if voprosu o kapitalisticheskoi evolyutsii 
zemledeliya" , published in Nachalo Nos. 1-2 and 3 for 1899. 

Letter No. 85 

164 Lenin made a critical analysis of the views of S. N. Bulgakov, 
the "legal Marxist", in two articles under the common title of 
"Capitalism in Agriculture (Kautsky's Book and Mr. Bulgakov's 
Article)". They were intended for publication in Nachalo but 
since that journal was banned they appeared in Nos. 1 and 2 of 
Zhizn for 1900 (see Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 105-59). 

The importance which Lenin attached to his articles against 
Bulgakov can be seen from his letter to A. N. Potresov of April 
27, 1899 (Collected Works, Vol. 34, pp. 32-33), in which he expresses 
an exceedingly negative opinion of Bulgakov's revisionist wri- 
tings. Letter No. 85 

165 Lenin refers here to the proposed visit of his mother and sister 
Anna to Shushenskoye. Letter No. 86 

166 The article "Capitalism in Agriculture" was published much 
later (in January and February 1900), when The Development of 
Capitalism in Russia had already appeared, so the references 
were not crossed out. Letter No. 86 

167 Lenin began editing the second volume of the Webbs' Industrial 
Democracy only at the beginning of September 1899. In the course 
of this work he had not only to edit the translation but also to 
retranslate a considerable part of the text and write a number of 
footnotes. The work was finished on January 19, 1900. Letter No. 87 

168 P. B. Struve handed Lenin's article "Once More on the Theory 
of Realisation" over to Nauchnoye Obozreniye because of the 
unstable position of Nachalo following the confiscation of the 
April 1899 issue. Letter No. 87 

169 There was a remark in Bulgakov's article "if voprosy o kapitaltsti- 



652 



NOTES 



scheskoi evolyutsii zemledeliya" rejecting the Marxist theory of 
Zusammenbruch (socialist revolution). 

Somewhat earlier Bernstein had made a similar criticism in 
his Die Voraussetzungen des Sozialismus und die Aufgaben der 
Sozialdemokratie , 1899 (the English translation was entitled Pro- 
blems of Socialism). Letter No. 87 

170 No such remark was made at the end of the second part of "Capi- 
talism in Agriculture". It is possible that Lenin spoke of this 
in the first variant of his article; judging by Letters 98 and 99 
he must have rewritten the article. Letter No. 87 

171 Disciples — followers of Marx and Engels; this term was used in 
the nineties as a legally-permitted name for the Marxists. 

Letter No. 88 

172 This refers to A. Bogdanov's Kratky kurs ekonomicheskoi nauki. 

Letter No. 89 

173 The articles referred to are "A Characterisation of Economic 
Romanticism. (Sismondi and Our Native Sismondists)" and "Reply 
to Mr. P. Nezhdanov", the latter having been published in the 
December (No. 12) 1899 issue of Zhizn (see Collected Works, 
Vol. 2, pp. 129-315, and Vol. 4, pp. 160-66). Letter No. 89 

174 Lenin refers to the following sentence from the first paragraph 
of his article "Reply to Mr. P. Nezhdanov": "As far as the other 
questions are concerned, those raised by Mr. P. Nezhdanov in 
respect of the market theory and, in particular, of P. B. Struve's 
views, I shall confine myself to a reference to my article in reply 
to Struve ('Once More on the Theory of Realisation'; the delay 
in its publication in Nauchnoye Obozreniye was due to circum- 
stances over which the author had no control") (see Collected Works, 
Vol. 4, p. 160). Letter No. 89 

175 Lenin mentioned Tugan-Baranovsky's article in a footnote to the 
last paragraph of his article "Uncritical Criticism" (Collected 
Works, Vol. 3, p. 632) and in a letter to A. N. Potresov dated 
June 27, 1899 (Collected Works, Vol. 34, p. 39). Letter No. 90 

176 The review was that by G-d of A. Bogdanov's book Osnovniye 
elementy istoricheskogo vzglyada na prirodu. It is not known whether 
Lenin wrote anything in reply to the review. From his letter 
to Maxim Gorky, dated February 25, 1908 (Collected Works, Vol. 
13, p. 448) we know that he had the book in Siberia. 

It is known from a letter to A. N. Potresov, dated June 27, 1899, 
that Lenin at that time assumed that A. Bogdanov was the pseu- 
donym of G. V. Plekhanov (see Collected Works, Vol. 34, p. 41). 

Letter No. 90 

177 Lenin's detailed analysis of the Credo appears to have been sent 
in a letter written in invisible ink. 



NOTES 



653 



Credo, or Creed, was the, name under which the programme 
or manifesto of the group of Economists, written by Y. D. Kus- 
kova, became known. It was sent to Lenin in Shushenskoye by 
his sister Anna. Lenin's sister later recalled that she had received 
the Credo in St. Petersburg from A. M. Kalmykova and "in the 
next letter in invisible ink to my brother, one of those written in 
books and journals, added this composition, rewritten in invisi- 
ble ink I gave the document the first name that came into my 

head and wrote 'I am sending you some "Credo of the young".'" 

After having received the Credo Lenin wrote "A Protest by 
Russian Social-Democrats" which was discussed and adopted at 
a meeting of seventeen Marxists exiled to Minusinsk District 
(Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 167-82). Letter No. 92 

178 Lenin refers here to S. Bulgakov's article "Zakon prichinnosti i 
svoboda chelovecheskikh deistvii" , and P. B. Struve's article "Ye- 
shcho o svobode i neobkhodimosti\ published in the May (No. 8) 
issue of Novoye Slovo for 1897. The two articles are a continuation 
of the polemics between Struve and Bulgakov over the philosophy 
of Kant, Stammler, Zimmel and others in the journal Voprosy 
Filosofii i Psikhologii for 1896 and 1897. Lenin spoke of Stammler 
in his "Uncritical Criticism" (Collected Works, Vol. 3, pp. 609-32) 
and also in a letter to A. N. Potresov dated June 27, 1899 (see Col- 
lected Works, Vol. 34, p. 40). Letter No. 93 

179 This was P. Skvortsov's article "K voprosu o rynkakh (Po povodu 
zametki g. Petra Struve 'K voprosu o rynkakh pri kapitalistiche- 
skom proizvodstve')" published in Nauchnoye Obozreniye No. 7 
for 1899. Letter No. 93 

180 Bernstein's book (see Note 169). For Lenin's opinion of the book 
see Letter No. 98. Letter No. 96 

181 The Hanover Congress of the German Social-Democratic Party 
was held October 9-14, 1899. The report on the chief item on the 
agenda — "The Attack on the Basic Views and Tactics of the Party", 
was delivered by August Bebel. Lenin wrote that this speech 
against the opportunists would "long remain as a model of the 
defence of Marxist views and of the struggle for the truly socialist 
character of the workers' party" (Collected Works, Vol. 19, p. 300). 
Although the congress opposed Bernstein's revisionist views, it did 
not give an extensive criticism of Bernsteinism. Letter No. 96 

182 Vorwdrts (Forward) — a daily newspaper, central organ of the Ger- 
man Social-Democratic Party. Letter No. 96 

183 The two articles mentioned, in which Lenin criticised the views 
of the liberal Narodnik N. V. Levitsky, have not been found. 
They were apparently intended for Nachalo. "About a Certain 
Newspaper Article" is the only article known to have been written 
by Lenin in the Siberian period about N. Levitsky's "O nekotorykh 



654 



NOTES 



voprosakh, kasayushchikhsya narodnoi zhizni" (Certain Problems 
Affecting the Life of the People) published in Russkiye Vedomosti 
on August 30, 1897 (see Collected Works, Vol. 2, pp. 316-22). 

Letter No. 97 

184 Owing to the loss of the manuscript, it is impossible to say what 
corrections to his second article on "Capitalism in Agriculture" 
Lenin is referring to. As can be seen by the next letter, he sent 
them long before the article was published. Letter No. 98 

185 Sdchsische Arbeiterzeitung (Saxon Workers' Gazette) — a Social- 
Democratic daily published in Dresden from 1890. From May 1, 
1908 it was published as Dresdener Volkszeitung (Dresden Peoples 
Gazette). 

An article by G. V. Plekhanov "Wofiir sollen wir ihm dankbar 
sein? Offener Brief an Karl Kautsky" (What Should We Thank 
Him For? An Open Letter to Karl Kautsky) appeared in issues 
253, 254 and 255; in this article Plekhanov criticised Bernstein 
sharply. Bernstein polemised with Plekhanov over this article in 
a footnote to the last chapter of his Voraussetzungen des Sozialis- 
mus. Letter No. 98 

186 The journal referred to was he Mouvement Socialiste, a social 
and political journal that first appeared in Paris in January 1899. 
It published a number of letters from Frederick Engels and arti- 
cles by him. A number of the leaders of world Social-Democracy 
contributed to the journal, among them Wilhelm Liebknecht, 
Harry Quelch, Jean Jaures, August Rebel and Rosa Luxemburg. 
It also carried articles by the opportunists and revisionists 
that dominated the Second International. Le Mouvement Socialiste 
went out of existence in June 1914. Letter No. 100 

187 This booklet was apparently used by Lenin's sister as the vehicle 
of a letter in invisible ink and Lenin's statement that the "booklet 
on the professional congress in Moscow was very interesting and 
instructive" obviously refers to the contents of the letter. 

Letter No. 100 

188 Severny Kuryer (Northern Courier) — a social, political and liter- 
ary daily that appeared in St. Petersburg in 1899 and 1900. 

Letter No. 100 

189 That same day, January 19, 1900, Nadezhda Krupskaya applied 
to the Yeniseisk Gubernia Council for permission to travel to 
Ufa at her own expense. She did not receive it by the 29th and 
left Shushenskoye with Lenin. She received her travel permit in 
Minusinsk. 

The Knipovich family were close friends of Krupskaya's. 

Letter No. 101 



190 



This refers to Lenin's article "Uncritical Criticism (Regarding 



NOTES 



655 



Mr. P. Skvortsov's Article 'Commodity Fetishism' in Nauchnoye 
Obozreniye No. 12, 1899)" (see Collected Works, Vol. 3, pp. 609- 
32). Letter No. 101 

191 S. N. Prokopovich's The Working-Class Movement in the West. 
An Essay in Critical Investigation (Vol. I, Germany, Belgium) 
was held up by the St. Petersburg Censorship Committee (May 22, 
1899) and was later passed for publication by the head of the 
Central Press Board. It appeared at the end of January 1900. 
Lenin wrote a review of this book (see Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 
183-92). Letter No. 101 

192 On March 10, 1900, Lenin applied to the Director of the Police 
Department for permission for Nadezhda Krupskaya to serve 
her term of police surveillance in Pskov instead of Ufa Gubernia. 
The request was refused. Letter No. 102 

193 Lenin's second article "Capitalism in Agriculture (Kautsky's 
Book and Mr. Bulgakov's Article)" was published in Zhizn No. 2 
for 1900. It is probable that this is the issue referred to in the 
letter. Letter No. 102 

194 Lenin refers to P. B. Struve's article "Osnovnaya antinomiya 
teorii trudovoi tsennostV (The Basic Antinomy of the Theory 
of Labour Value) published in Zhizn No. 2, for 1900. The inserted 
note against Struve mentioned in the letter is the footnote at the 
end of the article "Uncritical Criticism", (see Collected Works, 
Vol. 3, p. 632). Letter No. 103 

195 This refers to Vera Zasulich's article "Dmitry Ivanovich Pisa- 
rev". It was published in Nauchnoye Obozreniye Nos. 3, 4, 6 and 
7 for 1900 under the pseudonym of N. Karelin. Letter No. 103 

196 On April 20, 1900, Lenin applied to the Director of the Police 
Department for permission to live in Ufa for six weeks on account 
of the illness of his wife. The petition was refused. 

Letter No. 105 

197 Visitors were received on Thursdays at the Police Department. 
Lenin asked his mother to try to get permission in St. Petersburg 
for him to go to Ufa to Krupskaya. The permission was granted. 

Letter No. 107 

198 Lenin's journey to Podolsk was delayed. On May 20, 1900 he 
went secretly to St. Petersburg to meet local Social-Democrats 
and establish means of communication to be used after his leaving 
Russia. On May 21 he was arrested for illegal entry into the capi- 
tal. He was released on May 31 and was dispatched to Podolsk 
in the company of a police official, arriving on June 1. 

Letter No. 108 



656 



NOTES 



199 Lenin intended going to Siberia to see G. M. Krzhizhanovsky but 
went to Ufa instead (cf. Note 226). On June 10, 1900 he returned 
to Podolsk from Ufa and on July 16 went abroad to organise the 
all-Russia illegal newspaper Iskra (The Spark). Letter No. 109 

200 Lenin did not live in Paris in 1900, and if he went there at all it 
was only for a short time; for purposes of secrecy he sent letters 
to Russia through Paris. Letter No. 110 

201 This was said for the sake of secrecy. Early in September 1900 
Lenin actually went to Nuremberg on his way to Munich for 
talks with the German Social-Democrat A. Braun about organisa- 
tional and technical assistance in publishing Iskra. 

Letter No. 110 

202 Lenin was in Munich at this time. Paris is named for purposes 
of secrecy, as is the exhibition mentioned in the letter. 

Letter No. Ill 

203 Lenin's sister Maria was arrested in the autumn of 1899 and ban- 
ished to Nizhny Novgorod until the preliminary investigation 
was completed; she returned to Moscow at the end of December 
the same year. Letter No. Ill 

204 This refers to the carriers through whom Lenin's books were 
despatched. Letter No. 112 

205 Lenin's brother Dmitry was at this time under police surveil- 
lance in Podolsk Moscow Gubernia; he was later allowed to enter 
Yuriev University, from which he graduated in 1901. Letter No. 113 

206 Lenin used F. Modrack's address in Prague for the despatch 
of letters to and from Russia. Letter No. 114 

207 This refers to S. I. Mickiewicz, who was a that time in exile in 
Yakutia in connection with the case of the Moscow organisation 
of the R.S.D.L.P. His correspondence with Lenin has been lost. 

Letter No. 117 

208 In the latter half of December 1900, Lenin went to Leipzig, where 
the first issue of Iskra was being printed, to do some final editing 
before the paper appeared. Vienna is mentioned in the letter for 
reasons of secrecy. Letter No. 118 

209 Lenin refers to the Manifesto of the Party of Socialist-Revoluti- 
onaries that G. B. Krasin sent him in an album of photographs. 
The manifesto was reviewed by G. Plekhanov in an article "New 
Wine in Old Bottles", published in Iskra No. 5. Letter No. 120 

210 It is not known what manuscripts are meant. For "Vienna gifts" 
see Note 209. Letter No. 122 



NOTES 



657 



211 Krupskaya stayed in Moscow for a few days on her way from Ufa 
to Germany. Letter No. 122 

212 Promyshlenny Mir (Industrial World) — a weekly dealing with 
finance, economics, commerce, industry and technology, published 
in St. Petersburg from November 1899 to 1905. Letter No. 124 

213 This probably refers to Lenin's reviews of Kautsky's book Bern- 
stein and the Social-Democratic Programme. A Counter-critique 
and Prokopovich's book The Working-Class Movement in the 
West, written at the end of 1899 and first published in 1928 in 
Lenin Miscellany VII (see Collected Works, Vol. 4, pp. 193-203 
and 183-92). Letter No. 124 



214 



ana ma-vz). j_,exxer ino. lzi 

Lenin went to Prague and Vienna to organise Krupskaya's jour- 
ney abroad. Letter No. 125 

215 Lenin's sister Maria and his brother-in-law, Mark Yelizarov, 
had been arrested on the night of February 28, 1901, in connection 
with the case of the Moscow organisation of the R.S.D.L.P. 

Letter No. 127 

216 This letter was given to Maria Ulyanova in prison and it bears 
the stamp of the Deputy Prosecutor of the Moscow Department 
of Justice. Letter No. 128 

217 This refers to V. A. Levitsky, who was at that time public health 
officer in Podolsk Uyezd of Moscow Gubernia. Lenin made 
the acquaintance of Levitsky at the summer cottage of his rela- 
tives before going abroad; he asked Levitsky to write for Iskra, 
and one article by him, Probuzhdeniye kirpichnikov, was printed 
in Iskra No. 1. Letter No. 130 

218 The Siberian friends were G. M. Krzhizhanovsky, V. V. Starkov, 
M. A. Silvin and others who were in exile at the same time as 
Lenin. Letter No. 130 

219 On release from prison, Mark Yelizarov intended going to Syzran, 
where his brother, P. T. Yelizarov, lived. Letter No. 132 

220 At that time Mark Yelizarov was a student of the Moscow Engineer- 
ing Institute of the Ministry of Railways. Letter No. 132 

221 The visit was not permitted on the ground that Dmitry Ulyanov 
had shortly before been arraigned on a political charge. 

Letter No. 133 

222 This refers to M. V. Zvorykina, a school friend of Maria Ulya- 
nova's. She had at one time stayed with Lenin's mother in Po- 
dolsk. Letter No. 133 



658 



NOTES 



223 Lenin's mother lived in Samara while her daughter Maria spent 
her term of exile there. Letter No. 136 

224 Lenin refers here to books belonging to him that had been sent 
from Siberia to his mother's address in Moscow. Some of these 
books are now at the Central Party Archives of the Institute of 
Marxism-Leninism, Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. 

The new address mentioned in the letter was necessary because 
the centre for publishing Iskra was transferred from Munich to 
London; Lenin left on April 12, 1902 (see next letter). 

Letter No. 137 

225 In the summer of 1902, Lenin's mother went abroad to visit her 
son. From the end of June to July 25, Lenin lived with his mother 
and his elder sister, Anna, in Loguivy (north coast of France). 

Letter No. 139 

226 Lenin recalls his trip to Ufa with his mother and his elder sister 
in the summer of 1900. From Nizhny Novgorod they travelled 
by steamer along the rivers Volga, Kama and Belaya, to visit 
Krupskaya who was finishing her term of exile in Ufa. 

Letter No. 140 

227 This refers to photographs of Lenin's elder brother, Alexander 
Ulyanov, that his sister Anna sent him; she was afraid to carry 
them across the frontier because of the possibility of being arrested. 

Letter No. 141 

228 Lenin's brother Dmitry was arrested in August 1902 at Khadzhi- 
bei Lagoon near Odessa where he was working as a doctor; he was 
accused of "distributing proclamations calling on the peasants 
to join the workers' revolutionary movement". He was released 
three weeks later. Letter No. 143 

229 The symposium contained articles by S. N. Bulgakov, Prince 
Y. N. Trubetskoi, N. A. Berdyayev, S. L. Frank, Prince S. N. Tru- 
betskoi, S. F. Oldenburg and others. Letter No. 144 

230 A persistent struggle was going on in Germany in 1902 around 
the draft of a tariff reform proposed by the government. The Ger- 
man Social-Democrats, headed by August Bebel, were fighting 
against higher bread prices. Letter No. 145 

231 Lenin's sister Anna went to Port Arthur with her husband, Mark 
Yelizarov, who was at that time employed on the railway in the 
Far East. Letter No. 146 

232 Lenin wrote about Germany for purposes of secrecy. In February 
1903 he went to Paris to lecture at the Russian Social Sciences 
Higher School there; between February 23 and 26 he delivered 
four lectures on "Marxist Views on the Agrarian Problem in 



NOTES 



659 



Europe and in Russia". (In the Central Archives of the Institute 
of Marxism-Leninism, C.C., C.P.S.U., there are two variants of 
a plan of these lectures in the form of notes.) Early in March 
Lenin spoke at a meeting of Russian political emigres in Paris 
on the agrarian programme of the Socialist-Revolutionaries 
and the Social-Democrats. He returned to London on March 9. 

Letter No. 147 

233 On the night of January 1, 1904, Lenin's sisters Anna and Maria, 
his brother Dmitry and the latter's wife were arrested in connec- 
tion with a case against the Central Committee and the Kiev Com- 
mittee of the Party. Letter No. 150 

234 Krupskaya recalls the following in connection with this holiday. 

"At the end of June 1904, Vladimir Ilyich and I took our ruck- 
sacks and set off for a month in the mountains, following our 
noses. We spent a week or so in Lausanne to muster a little strength, 
and then set out for somewhere beyond Montreux; we found our 
way through the wildest forests to a place where some loggers told 
us how to reach the road and where to spend the night. Through 
Aigle we descended into the valley of the Rhone, went to 
Bex-les-Bains to an old school and college friend of mine, and 
then wandered along the Rhone for a long time— about 70 versts; 
this was the most tiring part of the journey. In the end we crossed 
the Gemmi Pass into Oberland, reached the foot of the Jungfrau, 
and then, with our legs aching and completely worn out, we stayed 
at Iseltwald on the Brienzersee for about a week and from there 
again took to the road through Interlaken and Zimmental back 
to the Geneva area. The winter of 1903-04 had been a particularly 
difficult one, our nerves were in a bad state and we wanted to 
get away from people and forget for the time being all business 
and alarms. The mountains helped us. The changing impressions, 
the mountain air, solitude, healthy tiredness and healthy sleep 
were a real cure for Vladimir Ilyich. His strength and vivacity 
and high spirits returned to him. In August we lived on Lac de 
Bret, where Vladimir Ilyich and Bogdanov evolved a plan for 
the further struggle against the Mensheviks." Letter No. 151 

235 This refers to Hobson's Imperialism, published in 1902. There 
is no printed edition of Lenin's translation of the book in exist- 
ence and the manuscript of the translation has been lost. 

Letter No. 154 

236 On his return from the Fifth (London) Party Congress Lenin rested 
for several weeks at N. M. Knipovich's country house near the 
Stjernsund Lighthouse (now the Ozerki Housing Development, 
Vyborg District, Leningrad Region). Letter No. 155 

237 Lenin refers to his article "Against Boycott. Notes of a Social- 
Democratic Publicist" (see Collected Works, Vol. 13, pp. 15-49). 

Letter No. 156 



660 



NOTES 



238 After the Seventh International Congress in Stuttgart, in which 
he took part, Lenin stayed at Vaza Cottage at Kuokkala (now 
Repine, Sestroretsk District, Leningrad), where he had formerly 
lived when in hiding from the tsarist police. Letter No. 157 

239 At that time Lenin's brother Dmitry was employed as the village 
doctor at Lipitino, Serpukhov Uyezd, Moscow Gubernia. 

Letter No. 157 

240 Obrazovaniye (Education) — a monthly literary, popular scientific, 
social and political journal published legally in St. Petersburg 
from 1892 to 1909. Articles by Social-Democrats were published 
in the journal between 1902 and 1908. Letter No. 158 

241 After the defeat of the First Russian Revolution, Lenin was hunted 
by the tsarist police and had to leave Kuokkala in November 1907 
and move to Oggelby (near Helsingfors). In accordance with the 
decision of the Bolshevik centre to transfer the publication of the 
newspaper Proletary to Geneva, Lenin left Oggelby. He stayed 
in Stockholm for a few days and arrived in Geneva on January 7, 
1908. This was his second period of exile abroad, which lasted 
until April 1917. Letter No. 158 

242 Tovarishch (Comrade) — a bourgeois daily published in St. Peters- 
burg from March 15 (28), 1906 to December 30, 1907 (January 12, 
1908), actually as the organ of the Left Cadets. Nash Vek (Our 
Age) was published in January 1908 in place of Tovarishch. 

Letter No. 158 

243 The article referred to is Lenin's "The Agrarian Question in Rus- 
sia Towards the Close of the Nineteenth Century", which he wrote 
for the Granat Brothers Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Because of 
the censorship the article could not be published at that time. 
It first appeared in 1918 in pamphlet form (see Collected Works, 
Vol. 15, pp. 69-147). Letter No. 158 

244 Rech (Speech) — organ of the Constitutional-Democratic (Cadet) 
Party published daily in St. Petersburg. Lenin probably referred 
to Rech No. 12 of January 15 (28), 1908, which carried an article 
entitled "Resolution of the Baku Social-Democrats Against 
Expropriation and Terror". Letter No. 160 

245 Lenin nevertheless wrote an article for the symposium Karl Marx 
(1818-1883), entitled "Marxism and Revisionism" (see Collected 
Works, Vol. 15, pp. 29-39). Letter No. 160 

246 The club referred to is the Societe de lecture (Reading Society) 
in Geneva; to work in the reading-room it was necessary to be a 
member of it and pay a certain fee. Lenin had worked there in 
1904-05, before he left for Russia. Letter No. 160 



NOTES 



661 



247 Zerno (Grain or The Seed) was a publishing house headed by 
M. S. Kedrov; in 1907 it launched the publication of a collection 
of Lenin's works under the general title of Twelve Years. It was 
planned as a three-volume edition but only the first volume and 
Part I of the second appeared. Volume I appeared in November 
1907 (the date on the cover was 1908) and was confiscated soon 
after its appearance, although a large part of this first printing 
was saved and was distributed illegally. 

Zerno published a symposium on the twenty-fifth anniversary 
of Marx's death and the Kalendar dlya vsekh (Calendar for All) 
for 1908, which carried Lenin's article "The International Social- 
ist Congress in Stuttgart" (see Collected Works, Vol. 13, pp. 82- 
93). Letter No. 160 

248 Tjjjg k 00 ]j j s quoted in Lenin's "The Agrarian Question and the 
'Critics of Marx'" (see Collected Works, Vol. 5, p. 179). 

Letter No. 161 

249 The manuscript referred to was that of Lenin's "The Agrarian 
Programme of Social-Democracy in the First Russian Revolution, 
1905-1907" written in November and December 1907 (see Collected 
Works, Vol. 13, pp. 217-431). It was to have been included in the 
second part of Volume 2 of the Lenin collection Twelve Years 
but was confiscated by the police and destroyed before leaving 
the printers'. Only one copy was saved and several of the end 
pages of this were missing. The book was published in part in the 
newspaper Proletary No. 33 of July 23 (August 5), 1908. It was 
first published in full in 1917. Letter No. 162 

250 The nature of the disagreement between V. D. Bonch-Bruyevich 
and Lindov (G. D. Leiteisen) has not been established. 

Letter No. 162 

251 This apparently concerns the fees for the second, enlarged edition 
of The Development of Capitalism in Russia issued in 1908 by 
Pallada Publishers in St. Petersburg. Letter No. 163 

252 Lenin was in Leipzig in early January 1908, while on his way 
from Sweden to Geneva. Letter No. 163 

253 Some time towards the end of April (after the 20th) Lenin visited 
Maxim Gorky in Capri (Italy) and spent several days there. 

Letter No. 164 

254 Lenin worked on his Materialism and Empirio- criticism in the 
British Museum (London) in May 1908. Letter No. 165 

255 This refers to Lenin's The Agrarian Programme of Social-Democ- 
racy in the First Russian Revolution, 1905-1907 . It is possible 
that Lenin wished to show it to those attending the Plenary Meet- 
ing of the C.C., R.S.D.L.P., which was to be held in Geneva in 



662 



NOTES 



August 1908. It is not known whether Lenin's request was ful- 
filled. Letter No. 165 

256 Diablerets — a group of mountains in the western part of the Ber- 
nese Alps at the juncture of the Cantons of Berne, Vallais and 
Vaud; the highest point is 10,000 feet above sea level. 

Letter No. 167 

257 These words are from Alexander Pushkin's The Hero. 

Letter No. 168 

258 In October 1908 Lenin went to Brussels to attend a meeting of 
the International Socialist Bureau; the trip to Italy did not take 
place. Letter No. 169 

259 This refers to the publication of Materialism and Empirio- critic- 
ism which Lenin expected the Granat Brothers Publishing House 
to handle. ' Letter No. 170 

260 In the first edition of Lenin's Materialism and Empirio -criticism. 
Critical Comments on a Reactionary Philosophy the word "fideism" 
was used instead of popovshchina, a derogatory Russian term 
for "clericalism", although "popovshchina" remained unchanged 
in a number of places. Lenin also suggested changing the word 
to "Shamanism"; his sister Anna, in a letter dated January 27, 
1909, replied by saying, "'Shamanism' has come too late. Anyway, 
is it any better?" The explanatory note was given in the Preface 
to the first and subsequent editions (see Collected Works, Vol. 
14, p. 19). Letter No. 171 

261 This refers to V. A. Levitsky, a close acquaintance of the Ulyanov 
family during their stay in Podolsk; in 1900 Lenin left Podolsk 
for Ufa and not Krasnoyarsk, as the letter states. Letter No. 172 

262 It was difficult for V. D. Bonch-Bruyevich to publish the book 
at the publishing firm Zhizn i Znaniye (Life and Knowledge) he 
organised in 1907 because that firm had not had time to consoli- 
date its position. Letter No. 173 

263 The manuscript of this "separate sheet" has been lost. The footnote 
concerned Erich Becher's Philosophische Voraussetzungen der 
exakten Naturwissenschaften. Lpz., 1907, which, as Lenin said 
in the note, he read only after he had finished writing the book 
(see Collected Works, Vol. 14, p. 290). Letter No. 173 

264 Lenin and his family had moved from Geneva to Paris because 
the newspaper Proletary was published there. Letter No. 174 

265 Lenin's book was accepted by the private firm of L. Krumbiigel 
(Zveno Publishers). The contract was drawn up in the name of 
Lenin's sister, Anna Ulyanova-Yelizarova, and signed by her. 



NOTES 



663 



The contract was for 3,000 copies at 100 rubles per printer's sig- 
nature, each signature being 40,000 letters, and 50 copies for the 
author (see her letter to the journal Proletarskaya Revolyutsiya 
No. 2-3 for 1930). Letter No. 174 

266 All the misprints here listed were corrected before the book was 
published. Letter No. 177 

267 The telegram has been lost. It inquired about the health of Lenin's 
mother, who was ill at the time. Letter No. 178 

268 The pages mentioned were missing in the galley proofs but were 
later received by Lenin when he read the page proofs (see Letter 
No. 180). Letter No. 179 

269 This refers to Anna Ulyanova-Yelizarova's reply to Lenin's 
telegram inquiring after his mother's health. 

Un peu mieux — a little better. Letter No. 179 

270 Mardi gras— Shrove Tuesday, a day of carnival in France. 

Letter No. 180 

271 Since the manuscript has been lost it is impossible to indicate 
exactly which place in the book this refers to. Apparently it refers 
to Section 1 of Chapter Two, "The 'Thing-in-Itself ' or V. Chernov 
Refutes Frederick Engels"; here Lenin speaks of the writings of 
Bogdanov, Valentinov, Bazarov, Chernov and other Machists 
against the basic materialist tenet recognising the objective exist- 
ence, independent of man's consciousness, of matter — the "thing- 
in-itself" (see Collected Works, Vol. 14, p. 98). Letter No. 183 

272 The strike of French post and telegraph workers lasted from March 
15 to March 23, 1909. Letter No. 184 

273 This misprint was not given in the list of errata nor was it cor- 
rected in the text of the first edition of Materialism and Empirio- 
criticism. It was first corrected in the Third Edition (Russian) 
of the Collected Works (see Collected Works, Vol. 14, p. 300). 

Letter No. 187 

274 Lenin hurried the publication of Materialism and Empirio- critic- 
ism because of the enlarged conference of the Proletary editorial 
board (this was actually the Bolshevik centre) at which a decisive 
battle against Bogdanov and his followers was to be fought. 

Letter No. 189 

275 Lenin's sister Maria was preparing to take the entrance exami- 
nation to the Sorbonne language courses in order to obtain the 
diploma of a teacher of French. Letter No. 190 

276 Lenin's Materialism and Empirio-criticism. Critical Comments on a 
Reactionary Philosophy appeared between May 12 and 17 (N.S.), 1909; 



664 



NOTES 



it was published in Moscow by L. Krumbiigel's firm Zveno. 

Letter No. 190 



Lenin was referring to the inaccurate translation of the title of 
William James's Pragmatism. A New Name for Some Old Ways 
of Thinking that he mentions in Materialism and Empirio- critic- 
ism (see Collected Works, Vol. 14, p. 342). Letter No. 191 

Lenin received royalties for his Materialism and Empirio- criticism 
from Krumbiigel in full (see his sister Anna's letter to the editor 
of Proletarskaya Revolyutsiya published in No. 2-3 of that journal 
for 1930). - . • Letter No. 191 



Lenin refers here to the coming conference of the extended Prole- 
tary editorial board; it was called on Lenin's initiative and took 
place in Paris from the 21st to the 30th of June (N.S.), 1909. The 
conference was attended by nine members of the Bolshevik cen- 
tre — the highest body of the Bolshevik group, elected by the 
Bolshevik delegates to the 5th (London) Congress of the R.S.D.L.P., 
and also representatives of the St. Petersburg, Moscow Regional 
and Urals organisations. The conference proceeded under Lenin's 
guidance and his speeches on all the main points on the agenda 
shaped the character of the conference. The theses put forward 
by Lenin formed the basis of the decisions adopted by the con- 
ference. 

The conference roundly condemned otzovism and ultimatumism 
as harmful and dangerous trends in the working-class movement. 
A. Bogdanov, leader and inspirer of the otzovists, ultimatumists 
and God-builders, was expelled from the Bolshevik group. 

Letter No. 191 



Lenin spent late July and August on holiday with his family — 
his wife (N. K. Krupskaya), her mother (Y. V. Krupskaya) and 
his sister (M. I. Ulyanova) — in the village of Bombon (Department 
de Seine-et-Marne) near Paris. Letter No. 191 

This may refer to the issue of the newspaper Rossiya containing 
reports of the discussion of a land distribution Bill in the Duma 
in October 1909. 

Rossiya (Russia) — a reactionary daily, published in St. Peters- 
burg from November 1905 to April 1914. In 1909 it became the 
newspaper of the Ministry of the Interior. Letter No. 196 

Lenin refers to I. I. Skvortsov-Stepanov, about whose position 
at this period he afterwards wrote in a letter to Maxim Gorky 
(see Collected Works, Vol. 35, pp. 74-75). Two letters from Lenin 
to Skvortsov-Stepanov written in 1909 have been preserved (see 
Collected Works, Vol. 16, pp. 117-22, and Vol. 34, pp. 407-10). 

Letter No. 196 



NOTES 



665 



283 Lenin went to Brussels to attend the Eleventh Session of the 
International Socialist Bureau (ISB). On November 7, 1909 he 
spoke at a meeting of the session on the split in the Social-Demo- 
cratic Workers' Party of Holland and voted in favour of admitting 
to the International the Dutch Marxists {Tribune supporters) 
who represented the Left wing of the working-class movement 
in Holland. On November 8 Lenin attended a meeting of the 
Inter-parliamentary Committee of the ISB after which he returned 
to Paris. Letter No. 196 

284 On November 45, 1909, the newspaper Utro Rossii (Morning of 
Russia), organ of the Moscow industrialists published by P. P. Rya- 
bushinsky, printed a libellous story about "M. Gorky's 
Expulsion from the S. D. Party". The "interview" of which Lenin 
writes was published on November 17 under the heading "The 
Excommunication of Maxim Gorky". This libellous account was 
taken up by Rech and other bourgeois papers, Russian and foreign. 
In reply to the inventions about Gorky's expulsion that were 
being spread by bourgeois newspapers Lenin wrote his article 
"The Bourgeois Press Fable About the Expulsion of Gorky" (see 
Collected Works, Vol. 16, p. 106). Letter No. 197 

285 UEclair (Lightning)— a Paris newspaper published from 1888 
to 1939. 

Berliner Tageblatt {Berliner Tageblatt und Handelszeitung — 
Berlin Daily and Commercial Gazette)— published from 1871 to 
1939. Letter No. 197 

286 Lenin's sister Anna, her husband Mark Yelizarov, and Lenin's 
mother were living at the village of Sablino near a railway station 
of the same name, not far from St. Petersburg. Lenin visited 
his relatives there in 1905 and 1906. A room was allotted to him 
in the cottage and he was able to work and rest there. 

Letter No. 197 

287 The Twelfth Congress of Russian Naturalists and Physicians was 
held in Moscow from December 28, 1909 to January 6, 1910; a 
sub-section of statisticians took part. Letter No. 199 

288 This refers to Stolypin's decree of November 9 (22), 1909 "Sup- 
plement to Certain Provisions of the Operative Law on Peasant 
Landownership and Land Tenure", which granted peasants the 
right to leave the communes and set up farmsteads. (For further 
details of Stolypin's agrarian policy see Collected Works, Vol. 13, 
pp. 217-431.) Letter No. 199 

289 The manuscript of Lenin's note of request to the statisticians 
has been lost. Copies of it were made and distributed among sta- 
tisticians; one copy was seized during a search at the house of 
Lenin's sister Maria in 1909. The text of the copy was preserved 
in the records of the Department of Police. Letter No. 199 



666 



NOTES 



290 Musee Grevin — a waxworks containing the, very lifelike and 
authentically dressed effigies of historical personages. 

Letter No. 200 

291 Juvisy — a small town near Paris, where there was an aerodrome; 
Lenin, who was greatly interested in aviation, went there to 
watch the aeroplanes in flight. Letter No. 201 

292 The book referred to was Obzor deyatelnosti uyezdnykh zemle- 
ustroitelnykh komissii (1907-1908). There was no other book. 

Letter No. 201 

293 Lenin meant that he would be attending the Plenary Meeting 
of the C.C. of the R.S.D.L.P, held January 2-23 (January 15- 
February 5), 1910, in Paris; it was known as the "Unity Plenum". 

Letter No. 202 

294 In the 'winter of 1909-10 Lenin's brother Dmitry broke his leg 
and dislocated his collarbone (see Letter No. 205). Letter No. 203 

295 This was a chess problem by Lenin's brother published in the 
first volume of the literary and popular-science supplements to 
the magazine Niva for 1909, p. 533. Letter No. 205 

2 The chessmen mentioned here were turned on a lathe by Lenin's 
father, Ilya Ulyanov. Lenin's mother sent him the chessmen in 
memory of his father. When Lenin moved from Galicia to Swit- 
zerland at the beginning of the First World War the set was lost. 

Letter No. 206 

297 Lenin refers to the internal Party struggle, which grew sharper 
after the January ("Unity") Plenum of the C.C, R.S.D.L.P. in 
1910. Lenin wrote to Maxim Gorky about this on April 11, 1910 
(see Collected Works, Vol. 34, pp. 419-22). Letter No. 209 

298 The picture postcard of Meudon Forest was sent to Lenin's mother 
who at that time was staying with Lenin's brother Dmitry, a rural 
doctor in the village of Lipitino, near Mikhnevo Station, Ser- 
pukhov Uyezd, Moscow Gubernia. Letter No. 210 

299 In her memoirs, Nadezhda Krupskaya wrote: "Meudon is a small 
town some nine kilometres from Paris. Thousands of Parisians 
go there on holidays in summer to spend their time in the open 
air. We often went there on weekdays, to cheer ourselves up and 
to race through the marvellous woods of Meudon on our bicycles." 

Letter No. 210 

300 This refers to the Eighth Congress of the Second International 
held in Copenhagen August 28-September 3; Lenin took an active 
part in it. Letter No. 214 



NOTES 



667 



301 Lenin was trying to find a publisher for one of his works on the 
agrarian question — either "The Agrarian Programme of Social- 
Democracy in the First Russian Revolution, 1905-1907" or "The 
Agrarian Question in Russia Towards the Close of the Nine- 
teenth Century" (see Collected Works, Vol. 13, pp. 217-431, and 
Vol. 15, pp. 69-147). Letter No. 215 

302 It is not known which article Lenin refers to here. No article by 
him was published in Sovremenny Mir in that period. We have, 
however, the evidence of Bonch-Bruyevich that an article of 
Lenin's was discussed by the editors (see Anna Ulyanova-Yeli- 
zarova's preface to Lenin's "Letters to Relatives (1910-1916)" 
in the journal Proletarskaya Revolyutsiya No. 4 for 1930). 

Sovremenny Mir (Contemporary World) — a literary, scientific 
and political monthly published in St. Petersburg from October 
1906 to 1918. Letter No. 215 

303 This apparently refers to talks on the publication of Lenin's 
agrarian articles by G. F. Lvovich, who in 1905-06 published 
Lenin's translation of Karl Kautsky's Bernstein und das sozial- 
demokratische Programm. Eine Antikritik (Bernstein and the Social- 
Democratic Programme. A Counter-critique). Lenin's translation 
of part of the book was published under the title of K. Kautsky. 
Sbornik statei (Collection of Articles). The second edition stated 
that it was "Translated by Lenin". Letter No. 215 

304 Zvezda (Star) — a Bolshevik legal newspaper published in St. Pe- 
tersburg from December 16 (29), 1910 to April 22 (May 5), 1912. 
The newspaper Nevskaya Zvezda was a direct continuation of 
Zvezda and was launched because of the frequent confiscation of 
the latter. These newspapers published about 50 of Lenin's arti- 
cles. Zvezda enjoyed great prestige among factory and other work- 
ers in Russia; it prepared the way for Pravda, the Bolshevik mass 
legal newspaper. 

Mysl (Thought) — a legal Bolshevik monthly dealing with phi- 
losophical, economic and social problems; it was published in 
Moscow from December 1910 to April 1911 — five issues in all. It 
was founded on Lenin's initiative to combat the liquidators' 
legal publications and to train advanced workers and intellectuals 
in the spirit of Marxism. The first four issues of the journal carried 
six articles by Lenin. Letter No. 215 

305 This refers to the Party "salary" which was paid to Lenin at 
times when he had no other means of subsistence. 

Letter No. 216 

306 The meeting of the International Socialist Bureau was held on 
September 23-24, 1911 in Zurich. Lenin spoke in defence of Rosa 
Luxemburg against the opportunists among the German Social- 
Democrats. Letter No. 220 



668 



NOTES 



307 Lenin delivered a lecture on "Stolypin and the Revolution" in 
a number of Swiss towns — in Zurich on September 26, in Berne 
on September 28 and in Geneva on October 2. Letter No. 220 

308 After all the attempts of the liquidators, Trotskyites and concil- 
iators to prevent the Prague Conference of the R.S.D.L.P. had 
been defeated, they launched a savage campaign against the 
decisions of the conference in order to discredit them. 

The Sixth (Prague) All-Russia Conference of the R.S.D.L.P. 
was convened by the Bolsheviks; it was held from January 18 
to January 30, 1912; it expelled the Menshevik liquidators from the 
Party and strengthened the Party as a nation-wide organisation; 
the conference laid down the political line and tactics of the Party 
in the new period of revolutionary upsurge, and elected the Central 
Committee. A Russian Bureau of the C.C. was set up to guide the 
work in Russia. Letter No. 222 

309 Lenin did not move at that time. On June 23, 1912 he and his 
family moved from Paris to Krakow, so that Lenin could main- 
tain closer contact with Russia and give better guidance to the 
work of the Bolshevik Duma group and the newspaper Pravda. 

Letter No. 223 

310 It has not been established where Lenin went. According to 
G. M. Vyazmensky, Director of the Archives of Russian Social- 
Democracy in Berlin, Lenin visited the archives in summer of 
1912 and saw there the Izvestia TsK R.S.D.R.P. (Bulletin of 
the C.C, R.S.D.L.P.) for 1907, which he had been looking for 
over a long period. It is possible that the journey of which Lenin 
speaks was to Berlin. Letter No. 224 

311 On May 7, 1912 Lenin's sisters Maria and Anna were arrested in 
Saratov in connection with the case of the Saratov R.S.D.L.P.(B.). 

Letter No. 224 

312 The newspaper Rech for May 17 (30), 1912 carried the following 
telegram: "Saratov, May 16. The houses of 18 railway employees 
were searched." An earlier issue, of May 10 (23), had stated: "Sa- 
ratov, May 9. The gendarmerie searched 16 houses and made as 
many arrests, mainly among workers." Letter No. 225 

313 Lenin's sister Maria was to be exiled to Astrakhan Gubernia in 
connection with the Saratov R.S.D.L.P.(B.) case. At the request 
of her relatives the place of exile was changed to Vologda Gu- 
bernia. Letter No. 227 

314 Gleichheit (Equality) — a Social-Democratic fortnightly, organ of 
the women workers' movement in Germany and later of the inter- 
national women's movement; it was published in Stuttgart from 
1890 to 1925; from 1892 to 1917 it was edited by Clara Zetkin. 

Letter No. 231 



NOTES 



669 



Pravda (The Truth) — the legal Bolshevik daily that was laun- 
ched in St. Petersburg on April 22 (May 5), 1912. 

Pravda was under Lenin's ideological guidance; he wrote for 
it almost daily and sent instructions to the editors. Some 270 
articles by Lenin were published in Pravda; Gorky, too, published 
his stories in Pravda. 

The newspaper was suppressed by the tsarist authorities eight 
times but continued to appear under changed names — Rabochaya 
Pravda, Severnaya Pravda, Pravda Truda, Za Pravdu, Proletar- 
skaya Pravda, Put Pravdy, Rabochy, Trudovaya Pravda (Work- 
ers' Truth, Northern Truth, Truth of Labour, For Truth, Proleta- 
rian Truth, The Path of Truth, The Worker, Labour Truth). Under 
these difficult conditions the Bolsheviks succeeded in publishing 
636 issues of Pravda in a little over two years. On July 8 (21), 
1914, the newspaper was finally suppressed and did not re-appear 
until the February bourgeois-democratic revolution, in 1917. 

Beginning from March 5 (18), 1917, Pravda was published as 
the organ of the Central Committee and the Petrograd Committee 
of the R.S.D.L.P. On April 5 (18), on his return from abroad, 
Lenin joined the editorial board and became its leading figure. 
From July to October 1917 Pravda was constantly persecuted by 
the counter-revolutionary bourgeois Provisional Government, 
and frequently changed its name: Listok Pravdy, Proletary, Ra- 
bochy, Rabochy Put (The Pravda Sheet, The Proletarian, The 
Worker, The Workers' Path). On October 27 (November 9), follow- 
ing the October Revolution, the Central Organ of the Party again 
appeared under its old name of Pravda. Letter No. 233 

It was the general rule to reduce the term of exile by one-third 
in the event of an amnesty, but only for those exiles who received 
a favourable report from the local administration. Most of the 
Vologda exiles were amnestied. Letter No. 234 

Lenin's trip was apparently undertaken in connection with the 
lecture on "The Social Upswing in Russia and the Tasks of Social- 
Democracy", which he delivered on April 26, 1913 in Leipzig. 

Letter No. 236 

The letter contained the medical advice given to Lenin by his 
brother for the treatment of Nadezhda Krupskaya. Lenin's letter 
has been lost but its contents are known from a letter written by 
his mother to her daughter Maria on April 30, 1913. "I have just 
received a letter from Volodya in which he also wrote to Mitya 
to inform him that in spite of electric treatment for three weeks, 

Nadya's eyes, neck and heart are no better Acquaintances 

advise him to take her to Kocher in Berne, a first-class specialist 
on such illnesses — it can be cured, they say, but it is dangerous 
to neglect it, the illness is a serious one and later it will become 

hopeless Volodya is in great difficulty — should they abandon 

the cottage they have now moved to, which is on a mountain, 
and there is the excellent mountain air she was told was good for 



670 



NOTES 



her, or take her to Kocher, who is a surgeon and will probably 
want to operate; many people say that operations in such cases 

are difficult and the outcome is doubtful So Volodya asks Mi- 

tya's advice Mitya was not here when the letter arrived, he 

came two days later, read the letter, got out his medical books 
copied out something from them, consulted someone here and 
only yesterday sent an answer by registered post." Letter No. 236 

319 Prosveshcheniye (Enlightenment) — a Bolshevik legal journal deal- 
ing with questions of theory published monthly in St. Petersburg 
from December 1911 to June 1914. Its circulation reached 5,000 
Copies. 

The journal was founded on Lenin's initiative in place of the 
Bolshevik, journal Mysl, formerly published in Moscow and sup- 
pressed by the authorities. 

On the eve of the First World War Prosveshcheniye was pro- 
hibited by the tsarist government. In the autumn of 1917 the 
journal was restarted, but only one issue (a double number) ap- 
peared; it contained two articles by Lenin, "Can the Bolsheviks 
Retain State Power?" and "The Revision of the Party Program- 
me". Letter No. 237 

320 The anniversary issue of Pravda (No. 92) appeared on April 23 
(May 6), 1913. The issue carried two articles by Lenin, "The 
Pravda Anniversary. Workers Support the Workers' Paper" and 
"A Few Words on Results and Facts". Letter No. 237 

321 The elections to the Executive of the St. Petersburg Metalworkers' 
Union took place on April 21 (May 4), 1913. Some 800 persons 
attended the meeting and over 400 were unable to get into the 
overcrowded hail. The Bolsheviks put forward a list of candidates 
for election that had been published in Pravda No. 91 and distrib- 
uted among those present at the meeting. Despite the insistence 
on the part of the liquidators to elect candidates irrespective 
of political allegiance, the majority of those present voted for the 
Pravda list; 10 out of 14 members of the Executive were elected 
from the Bolshevik list. The newly elected Executive sent a 
telegram to Lenin greeting him as "the true leader of the working 
class". Letter No. 237 

322 The paper referred to is Pravda, which the tsarist government 
suppressed on July 5, 1913, beginning from issue No. 151. On 
July 13 the paper re-appeared under a new name — Rabochaya 
Pravda. Letter No. 242 

323 In September 1913, four volumes of the Marx-Engels correspon- 
dence were published in German. Lenin planned a big work about 
this correspondence, the beginning of which was his article "The 
Marx-Engels Correspondence" (see Collected Works, Vol. 19, 
pp. 552-58). 

In a thick notebook containing 76 pages, now in the Central 



NOTES 



671 



Archives of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism, Central Commit- 
tee of the C.P.S.U., Lenin made notes on about 300 letters and 
made extracts from 15 that are of theoretical importance; he also 
compiled a short thematic index to his notes. The four volumes 
on which Lenin worked have been preserved; they have passages 
underlined or encircled and also marked N.B. in the margins; the 
remarks are made in pencil in four different colours. This material 
was published in Moscow as a separate edition in 1959 under 
the title of Konspekt "Perepiski K. Marksa i F. Engelsa" (Cons- 
pectus of the Marx-Engels Correspondence). 

It had been intended to publish Lenin's essay in the journal 
Prosveshcheniye in 1914 (as reported in Proletarskaya Pravda 
on December 14, 1913) but it remained unfinished and was first 
published in Pravda on November 28, 1920 on the occasion of 
the centenary of Engels's birth. Letter No. 243 

324 In mid-January 1914, Lenin left Krakow for Paris where he spoke 
at a meeting of Bolsheviks on the intention of the International 
Socialist Bureau to interfere in the affairs of the R.S.D.L.P., 
then at two memorial meetings dedicated to the events of January 
9, 1905; lie also delivered a lecture on the "Question of National- 
ities" in the Grand Hall of the Geographical Society. From Paris 
Lenin went to Brussels to attend the Fourth Congress of the 
Social-Democrats of the Latvian Area. He delivered there a 
report on behalf of the Central Committee of the R.S.D.L.P. in 
which he criticised the opportunist position of the Latvian 
Social-Democrats on questions of the struggle against the liquidat- 
ors and took a firm stand against the conciliatory tendencies at 
the congress. He delivered a lecture to the delegates on the question 
of nationalities in which he outlined the theory and tactics of 
the Bolsheviks in this field. After the congress Lenin lectured on 
the same issue at Liege and Leipzig, returning to Krakow on Feb- 
ruary 6, 1914. ' Letter No. 246 

325 This article, "The Right of Nations to Self-Determination", was 
written between February and May 1914 and printed in the April, 
May and June issues of Prosveshcheniye (Nos. 4, 5 and 6) (see 
Collected Works, Vol. 20, pp. 393-454). Letter No. 247 

326 Nov ay a Rabochaya Gazeta, Nasha Rabochaya Gazeta, Severnaya 
Rabochaya Gazeta (New Workers' Gazette, Our Workers' Gazette, 
Northern Workers' Gazette) was the legal newspaper of the Men- 
shevik liquidators published in St. Petersburg in 1913 and 1914. 

Letter No. 247 

327 The book August Rebel. His Life and Work. 1840-1913 was written 
by V. Levitsky (V. 0. Zederbaum) and reviewed in the journal 
Prosveshcheniye No. 1 for 1914 by V. Yan-sky (S. S. Danilov). 

Letter No. 247 

328 This refers to the journal Rabotnitsa (The Working Woman) 



672 



NOTES 



published legally in St. Petersburg from February 23 to June 28, 
1914. The first, issue appeared on International Women's Day, 
February 23 (March 8). Seven issues appeared. Active collaborators 
were Nadezhda Krupskaya, Inessa Armand, Lyudmila Stal, Anna 
Ulyanova-Yelizarova and others. 

Further information about the publication of the journal is 
to be found in Krupskaya's letter (No. 48) to Lenin's sister Anna. 

Letter No. 247 

329 This refers to Lenin's lecture on the question of nationalities de- 
livered in the Grand Hall of the Paris Geographical Society on 
January 23, 1914. " Letter No. 248 

330 The Beilis affair — the trial of the Jew Beilis organised by the 
tsarist authorities in Kiev in 1913 for purposes of provocation; 
Beilis was falsely accused of the ritual murder of the Christian 
boy Yushchinsky (the boy was actually killed by the Black Hun- 
dreds). By staging this trial the tsarist authorities hoped to arouse 
anti-Semitic feelings and by means of anti-Jewish pogroms divert 
the masses from the revolutionary movement that was devel- 
oping in the country. The trial aroused tremendous social unrest; 
in many towns there were workers' protest demonstrations. Beilis 
was acquitted by the court. Letter No. 250 

331 Lenin and Krupskaya attended the celebrations in honour of the 
centenary of Shevchenko's birth. Letter No. 250 

332 In Prosveshcheniye No. 11 (1913) there was a short article by 
Mikhail Sadko on "Who Is Being Exiled?" There were no other 
articles on the subject in the journal. Letter No. 252 

333 On August 7, 1914 Lenin's apartment in Poronin was searched 
by the Austrian authorities on receipt of false information accus- 
ing him of espionage. Lenin was ordered to report to the gendar- 
merie in the district town of Novy Targ, where he was arrested and 
imprisoned next day. 

Polish Social-Democrats and members of the Austrian Parlia- 
ment came to Lenin's defence and he was released on August 19. 
He obtained permission to leave Austria for neutral Switzer- 
land, arriving there on September 5, 1914. Letter No. 253 

334 This refers to Lenin's article "Karl Marx (A Brief Biographical 
Sketch with an Exposition of Marxism)", written between July 
and November 1914 for Granat's Encyclopaedic Dictionary. An 
abridged version of the article, signed V. Ilyin, was published 
in 1915 in Volume 28 of the dictionary. It was first published in 
full in 1925 in Marx, Engels, Marxism (see Collected Works, Vol. 
21, pp. 43-91). Letter No. 253 

335 Lenin's fea